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Evaluation of the Opuntia dillenii as Natural Coagulant in Water Clarification: Case of Treatment of Highly Turbid Surface Water  [PDF]
Yéwêgnon Alima Esther Irma Nougbodé, Cokou Pascal Agbangnan, Alain Yaya Koudoro, Comlan Achille Dèdjiho, Martin Pépin A?na, Daouda Mama, Dominique Codjo Koko Sohounhloué
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.512133

This study was performed in laboratory scale and consisted of the using of aqueous Opuntia dillenii solution for the clarification of very turbid surface water (Turbidities varying between 186 NTU and 418 NTU). This plant from Cactaceae family was used as a natural coagulant for the different clarification tests. The preliminary phytochemical Screening of the powder of this plant showed that it contains tanins, saponins and mucilages. Flocculation and coagulation tests showed that Opuntia dillenii can be used in highly turbid water treatment. The removal efficiency varied from 89% to 93% for the turbidity and suspended solids, and from 4% to 15% for the obvious color in water when we used the optimum values of this natural coagulant (1 mL to 10 mL). The successive addition of this natural coagulant and the lime, gave a better elimination of turbidity and suspended solids, and a good reduction for the color. The removal efficiency of the turbidity and suspended solids became more than 95% and the one of the color between 67% and 94%.

Effectiveness of Using Natural Materials as a Coagulant for Reduction of Water Turbidity in Water Treatment  [PDF]
Hussein Janna
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2016.44050
Abstract: Coagulation-Flocculation plays a significant role in drinking water treatment. Laboratory experiments were carried out in order to assess the effectiveness of using Conocarpus Leaves Solution (CLS) as a natural coagulant in conjunction with the synthetic chemical represented by Alum in the water purification. Biological test was carried out to confirm that these leaves are not toxic, followed by optimizing the dosage of alum and then Alum and CLS were applied to the turbid water whose turbidity level has two ranges, (20 - 35) NTU and (90 - 120) NTU, using the JAR Test. The parameters determined before and after coagulation were turbidity, pH and temperature. The experiments showed that the optimum dose of alum coagulant (individually) for high turbid water is about 18 mg/l with PH = 7 and 24 mg/l f with PH = 5 and 9. In addition, for the low turbidity water, the optimum dose of alum was lower than in the high turbid water. In terms of using Alum in conjunction with CLS, at high range of turbidity, the results show that at 33% ratio of leaves solution to alum coagulant, there are 50% and 75% turbidity reduction performed for the PH equal to 5 and 9 respectively. Although about 62% and 65% turbidity reduction were achieved at PH = 7 and PH = 9 in the low range level. However, low reduction in turbidity has occurred when the water PH = 5. The amount of leaves solution added to the water in the water treatment plant is highly important, hence it decreases the amount of using the synthetic chemicals by about 33% of the quantity that required for water treatment and that will help both, the water industry and the human health. More studies need to be achieved in particular different concentration of the Conocarpus leaves solution in order to improve the percentage of using the natural material as a coagulant.
B. Bina ? M. H. Mehdinejad ? M. Nikaeen ? H. Movahedian Attar
Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering , 2009,
Abstract: During the last decade, there has been a concern about the relation between aluminum residuals in treated water and Alzheimer disease, and more interest has been considered on the development of natural coagulants such as chitosan. Chitosan, a natural linear biopolyaminosaccharide, is obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of alum as coagulant in conjunction with chitosan as coagulant aid on the removal of turbidity, hardness and Escherichia coli from water. A conventional jar test apparatus was employed for the tests. The optimum pH was observed between 7 to 7.5 for all turbidities. The optimum doses of alum and chitosan when used in conjunction, were 10mg/L and 1mg/L, 5mg/L and 0.5mg/L, and 5mg/L and 0.5mg/L in low, medium and high turbidities, respectively. Turbidity removal efficiency was resulted between %74.3 to %98.2 by alum in conjunction with chitosan. Residual Al+3 in treated water was less than 0.2 mg/L, meeting the international guidelines. The results showed that turbidity decrease provided also a primary Escherichia coli reduction of 2-4 log units within the first 1 to 2 hr of treatment. Hardness removal efficiency decreased when the total hardness increased from 102 to 476mg/L as CaCO3. At low initial turbidity, chitosan showed marginally better performance on hardness, especially at the ranges of 100 to 210 mg/L as CaCO3. In conclusion, coagulant aid showed a useful method for coagulation process. By using natural coagulants, considerable savings in chemicals and sludge handling cost may be achieved.
Evaluation of exudated gum produced by Acacia siamea as coagulant in the clarification of the waters for human consumption
Fernández1,Andreína; Herrera,Francisco; Mas y Rubí3,Marielba; Mejías,Donaldo; Diaz,Altamira;
Revista Técnica de la Facultad de Ingeniería Universidad del Zulia , 2008,
Abstract: utilization of the natural origin substances as coagulant in the water clarification process have been increased in latin american countries, due to present innocuous character for the human health. the present investigation evaluated the application of the exudates gum derived from the tree acacia siamea (a. siamea), as coagulant with the purpose to determinate the optimal dosage for the clarification of natural waters and to achieve the potential of the reduction for not desirable microorganisms in treated water. the application of 50 mg/l of exudates gum of a. siamea, as optimal dosage, was reached to reduction the turbidity (ntu) level between 80 to 95%. the total alkalinity and ph did not presented significant magaly chávez2variations, thus did not add chemical substances for the regulation of the physical-chemistry charapter of the treated water. the results obtained with the microbiological tests indicate the potential of the exudates gum to use in this treatment plant to remove 98% for pathogenic microorganisms. one concludes that the gummed exudates of a. siamea can be used as natural coagulant for drinking water.
Problems on Yellow-Colouring of the Wastewater Treated with the Coagulant, Ferrous Salt

