oalib
Search Results: 1 - 10 of 100 matches for " "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item
Research Progress in the Control and Regulation of Plant Growth and Development by Reactive Oxygen Species
活性氧调控植物生长发育的研究进展

Zhifang Lin,Nan Liu,
林植芳
,刘楠

植物学报 , 2012,
Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the byproducts of plant aerobic metabolism. ROS are considered to have double functions (harmful and beneficial) in many plant processes. Oxidative damage to cells and signal transduction in the induced protection response by ROS have been investigated intensively. ROS are increasingly thought to control plant growth and development in particular. Cell growth is the important component of plant development, and control of plant development by ROS is by regulating cell growth, so ROS is an important regulator of plant growth and development. Here, we review the research progress in the control and regulation of plant growth and development by hydroxyl radicals and their precursors, superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide, and the mechanism, the generation pathway of ROS, the methods for detecting ROS, and prospects for future study.
Ethylene and the regulation of plant development
G Schaller
BMC Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7007-10-9
Abstract: See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/10/8 webciteOne of the amazing qualities of plants is their phenotypic plasticity. Consider, for example, how a pine tree will grow to a towering hundreds of feet in height in Yosemite Valley, but to only a gnarled few feet in height up near the timberline. This diversity of form, though originating from the same genotype, points to the degree to which plant growth and development can be modulated. Much of this control is mediated by a small group of plant hormones that include auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, abscisic acid, brassinosteroid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene [1]. These are often considered 'classical' plant hormones because they were discovered decades ago; indeed, the presence of some was inferred over a century ago. Their early discovery is no doubt due in part to their general function throughout the life cycle of the plant. More recently, and in the remarkably short period of time since the advent of Arabidopsis as a genetic model, key elements in the primary signaling pathways of these plant hormones have been uncovered. The important question is no longer simply how are these hormones perceived, but how are the hormonal signals integrated into the control of particular developmental pathways? In pursuing such a question, Lumba et al. [2] have now uncovered a role for the plant hormone ethylene in regulating the conversion of juvenile to adult leaves. These new data, in combination with prior research implicating the plant hormones abscisic acid and gibberellin in this transition [3], form an important step in defining how a hormonal network regulates a key developmental process.Ethylene, for all the simplicity of its structure (C2H4), regulates many aspects of plant growth and development [4]. The phrase 'growth and development' may be one of the most commonly used scientific phrases (a Google search turns up over 17 million hits), but for our purposes it is worthwhile to disengage the terms
Global transcriptome analysis reveals circadian regulation of key pathways in plant growth and development
Michael F Covington, Julin N Maloof, Marty Straume, Steve A Kay, Stacey L Harmer
Genome Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2008-9-8-r130
Abstract: We have integrated information from multiple circadian microarray experiments performed on Arabidopsis thaliana in order to better estimate the fraction of the plant transcriptome that is circadian regulated. Analyzing the promoters of clock-controlled genes, we identified circadian clock regulatory elements correlated with phase-specific transcript accumulation. We have also identified several physiological pathways enriched for clock-regulated changes in transcript abundance, suggesting they may be modulated by the circadian clock.Our analysis suggests that transcript abundance of roughly one-third of expressed A. thaliana genes is circadian regulated. We found four promoter elements, enriched in the promoters of genes with four discrete phases, which may contribute to the time-of-day specific changes in the transcript abundance of these genes. Clock-regulated genes are over-represented among all of the classical plant hormone and multiple stress response pathways, suggesting that all of these pathways are influenced by the circadian clock. Further exploration of the links between the clock and these pathways will lead to a better understanding of how the circadian clock affects plant growth and leads to improved fitness.Harsh environmental extremes often accompany the daily light-dark cycle. In nearly every organism studied an endogenous time keeping mechanism has evolved that enables anticipation of these predictable changes [1]. This is especially critical for sessile organisms such as plants. The circadian clock produces self-sustained rhythms with a period length of approximately 24 hours. To keep these rhythms in proper alignment with the day-night cycle, the clock is set or entrained by environmental timing cues such as changes in light or temperature. This is important because a functional clock can only provide an organism with a competitive advantage when it is correctly matched to the external environment [2,3].Although this advantage has been demonstra
Regulation of microRNA on plant development and viral infection
Chengguo Duan,Chunhan Wang,Huishan Guo
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2006, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-006-0269-3
Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of ~22 nt noncoding regulatory RNAs which are universal in eukaryotes. They act as negative regulator of gene expression by targeting mRNAs for cleavage or translational repression. miRNAs widely participate in regulation of gene expression associated with plant developmental processes, such as organs morphogenesis and signal transduction pathway in plants. Similar to antiviral RNA silencing in plants, miRNA pathway is also interfered by silencing suppressors encoded by viruses. In this review we give a brief summary of the differences between miRNA-mediated regulatory pathway and siRNA-mediated RNA silencing. In particular, we review the recent studies on miRNA regulatory roles in plant developmental processes, as well as the interference of viral suppressors in miRNA pathway, aiming to get an insight into the complexity of gene expression regulation in eukaryotic organisms.
