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Reception of asylum seekers with disabilities in Europe  [cached]
Ana Beduschi-Orti
Forced Migration Review , 2010,
Abstract: With regard to the reception of asylum seekers in the European Union, provisions for the protection of people with disabilities are found in a wide range of regulatory sources.
Experiences of refugees and asylum seekers in general practice: a qualitative study
Ravi Bhatia, Paul Wallace
BMC Family Practice , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-8-48
Abstract: Qualitative study of adult asylum seekers and refugees who had entered the UK in the last 10 years. The study was set in Barnet Refugee Walk in Service, London. 11 Semi structured interviews were conducted and analysed using framework analysis.Access to GPs may be more difficult for failed asylum seekers and those without support from refugee agencies or family. There may be concerns amongst some in the refugee community regarding the access to and confidentiality of professional interpreters. Most participants stated their preference for GPs who offered advice rather than prescriptions. The stigma associated with refugee status in the UK may have led to some refugees altering their help seeking behaviour.The problem of poor access for those with inadequate support may be improved by better education and support for GPs in how to provide for refugees. Primary Care Trusts could also supply information to newly arrived refugees on how to access services. GPs should be aware that, in some situations, professional interpreters may not always be desired and that instead, it may be advisable to reach a consensus as to who should be used as an interpreter. A better doctor-patient experience resulting from improvements in access and communication may help to reduce the stigma associated with refugee status and lead to more appropriate help seeking behaviour. Given the small nature of our investigation, larger studies need to be conducted to confirm and to quantify these results.The increasing refugee [throughout this report, the term "refugee" is used to denote "refugee and asylum seeker"] population in the UK has led to increased research and debate about their health and social needs [1]. Most studies have been based on health professionals' views of how refugees should be managed and the problems encountered by these professionals when dealing with them. They have exposed how healthcare for refugees is patchy and often inappropriate [2] with inequalities in relation to a
Comparison of self-reported health & healthcare utilisation between asylum seekers and refugees: an observational study
Magzoub Toar, Kirsty K O'Brien, Tom Fahey
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-214
Abstract: Cross sectional study using validated self reported health status questionnaires of adult asylum seekers (n = 60) and refugees (n = 28) from 30 countries, living in Ireland. Outcome measures included: general health status (SF-36), presence of PTSD symptoms and anxiety/depression symptoms. Data on chronic conditions and pre or post migration stressors are also reported. The two groups are compared for utilisation of the health care system and the use of over the counter medications.Asylum seekers were significantly more likely than refugees to report symptoms of PTSD (OR 6.3, 95% CI: 2.2–17.9) and depression/anxiety (OR 5.8, 95% CI: 2.2–15.4), while no significant difference was found in self-reported general health. When adjusted by multivariable regression, the presence of more than one chronic disease (OR 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3–12.7; OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.2–10.1), high levels of pre migration stressors (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.1–11.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.0–10.4) or post migration stressors (OR 17.3, 95% CI: 4.9–60.8; OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2–12.3) were independent predictors of self reported PTSD or depression/anxiety symptoms respectively, however, residence status was no longer significantly associated with PTSD or depression/anxiety. Residence status may act as a marker for other explanatory variables; our results show it has a strong relationship with post migration stressors (χ2 = 19.74, df = 1, P < 0.001).In terms of health care utilisation, asylum seekers use GP services more often than refugees, while no significant difference was found between these groups for use of dentists, medication, hospitalisation or mental health services.Asylum seekers have a higher level of self reported PTSD and depression/anxiety symptoms compared to refugees. However, residence status appears to act as a marker for post migration stressors. Compared to refugees, asylum seekers utilise GP services more often, but not mental health services.Population based studies on adult refugees and asylum seeker
Factors associated with latent tuberculosis among asylum seekers in Switzerland: a cross-sectional study in Vaud County  [cached]
Sarivalasis Apostolos,Zellweger Jean-Pierre,Faouzi Mohamed,Daher Oscar
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-12-285
Abstract: Background Screening and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in asylum seekers (AS) may prevent future cases of tuberculosis. As the screening with Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) is costly, the objective of this study was to assess which factors were associated with LTBI and to define a score allowing the selection of AS with the highest risk of LTBI. Methods In across-sectional study, AS seekers recently arrived in Vaud County, after screening for tuberculosis at the border were offered screening for LTBI with T-SPOT.TB and questionnaire on potentially risk factors. The factors associated with LTBI were analyzed by univariate and multivariate regression. Results Among 393 adult AS, 98 (24.93%) had a positive IGRA response, five of them with active tuberculosis previously undetected. Six factors associated with LTBI were identified in multivariate analysis: origin, travel conditions, marital status, cough, age and prior TB exposure. Their combination leads to a robust LTBI predictive score. Conclusions The prevalence of LTBI and active tuberculosis in AS is high. A predictive score integrating six factors could identify the asylum seekers with the highest risk for LTBI.