Guan Xijun,Wang Fei,

环境科学 , 1990,
Abstract: When ferrous salt is used as a coagulant to treat wastewater, if there exists superfluity in the process of coagulation to sedimentation, purged water will be clear. However, When the purged water is laid aside, it becomes turbid and turns to yellow-colouring. The reason is that oxygen in the air has dissolved in it as time goes on. The authors have proposed a measure to control the phenomenon that a higher pH or at optimal quantity of the mixed coagulant paralleled with tests can avoid color changing.
Effect of coagulant treatment on the metal composition of raw water
OS Fatoki, AO Ogunfowokan
Water SA , 2002,
Abstract: This study reports the results of an investigation on the use of two coagulants, namely Al2 (SO4)3 and Fe2 (SO4)3 which were investigated for their capabilities to reduce the metal levels of raw river water samples when treated. Generally, the percentage removal of the metals from raw water samples increased with mg/l dosage of either coagulant used. Although both coagulants were efficient in removing Cr and Ni, generally Fe2 (SO4)3 was proved to be the more efficient coagulant for the removal of all the metals studied. Fe2 (SO4)3 was 89.58% efficient in removing Cr and 99.73% efficient in removing Ni. It was 68.42% efficient in removing Zn, 40.14% efficient in removing Mn and 35.29% efficient in removing Cd (all at 13 mg/l dosage of coagulant). Judging from these results and taking into consideration the potential health threat to man from the possible Al contamination of treated water from the use of aluminium-based coagulants, the use of Fe2 (SO4)3 as coagulant in water treatment for the removal of suspended matter was preferred and would be highly recommended. WaterSA Vol.28(3) 2002: 293-298
Khromysheva О.О.,Khromyshev V.О.,Khromyshev О.V.
Bìologì?nij Vìsnik Melìtopol?s?kogo Der?avnogo Pedagogì?nogo Universitetu ìmenì Bogdana Hmel?nic?kogo , 2011,
Abstract: Physical and chemical regularities of coagulant treatment of sewage of Open Joint-Stock Company GidrosylaMZTG from heavy metals, chlorides and sulfates by with aluminum sulphate are studied.
Experimental Study on an Novel Environment-Friendly Coagulant for Treating Drinking Water  [PDF]
Defang Zeng, Wen Qin
Open Journal of Composite Materials (OJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojcm.2012.23013
Abstract: An environment-friendly composite coagulant for treating drinking water was prepared by using [Al 2 (OH) n Cl 6-n ]m?[Fe2 (OH) NCl6-N ]M (PAFC), chitosan (CTS) and modified starch (MS). It is called PCS. Results indicated that the best proportion of this coagulant was V (0.1%wt PAFC): V (0.001%wt CTS): V (3%wt modified starch) = 25:6:8. If compared with using traditional coagulant such as PAC, adding the novel coagulant, turbidity and the mass concentration of Al3+ in the water were decreased by 5.17% and 51.1% respectively. Rapid and slow stirring speed in Jar test were evaluated and they were founded to be slight influence. And neutral pH and room temperature allow up to 97.2% turbidity removal. Low coagulant doses reached high turbidity removal percentage, so this coagulant has obvious economic and environmental benefits.
Performance of Solanum incunum Linnaeus as natural coagulant and disinfectant for drinking water
C Kihampa, WJS Mwegoha, ME Kaseva, N Marobhe
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: The paper reports the performance of Solanum incunum Linnaeus as coagulant and disinfectant for water purification. The coagulation-flocculation experiment was carried out using a Phipps and Bird PB-700 Jar Tester. Results show that coagulation depends on Fe(II) content and disinfectant on bioactive natural product compounds from the plant. Turbidity removals were 96, 97 and 75% for raw water with turbidity of 450, 300 and 105 NTU, respectively. Fecal coliform removal increased with coagulant concentration, displayed a maximum removal of 99% at 2.2 × 10-4 g/ml. LD50 ranged from 0.62-2.6 × 10-5 g/ml, which were within the range of optimum coagulation concentration of 2.2 × 10-5 g/ml. Turbidity and SO42- concentrations for the treated water conforms to the Tanzanian Standards and WHO guidelines for drinking water, while fecal coliform counts exceeded the recommended values. The results suggest that S. incunum is promising as coagulant and disinfectant product for water purification.
Image Detecting Method of Inhomogeneous Optic Field in Turbid Water

ZHENG Bing,JI Guang-xue,FU Min,

光子学报 , 2007,
Abstract: The limitations of traditional underwater observation technology and laser observation technology in turbid water and especially turbid water are analyzed.An system named Underwater Image Detecting System with Distributive Light of Central Power of inhomogeneous Optic Field is described.And experiments have been done to test its characteristics in various turbid water.The result shows that this system settles the detecting problems in turbid water.
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