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Estimation of plasma apolipoprotein B concentration using routinely measured lipid biochemical tests in apparently healthy Asian adults
Dong-Sik Cho, Sookyoung Woo, Seonwoo Kim, Christopher D Byrne, Joon-Hyuk Kong, Ki-Chul Sung
Cardiovascular Diabetology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-11-55
Abstract: Our aim was to develop a formula for calculating apo B using lipid biochemistry measurements that are commonly available in clinical practice. We examined the clinical and laboratory data from 73,047 Koreans who underwent a medical health check that included apolipoprotein B concentration. The study sample was randomly divided into a training set for prediction model building and a validation set of equal size. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to develop a prediction model equation for estimating apo B and to validate the developed model.The best results for estimating apo B were derived from an equation utilising LDL and triglyceride (TG) concentrations [ApoB?=??33.12?+?0.675*LDL?+?11.95*ln(tg)]. This equation predicted the apo B result with a concordance correlation coefficient (CCC and 95%CIs)?=?0.936 (0.935,0.937)).Our equation for predicting apo B concentrations from routine analytical lipid biochemistry provides a simple method for obtaining precise information about an important cardiovascular risk marker.The association between increased concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and increased rates of premature coronary heart disease has been clearly demonstrated [1-8]. Current recommendations for the management of dyslipidemia are largely based on treatments to decrease LDL concentration [5,9-14]. However, a significant residual risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) often remains after low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels have been treated to target [15-20].Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB) is the structural protein for atherogenic lipoproteins and facilitates the transporting of lipid from the liver to peripheral tissues [15,21-23]. A single apo B100 molecule is present in all major atherogenic particles derived from the liver (very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) and LDL). Consequently, measurement of apoB100 provides direct information as to the number of circulating atherogenic part
SERUM APOLIPOPROTEIN AI & B, LIPOPROTEINS, LIPIDS LEVELS IN INDIAN PATIENTS WITH ANGIOGRAPHICALLY DEFINED CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE
N.S. Dange*1
International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The association serum lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins between angiographically defined coronary artery disease (CAD) was evaluated in 251 Indian men and women in order to assess the predictive power of apolipoproteins as a 'marker' of coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients with 70% or greater narrowing of at least one coronary artery or 50% stenosis of the left main coronary artery (n=234, CAD+) were compared to those with lesions of < 50% stenosis (n = 186, CAD-) for total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C), triglycerides, apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein B, and apolipoprotein A-I/B. Information on nonlipid risk factors was obtained from questionnaires. CAD+ compared with CAD- had higher frequencies of diabetes (P=<0.001), hypertension ( P=<0.05), and smoking (P<0.001). CAD+ patients had higher plasma concentrations of apoB (145.57±18.52 vs. 93.22±9.11mg/dl, P<0.001), Apo AI decreased plasma concentration (89.90±19.26 vs. 131.01±22.55, P<0.001). Total cholesterol, TGs and VLDL- chol, were found not significant after correction of age where as LDL-chol (P<0.001), and HDL-chol (P<0.001) had significant change. Ratio of Apo AI/Apo B had most significant decreased in CAD+ patients. Apo AI, Apo and ratio of Apo AI/Apo B showed the most significant relation with the number of stenotic vessels and was associated with CAD in the normolipidemic subgroup. In conclusion, by using multiple logistic regression analysis, and adjusting for age & other traditional lipid measures Apo AI, apoB and ratio of Apo AI/Apo B was superior to chol, LDL-chol, HDL-chol, TG, in discriminating between CAD+ and CAD-.
An estimate for solutions to the Schrodinger equation
Alexander Makin,Bevan Thompson
Electronic Journal of Differential Equations , 2004,
Abstract: In this note, we find a priori estimates in the $L_2$-norm for solutions to the Schrodinger equation with a parameter. It is shown that a constant occuring in the inequality does not depend on the value of the parameter. In particular, the estimate is valid for eigenfunctions associated with the Schrodinger operator with arbitrary boundary conditions.