Tuberculosis screening and follow-up of asylum seekers in Norway: a cohort study
Ingunn Harstad, Einar Heldal, Sigurd L Steinshamn, Helge Gar?sen, Geir W Jacobsen
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-141
Abstract: We assessed a national programme for screening, treatment and follow-up of tuberculosis infection and disease in a cohort of asylum seekers.Asylum seekers ≥ 18 years who arrived at the National Reception Centre from January 2005 to June 2006, were included as the total cohort. Those with a Mantoux test ≥ 6 mm or positive x-ray findings were included in a study group for follow-up.Data were collected from public health authorities in the municipality to where the asylum seekers had moved, and from hospital based internists in case they had been referred to specialist care.Individual subjects included in the study group were matched with the Norwegian National Tuberculosis Register which receive reports of everybody diagnosed with active tuberculosis, or who had started treatment for latent tuberculosis.The total cohort included 4643 adult asylum seekers and 97.5% had a valid Mantoux test. At least one inclusion criterion was fulfilled by 2237 persons. By end 2007 municipal public health authorities had assessed 758 (34%) of them. Altogether 328 persons had been seen by an internist. Of 314 individuals with positive x-rays, 194 (62%) had seen an internist, while 86 of 568 with Mantoux ≥ 15, but negative x-rays (16%) were also seen by an internist. By December 31st 2006, 23 patients were diagnosed with tuberculosis (prevalence 1028/100 000) and another 11 were treated for latent infection.The coverage of screening was satisfactory, but fewer subjects than could have been expected from the national guidelines were followed up in the community and referred to an internist. To improve follow-up of screening results, a simplification of organisation and guidelines, introduction of quality assurance systems, and better coordination between authorities and between different levels of health care are all required.As tuberculosis (TB) in native populations in Western countries decreases, the relative importance of cases among immigrants increases. Latent tuberculosis is preval
Length of stay in asylum centres and mental health in asylum seekers: a retrospective study from Denmark
Peter Hallas, Anne R Hansen, Mia A St?hr, Ebbe Munk-Andersen, Henrik L Jorgensen
BMC Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-288
Abstract: The study population was asylum seekers in Danish asylum centres run by the Danish Red Cross. General medical care was provided by Red Cross staff who could refer selected cases to medical specialists. If an asylum seeker needed more than three specialist consultations for mental illness or five consultations for physical illness the referrals had to be approved by The Danish Immigration Service. Between July 2001 – December 2002 the Red Cross prospectively registered health related data on all new applications (n = 4516) to the Immigration Service regarding referrals to medical specialists. We used these records to analyse the association between length of stay in the asylum centres and overall rate of referral for mental disorders. Data was analysed using weighted linear regression.We found that referrals for mental disorders increased with length of stay in asylum centres in a large, multiethnic population of asylum seekers. The association was found in all the categories of psychiatric illness studied and for a majority of the nationality groups studied.Length of stay in asylum centres was associated with an increase in referrals for mental disorders in a large, multiethnic group of asylum seekers. The present study supports the view that prolonged length of stay in an asylum centre is a risk factor for mental health. The risk of psychiatric illness among asylum seekers should be addressed by political and humanitarian means, giving prevention of illness the highest priority.The length of stay in asylum centres is generally mentioned as a possible health risk to asylum seekers. Medical staff working with asylum seekers have claimed that long lengths of stay in asylum centres might cause or aggravate mental disorders.A study from Denmark using data from 1986–1988 showed an increase in psychiatric illness with length of stay among asylum seekers [1]. No recent study, however, has focused on the effects of length of stay on the mental health on a large, multiethnic
Temporary geographies of the city: the experienced spaces of asylum seekers in the City of Turku, Finland  [cached]
P?ivi Kym?l?inen,Paulina Nordstr?m
Fennia : International Journal of Geography , 2010,
Abstract: Temporarity has a significant role in today’s urban spaces and peoples’ experiences of them. The city is often understood through stable material structures, while less attention is paid to such aspects of urban space that are there only for a limited time such as markets, events, manifestations and construction sites, for instance. Experiences of momentarity may be related to these kinds of elements of the city, but equally to personal feelings of not belonging to the city. In this paper we discuss, firstly, temporary geographies and their importance in today’s urban studies. Debates on relational spaces and moving geographies have directed attention towards the temporary aspects of urban spaces. Temporarity itself has mostly been discussed in relation to urban planning while less attention has been paid to other aspects of everyday life. Secondly, the theoretical aspects of temporary geographies in this paper will be illustrated with empirical material collected among young asylum seekers in the City of Turku in Finland in 2008–2009. The asylum seekers were interviewed and they kept photo diaries about their urban experiences. The material tells about the feelings of momentarity in urban space as the asylum seekers’ uses of the city were coloured by uncertainty while they were waiting for the decision about permission to stay in the country.