Regulation of microRNA on plant development and viral infection
Chengguo Duan,Chunhan Wang,Huishan Guo,
DUAN
,Chengguo,WANG,Chunhan,GUO,Huishan

科学通报(英文版) , 2006,
Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of ~22 nt noncoding regulatory RNAs which are universal in eukaryotes. They act as negative regulator of gene expression by targeting mRNAs for cleavage or translational repression. miRNAs widely participate in regulation of gene expression associated with plant developmental processes, such as organs morpho- genesis and signal transduction pathway in plants. Similar to antiviral RNA silencing in plants, miRNA pathway is also interfered by silencing suppressors encoded by viruses. In this review we give a brief summary of the differences between miRNA-mediated regulatory pathway and siRNA-mediated RNA silenc- ing. In particular, we review the recent studies on miRNA regulatory roles in plant developmental processes, as well as the interference of viral sup- pressors in miRNA pathway, aiming to get an insight into the complexity of gene expression regulation in eukaryotic organisms.
Apomictic and Sexual Germline Development Differ with Respect to Cell Cycle, Transcriptional, Hormonal and Epigenetic Regulation  [PDF]
Anja Schmidt ,Marc W. Schmid,Ulrich C. Klostermeier,Weihong Qi,Daniela Guth?rl,Christian Sailer,Manuel Waller,Philip Rosenstiel,Ueli Grossniklaus
PLOS Genetics , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004476
Abstract: Seeds of flowering plants can be formed sexually or asexually through apomixis. Apomixis occurs in about 400 species and is of great interest for agriculture as it produces clonal offspring. It differs from sexual reproduction in three major aspects: (1) While the sexual megaspore mother cell (MMC) undergoes meiosis, the apomictic initial cell (AIC) omits or aborts meiosis (apomeiosis); (2) the unreduced egg cell of apomicts forms an embryo without fertilization (parthenogenesis); and (3) the formation of functional endosperm requires specific developmental adaptations. Currently, our knowledge about the gene regulatory programs underlying apomixis is scarce. We used the apomict Boechera gunnisoniana, a close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, to investigate the transcriptional basis underlying apomeiosis and parthenogenesis. Here, we present the first comprehensive reference transcriptome for reproductive development in an apomict. To compare sexual and apomictic development at the cellular level, we used laser-assisted microdissection combined with microarray and RNA-Seq analyses. Conservation of enriched gene ontologies between the AIC and the MMC likely reflects functions of importance to germline initiation, illustrating the close developmental relationship of sexuality and apomixis. However, several regulatory pathways differ between sexual and apomictic germlines, including cell cycle control, hormonal pathways, epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. Enrichment of specific signal transduction pathways are a feature of the apomictic germline, as is spermidine metabolism, which is associated with somatic embryogenesis in various plants. Our study provides a comprehensive reference dataset for apomictic development and yields important new insights into the transcriptional basis underlying apomixis in relation to sexual reproduction.
Hormonal crosstalk for root development: a combined experimental and modeling perspective  [PDF]
Junli Liu,James Rowe,Keith Lindsey
Frontiers in Plant Science , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2014.00116
Abstract: Plants are sessile organisms and therefore they must adapt their growth and architecture to a changing environment. Understanding how hormones and genes interact to coordinate plant growth in a changing environment is a major challenge in developmental biology. Although a localized auxin concentration maximum in the root tip is important for root development, auxin concentration cannot change independently of multiple interacting hormones and genes. In this review, we discuss the experimental evidence showing that the POLARIS peptide of Arabidopsis plays an important role in hormonal crosstalk and root growth, and review the crosstalk between auxin and other hormones for root growth with and without osmotic stress. Moreover, we discuss that experimental evidence showing that, in root development, hormones and the associated regulatory and target genes form a network, in which relevant genes regulate hormone activities and hormones regulate gene expression. We further discuss how it is increasingly evident that mathematical modeling is a valuable tool for studying hormonal crosstalk. Therefore, a combined experimental and modeling study on hormonal crosstalk is important for elucidating the complexity of root development.