Derivation and internal validation of an equation for albumin-adjusted calcium
Matthew T James, Jianguo Zhang, Andrew W Lyon, Brenda R Hemmelgarn
BMC Clinical Pathology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6890-8-12
Abstract: The linear regression equation for the binding of calcium and BCP-albumin was derived in a cohort of 4613 outpatients, and the albumin-adjusted calcium equation was internally validated in a separate cohort of 1538 subjects. The performance of this equation was compared with a previously published equation (adjusted [Ca](mmol/L) = total [Ca](mmol/L) + 0.02 (40 - [albumin] (g/L)) in 343 subjects with albumin < 33 g/L (below reference range).The local adjustment equation was expressed by the relationship; adjusted [Ca](mmol/L) = total [Ca](mmol/L) + 0.012 (39.9 - [albumin](g/L)). The equation showed evidence of good internal validity (shrinkage value of adjusted r2 = -0.0059). Classification of calcium status differed between the two equations in 47 of 343 subjects with low serum albumin (weighted κ = 0.46; moderate agreement).A locally derived and internally validated albumin-adjusted calcium equation differed from previously published equations and resulted in important differences in classification of calcium status in hypoalbuminemia patients. Individual laboratories should determine their own linear regression equation for calcium on albumin rather than relying on published formulas.Measurement of serum total calcium is commonly used to assess calcium status. At physiological pH albumin binds approximately 45% of serum total calcium. Variation in serum albumin concentration therefore alters the concentration of serum total calcium, while the concentration of physiologically important ionized calcium remains constant [1]. Equations to adjust total calcium for albumin, such as the frequently cited 'adjusted [Ca](mmol/L) = total [Ca](mmol/L) + 0.02 (40 - [albumin](g/L))' are routinely used in clinical practice to give an estimate of calcium concentration in patients with hypoalbuminemia [1-3]. These equations were derived in single laboratories over 20 years ago by determining the linear regression relationship of serum calcium on albumin concentration in patients d
Serum leptin concentration during puberty in healthy nonobese adolescents
Brand?o, C.M.A.;Lombardi, M.T.;Nishida, S.K.;Hauache, O.M.;Vieira, J.G.H.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2003001000003
Abstract: data obtained during the past five years have indicated that there are important age- and gender-based differences in the regulation and action of leptin in humans. to study the physiological changes of leptin during puberty in both sexes, and its relationship with body composition and sexual maturation, we measured leptin concentrations in 175 healthy adolescents (80 girls, 95 boys, 10-18 years of age), representing all pubertal stages. we excluded individuals with a body mass index (bmi) below the 5th or above the 95th percentile relative to age. serum concentrations of leptin were determined by a monoclonal antibody-based immunofluorimetric assay, developed in our laboratory. body composition was determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. pubertal stage was assigned by physical examination, according to tanner criteria for breast development in females and genital development in males. leptin concentration in girls (n = 80) presented a positive linear correlation with age (r = 0.35, p = 0.0012), bmi (r = 0.65, p < 0.0001) and %fat mass (r = 0.76, p < 0.0001). in boys (n = 95) there was a positive correlation with bmi (r = 0.49, p < 0.0001) and %fat mass (r = 0.85, p < 0.0001), but a significant negative linear correlation with tanner stage (r = -0.45, p < 0.0001) and age (r = -0.40, p < 0.0001). the regression equation revealed that %fat mass and bmi are the best parameters to be used to estimate leptin levels in both sexes. thus, the normal reference ranges for circulating leptin during adolescence should be constructed according to bmi or %fat mass to assure a correct evaluation.
