Abstract:
The equations of Euler-Lagrange elasticity describe elastic deformations
without reference to stress or strain. These equations as previously published
are applicable only to quasi-static deformations. This paper extends these
equations to include time dependent deformations. To accomplish this, an
appropriate Lagrangian is defined and an extrema of the integral of this
Lagrangian over the original material volume and time is found. The result is a
set of Euler equations for the dynamics of elastic materials without stress or
strain, which are appropriate for both finite and infinitesimal deformations of
both isotropic and anisotropic materials. Finally, the resulting equations are
shown to be no more than Newton's Laws applied to each infinitesimal volume of
the material.

Abstract:
Linear algebra provides insights into the description of elasticity without stress or strain. Classical descriptions of elasticity usually begin with defining stress and strain and the constitutive equations of the material that relate these to each other. Elasticity without stress or strain begins with the positions of the points and the energy of deformation. The energy of deformation as a function of the positions of the points within the material provides the material properties for the model. A discrete or continuous model of the deformation can be constructed by minimizing the total energy of deformation. As presented, this approach is limited to hyper-elastic materials, but is appropriate for infinitesimal and finite deformations, isotropic and anisotropic materials, as well as quasi-static and dynamic responses.

Abstract:
Euler-Lagrange variational principle is used to obtain analytical and numerical flow relations in cylindrical tubes. The method is based on minimizing the total stress in the flow duct using the fluid constitutive relation between stress and rate of strain. Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid models; which include power law, Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley, Carreau and Cross; are used for demonstration.

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to study the elastic stress and strain fields of dislocations and disclinations in the framework of Mindlin's gradient elasticity. We consider simple but rigorous versions of Mindlin's first gradient elasticity with one material length (gradient coefficient). Using the stress function method, we find modified stress functions for all six types of Volterra defects (dislocations and disclinations) situated in an isotropic and infinitely extended medium. By means of these stress functions, we obtain exact analytical solutions for the stress and strain fields of dislocations and disclinations. An advantage of these solutions for the elastic strain and stress is that they have no singularities at the defect line. They are finite and have maxima or minima in the defect core region. The stresses and strains are either zero or have a finite maximum value at the defect line. The maximum value of stresses may serve as a measure of the critical stress level when fracture and failure may occur. Thus, both the stress and elastic strain singularities are removed in such a simple gradient theory. In addition, we give the relation to the nonlocal stresses in Eringen's nonlocal elasticity for the nonsingular stresses.

Abstract:
Usual introductions of the concept of motion are not well adapted to a subsequent, strictly tensorial, theory of elasticity. The consideration of arbitrary coordinate systems for the representation of both, the points in the laboratory, and the material points (comoving coordinates), allows to develop a simple, old fashioned theory, where only measurable quantities -like the Cauchy stress- need be introduced. The theory accounts for the possibility of asymmetric stress (Cosserat elastic media), but, contrary to usual developments of the theory, the basic variable is not a micro-rotation, but the more fundamental micro-rotation velocity. The deformation tensor here introduced is the proper tensorial equivalent of the poorly defined deformation "tensors" of the usual theory. It is related to the deformation velocity tensor via the matricant. The strain is the logarithm of the deformation tensor. As the theory accounts for general Cosserat media, the strain is not necessarily symmetric. Hooke's law can be properly introduced in the material coordinates (as the stiffness is a function of the material point). A particularity of the theory is that the components of the stiffness tensor in the material (comoving) coordinates are not time-dependent. The configuration space is identified to the part of the Lie group GL(3)+, that is geodesically connected to the origin of the group.

Abstract:
We study the Euler-Lagrange cohomology and explore the symplectic or multisymplectic geometry and their preserving properties in classical mechanism and classical field theory in Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism in each case respectively. By virtue of the Euler-Lagrange cohomology that is nontrivial in the configuration space, we show that the symplectic or multisymplectic geometry and related preserving property can be established not only in the solution space but also in the function space if and only if the relevant closed Euler-Lagrange cohomological condition is satisfied in each case. We also apply the cohomological approach directly to Hamiltonian-like ODEs and Hamiltonian-like PDEs no matter whether there exist known Lagrangian and/or Hamiltonian associated with them.

Abstract:
The introduction of a covariant derivative on the velocity phase space is needed for a global expression of Euler-Lagrange equations. The aim of this paper is to show how its torsion tensor turns out to be involved in such a version.

Abstract:
We derive a new symmetric hyperbolic formulation of the Einstein-Euler equations in Lagrange coordinates that are adapted to the Frauendiener-Walton formulation of the Euler equations. As an application, we use this system to show that the densitized lapse and zero shift coordinate systems for the vacuum Einstein equations are equivalent to Lagrange coordinates for a fictitious fluid with a specific equation of state.

Abstract:
We solve the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability problem for multidimensional Euler-Lagrange quadratic mappings which extend the original Euler-Lagrange quadratic mappings.