Alterations of Endogenous Hormonal Levels in Plants under Drought and Salinity  [PDF]
Analía Llanes, Andrea Andrade, Sergio Alemano, Virginia Luna
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.79129
Abstract: The phytohormones are pivotal chemical messengers produced within the plant that regulate its growth and development, and responses to environmental stimuli. Drought and salinity are adverse environmental factors that disturb the plant hormonal balance. Accordingly, these hormonal fluctuations modify the cellular dynamic and hence they play a central role in regulating plant growth responses to abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity. The present review gives an update about the alterations of endogenous phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA), auxins (Aux), cytokinins (CKs), ethylene (ET), gibberellins (GAs), jasmonates (JAs), salicylic acid (SA), brassinosteroids (BRs), strigolactones (SLs) and nitric oxide (NO) that occur as part of the adaptative responses of plant against drought and salt stresses. Better understanding of the endogenous hormonal changes during the plant response to both abiotic stresses will contribute, in part, to the development of stress-tolerant plants.
Effect of hormonal status and metabolic changes of restricted ewes during late pregnancy on their fetal growth and development
Feng Gao,XianZhi Hou,YingChun Liu
Science China Life Sciences , 2007, DOI: 10.1007/s11427-007-0098-x
Abstract: This study investigated the effects of hormonal status and metabolic changes of restricted ewes during late pregnancy on the ovine fetus growth and development. One hundred Mongolian ewes, synchronized for oestrus and mated, were divided into three groups and offered 0.175 MJME·kgw 0.75·d 1 (Restricted Group 1, RG1), 0.33 MJME·kgw 0.75·d 1 (Restricted Group 2, RG2) and ad libitum access to feed (Control Group, CG) during their late pregnancy respectively. The results suggested that with the supply of exogenous energy decreasing during late pregnancy, maternal body weight and net body weight loss in RG2 and RG1 were lower than those of CG (Ps0.01). The insulin and IGF-1 concentrations of ewes in RG2 and RG1 tended to be lower than those of CG (P>0.05), but the GH concentrations in RG2 and RG1 were enhanced and there was significant difference between RG1 and CG on d 120 of gestation (P<0.05). The glucose concentration of ewes in RG2 and RG1 was decreased throughout the feed restriction period, and the differences were observed between RG1 and CG on d 120 of gestation (P<0.05). In addition, the nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and total amino acid (TAA) concentrations of ewes in RG2 tended to increase, but there was no significant difference (P>0.05). However, the NEFA and FAA concentrations of ewes in RG1 were reduced from d 90 to d 120 of gestation, then enhanced from d 120 to d 140 of gestation. During the late pregnancy, with the supply of nutrition decreasing, the negatively physiological and biochemical maternal reactions to restriction became worse, which significantly reduced the average lamb birth weight and daily growth rate of fetus in RG2 (P<0.05) and RG1 (P<0.01).
Small RNA regulation of ovule development in the cotton plant, G. hirsutum L
Ibrokhim Y Abdurakhmonov, Eric J Devor, Zabardast T Buriev, Lingyan Huang, Abdusalom Makamov, Shukhrat E Shermatov, Tohir Bozorov, Fakhriddin N Kushanov, Gafurjon T Mavlonov, Abdusattor Abdukarimov
BMC Plant Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-8-93
Abstract: We cloned small RNA sequences from 0–10 days post anthesis (DPA) developing cotton ovules. A total of 6691 individual colonies were sequenced from 11 ovule small RNA libraries that yielded 2482 candidate small RNAs with a total of 583 unique sequence signatures. The majority (362, 62.1%) of these 583 sequences were 24 nt long with an additional 145 sequences (24.9%) in the 21 nt to 23 nt size range. Among all small RNA sequence signatures only three mirBase-confirmed plant microRNAs (miR172, miR390 and ath-miR853-like) were identified and only two miRNA-containing clones were recovered beyond 4 DPA. Further, among all of the small RNA sequences obtained from the small RNA pools in developing ovules, only 15 groups of sequences were observed in more than one DPA period. Of these, only five were present in more than two DPA periods. Two of these were miR-172 and miR-390 and a third was identified as 5.8S rRNA sequence. Thus, the vast majority of sequence signatures were expressed in only one DPA period and this included nearly all of the 24 nt sequences. Finally, we observed a distinct DPA-specific expression pattern among our clones based upon sequence abundance. Sequences occurring only once were far more likely to be seen in the 0 to 2 DPA periods while those occurring five or more times were the majority in later periods.This initial survey of small RNA sequences present in developing ovules in cotton indicates that fiber development is under complex small RNA regulation. Taken together, the results of this initial small RNA screen of developing cotton ovules is most consistent with a model, proposed by Baulcombe, that there are networks of small RNAs that are induced in a cascade fashion by the action of miRNAs and that the nature of these cascades can change from tissue to tissue and developmental stage to developmental stage.Cotton (Gossypium spp.) ovule development is an interesting and unique developmental process because the differentiation and development o
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.