Serum leptin concentration during puberty in healthy nonobese adolescents  [cached]
Brand?o C.M.A.,Lombardi M.T.,Nishida S.K.,Hauache O.M.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2003,
Abstract: Data obtained during the past five years have indicated that there are important age- and gender-based differences in the regulation and action of leptin in humans. To study the physiological changes of leptin during puberty in both sexes, and its relationship with body composition and sexual maturation, we measured leptin concentrations in 175 healthy adolescents (80 girls, 95 boys, 10-18 years of age), representing all pubertal stages. We excluded individuals with a body mass index (BMI) below the 5thor above the 95th percentile relative to age. Serum concentrations of leptin were determined by a monoclonal antibody-based immunofluorimetric assay, developed in our laboratory. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Pubertal stage was assigned by physical examination, according to Tanner criteria for breast development in females and genital development in males. Leptin concentration in girls (N = 80) presented a positive linear correlation with age (r = 0.35, P = 0.0012), BMI (r = 0.65, P < 0.0001) and %fat mass (r = 0.76, P < 0.0001). In boys (N = 95) there was a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.49, P < 0.0001) and %fat mass (r = 0.85, P < 0.0001), but a significant negative linear correlation with Tanner stage (r = -0.45, P < 0.0001) and age (r = -0.40, P < 0.0001). The regression equation revealed that %fat mass and BMI are the best parameters to be used to estimate leptin levels in both sexes. Thus, the normal reference ranges for circulating leptin during adolescence should be constructed according to BMI or %fat mass to assure a correct evaluation.
ASSOCIATION OF SERUM ALBUMIN CONCENTRATION AND PERIODONTITIS  [PDF]
Ramesh Amitha,John Anju Mary,Thomas Biju,Suchetha Kumari
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Periodontal disease is a complex, multi-factorial, chronic inflammatory disease that involves degradation of periodontal structures, including alveolar bone. Many systemic diseases and disorders have been implicated as risk indicators or risk factors in periodontal disease. Clinical and basic science research over the past several decades have led to an improved understanding and appreciation for the complexity and pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. It has been indicated that there might be an inverse relationship between periodontal disease and serum albumin concentration in elderly subjects. The present study adopted serum albumin concentration as a criterion which indicates the general health condition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of periodontal disease condition on serum albumin concentration in the adult population. Our study showed a significant inverse association between the loss of attachment and the serum albumin concentration and this association was more pronounced in periodontitis group. The level of serum albumin was comparatively less in periodontitis patients when compared to the healthy controls which were of no much statistical significance. As the loss of attachment increased the serum albumin concentration decreased in the test group. But the cause to effect relationship of periodontal disease and serum albumin concentration is still unknown. This relationship might be explained by two conceivable possibilities, namely the influence of nutritional aspect or chronic disease aspect.
Both Serum Apolipoprotein B and the Apolipoprotein B/Apolipoprotein A-I Ratio Are Associated with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness  [PDF]
Fei Huang, Zhi Yang, Baihui Xu, Yufang Bi, Min Xu, Yu Xu, Jieli Lu, Yu Liu, Meng Dai, Wenzhong Zhou, Weiqing Wang, Yuhong Chen
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054628
Abstract: Background Previous studies indicated that apolipoprotein measurements predicted cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk; however, associations between apolipoproteins and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) were less explored. Methodology and Principal Findings The cross-sectional study included 6069 participants aged 40 years or older with NGT from Shanghai, China. Serum fasting traditional lipids (total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C] and triglycerides [TG]), apoA-I and apoB were assessed. A high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography was performed to measure CIMT. We found CIMT increased progressively across the quartiles of serum apoB (p for trend <0.0001). In logistic regression, concentrations of apoB (odds ratio [OR] 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18–1.36), TC (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.14–1.32), LDL-C (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.16–1.34) and TG (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.04–1.20) were significantly related to elevated CIMT after adjusted for age and sex. Meanwhile, the apoB/apoA-I ratio (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.17–1.34) related to elevated CIMT. ApoB (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.00–1.51) and the apoB/apoA-I ratio (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04–1.36) remained significantly associated with elevated CIMT, after adjusted for the traditional CVD risk factors including traditional lipids. Conclusions and Significance There were significant associations between serum apoB, the apoB/apoA-I ratio and elevated CIMT. Serum apoB and the apoB/apoA-I ratio might be independent predictors of early atherosclerosis in NGT.