Health and health care utilisation among asylum seekers and refugees in the Netherlands: design of a study
Annette AM Gerritsen, Inge Bramsen, Walter Devillé, Loes HM van Willigen, Johannes E Hovens, Henk M van der Ploeg
BMC Public Health , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-4-7
Abstract: The study will include random samples of adult asylum seekers and refugees from Afghanistan, Iran and Somali (total planned sample of 600), as these are among the largest groups within the reception centres and municipalities in the Netherlands.The questionnaire that will be used will include questions on physical health (chronic and acute diseases and somatization), mental health (Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25 and Harvard Trauma Questionnaire), utilisation of health care services, pre- and post-migratory traumatic experiences, life-style, acculturation, social support and socio-demographic background. The questionnaire has gone through a translation process (translation and back-translation, several checks and a pilot-study) and cross-cultural adaptation. Respondents will be interviewed by bilingual and bicultural interviewers who will be specifically trained for this purpose.This article discusses the selection of the study population, the chosen outcome measures, the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the measurement instrument, the training of the interviewers and the practical execution of the study. The information provided may be useful for other researchers in this relatively new field of epidemiological research among various groups of asylum seekers and refugees.In the Netherlands, health surveys are frequently conducted to assess the health of the population and the utilisation of health care services [1,2]. Due to language and cultural problems these surveys often exclude (first generation) immigrants. However, in recent years, much research has focused on the four largest immigrant groups, i.e. people from Surinam, the Netherlands Antilles, Turkey and Morocco [1,3]. Although refugees have been coming to the Netherlands since the eighties, their numbers were not large enough and their backgrounds were too diverse for them to be the subject of large-scale epidemiological research. However, it is important that research also focuses on these grou
The role of entry screening in case finding of tuberculosis among asylum seekers in Norway
Ingunn Harstad, Geir W Jacobsen, Einar Heldal, Brita A Winje, Saeed Vahedi, Anne-Sofie Helvik, Sigurd L Steinshamn, Helge Gar?sen
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-670
Abstract: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of entry screening of a cohort of asylum seekers. Cases detected by screening were compared with cases detected later. Further we have characterized cases with active tuberculosis.All asylum seekers who arrived at the National Reception Centre between January 2005 - June 2006 with an abnormal chest X-ray or a Mantoux test ≥ 6 mm were included in the study and followed through the health care system. They were matched with the National Tuberculosis Register by the end of May 2008.Cases reported within two months after arrival were defined as being detected by screening.Of 4643 eligible asylum seekers, 2237 were included in the study. Altogether 2077 persons had a Mantoux ≥ 6 mm and 314 had an abnormal chest X-ray. Of 28 cases with tuberculosis, 15 were detected by screening, and 13 at 4-27 months after arrival. Abnormal X-rays on arrival were more prevalent among those detected by screening. Female gender and Somalian origin increased the risk for active TB.In spite of an imperfect follow-up of screening results, a reasonable number of TB cases was identified by the programme, with a predominance of pulmonary TB.In recent years most new tuberculosis (TB) cases in Norway have occurred among immigrants from high incidence countries. Rarely, new cases are due to transmission within the country [1].Low incidence countries have diverse policies on entry screening of immigrants from high incidence countries. These range from no screening at all, to pre-immigration screening or screening after arrival [2-4]. There is an ongoing discussion about the content and effectiveness of different screening programmes to control tuberculosis [5,6]. Studies of screening of tuberculosis among immigrants have given TB prevalences that range from 0.1-1.2% [7-10], that can be due to differences in the characteristics of the populations and the screening programmes.Previous studies have shown differences between cases detected by or outside the screening
Representation of Refugees, Asylum-Seekers and Refugee Affairs In Hungarian Dailies  [PDF]
Lilla VICSEK,Roland KESZI,Marcell MáRKUS
Journal of Identity and Migration Studies , 2008,
Abstract: How does the press in Hungary write about refugees, asylum-seekers and refugee affairs? We sought to answer this question. Articles appearing in 2005 and 2006 in two leading national Hungarian dailies were examined with quantitative content analysis. The results show that the articles analyzed often treat refugee affairs as an “official” political matter. The high proportion of legislation and political positions conveys the image that refugee affairs are a state or intergovernmental matter, an “official”, legal, political issue rather than for example a humanitarian question. Most of the articles published in both papers write about problems and conflicts in connection with refugee affairs. The negative media image has different significance for different topics. We argue that the question of refugee affairs is a topic where the image shown by the media is of great relevance: the media can be a more important source of information on this subject than personal contacts.
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