Serum Levels of Apolipoprotein A-II as a Potential Marker for Cholangiocarcinoma  [PDF]
Xiaomin Wang,Anjian Xu,Bo Liu,Juling Wang
Journal of Cancer Molecules , 2008,
Abstract: AIM: Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is a devastating neoplasm usually hard to get diagnosed in the early stage due to the unfavorable anatomic location. The currently used tumor markers like CEA and CA 19-9 are not always helpful because of the unsatisfactory sensitivities and specificities. In this study, surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) was used to identify the potential biomarker for CC. METHODS: Serum samples from 59 CC patients, 91 esophagus cancer patients, 60 prostate cancer patients, 68 ovarian cancer patients, 61 benign diseases of hepatobiliary system, and 51 normal individuals were analyzed by SELDI-TOF-MS. The results were further identified and confirmed by Western blot, immunodepletion and ELISA. RESULTS: An 8.9-km/z species was detected by SELDI-TOF-MS, which was significantly increased in CC but not other cancers to be distinguishable from the normal control. The 8.9-km/z species was identified as apolipoprotein A-II (ApoA-II) by tandem mass spectrometry, and further validated by Western blot and immunodepletion analyses. Furthermore, the ApoA-II levels of serum samples were analyzed by ELISA. The results were consistent with those obtained by SELDI-TOF-MS. The levels of ApoA-II in CC patients were remarkably higher than those in normal controls (mean OD value: 0.57 ± 0.20 vs. 0.31 ± 0.12, P < 0.01). In addition, the immuohistochemistry indicated that ApoA-II displayed some expression at protein level in CC tissues. CONCLUSION: Serum levels of ApoA-II were significantly elevated in CC but not other cancer types like esophagus and ovarian cancers. The combination use of ApoA-II with CA 19-9 as efficient biomarkers for CC has been preliminarily tested and discussed in this work.
Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism and total serum cholesterol level in Iranian population  [cached]
Bazzaz J,Nazari M,Nazem H,Amiri P
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is known as a major regulator of blood lipid levels in humans. A number of APOE gene allelic variants have been reported including E2, E3 and E4. Recent studies suggested a role for APOE in obesity and increased Body Mass Index (BMI) and plasma lipid levels in obese children. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the association between APOE genetic variants and the BMI and lipid profile in an Iranian cohort. Setting and Design: Samples were obtained from subjects who participated in a study based on the WHO-designed MONICA (multinational monitoring of trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease) study for coronary artery disease risk assessment in Zone 17 of Tehran. The study was approved by the local ethical committee. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects included in this study. Materials and Methods: Subjects (n=320) were recruited. The level of triglyceride (TG) and total serum cholesterol was tested for all subjects in this study. Genotyping for APOE was carried using polymerase chain reaction-Restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)technique. Statistical Analysis: Levels of significance were determined using contingency tables by either Chi-square or Fisher exact analysis using the STATA (v8) software. The analysis of regression and significance of differences for level of cholesterol and TG was established by one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett post hoc multiple comparison tests using SPSS software Version 11.5. Results: The frequency of allele E2 was significantly higher in patients with total serum cholesterol level <200 mg/dl (P 0.01 OR 2.1 95% CI 1.1-4.2). Conclusion: The association found in this study between allele E2 and lower total cholesterol level had been reported in previous studies. We have also observed that the frequency of genotype E2/E3 and E2/E4 was significantly higher in patients with normal total serum cholesterol level compared to patients with abnormal cholesterol (P=0.003 OR 2.4 95% CI; 1.3-4.6). Our data needs to be repeated in a larger population with more information for serum LDL and HDL levels and their subgroups.
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