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THE EUROPEANIZATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION POLICIES: FROM PUBLIC OPINION TO PUBLIC POLICIES  [PDF]
Victor Negrescu
CES Working Papers , 2011,
Abstract: In the context of the growing importance of the cooperation for development in the European Union and the appearance of a common growing public opinion agreement supporting this kind of initiatives, it is necessary to understand if we can talk today about a true common European policy. Still covered on intergovernmental level and considered to be a part of the national foreign policies, EU development aid is still far from reaching the maximum of its efficiency. In this paper we try to introduce a new evaluation method of the cooperation for development policies and interpretation of the degree of Europeanization of the national policies, starting from the case studies of France, the Czech Republic and Romania, that will enable us to appreciate the stages that have to be completed by the member countries but also by the EU to realize a completely uniform European foreign assistance strategy. The understanding of the European development aid environment is also necessary for the elaboration and the implementation of the Romanian development cooperation policy which is just taking its first steps as an international donor.
Individuals and International Public Opinion as an Actor in International Relations  [PDF]
Utangisila Bena Osée, Bijimine Tshipamba Bijoux, Shafiko Biasuba Didier, Elembe Oyangondo Fran?ois
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.73039
Abstract: The term “International public opinion” is now also used by various actors outside the militant field. The media but also governments and international organizations that invoke international public opinion tend to make it a uniform and sometimes lively entity: public opinion can thus “be moved”; “indignant” and even undergo “psychological shocks”. Individuals are of crucial importance to world affairs, this idea is based on certain assumptions such as, acquisitions of better analytical skills, global political system has entered a period of prolonged turbulence which makes it particularly sensitive to micro politics influences and the upheaval of skills is considerable since citizens today shape the overall results in a much more important way than in the past.
Revisiting Downs' Issue-Attention Cycle: International Terrorism and U.S. Public Opinion  [PDF]
Dr. Karen K. Petersen
Journal of Strategic Security , 2009,
Abstract: Lamenting the lack of public awareness of international events and U.S. foreign policy is not a particularly novel exercise; yet, explaining the process by which issues enter and exit the public realm remains a challenging endeavor. Despite contributions from researchers working in international relations and mass communication, explaining public inattentiveness continues to vex scholars. However, in his article, "Up and Down with Ecology: The 'Issue-Attention Cycle,'" Anthony Downs provides a parsimonious and tractable model of public opinion that can be applied to foreign policy issues.1 While Downs concerns himself exclusively with domestic issues, particularly environmental issues, his model has thepotential to contribute to our understanding of the relationship between the public and policymakers over critical issues such as international terrorism. With minor modifications, the model has the potential to explain public support for failed foreign policies as well. Downs' model, when applied to international terrorism, explains why policymakers seek simple solutions, why the public supports such solutions, and why the media fail to provide meaningful coverage of intractable issues such as international terrorism. Before discussing Downs' model, the basic tenets and shortcomings of some of the more prevalent theories of the relationship between public opinion and foreign policy are discussed below.
Leprosy: International Public Health Policies and Public Health Eras  [PDF]
Niyi Awofeso
Administrative Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/admsci1010032
Abstract: Public health policies continue to play important roles in national and international health reforms. However, the influence and legacies of the public health eras during which such policies are formulated remain largely underappreciated. The limited appreciation of this relationship may hinder consistent adoption of public health policies by nation-states, and encumber disinvestment from ineffective or anachronistic policies. This article reviews seven public health eras and highlights how each era has influenced international policy formulation for leprosy control—“the fertile soil for policy learning”. The author reiterates the role of health leadership and health activism in facilitating consistency in international health policy formulation and implementation for leprosy control.
Climate change sentiment on Twitter: An unsolicited public opinion poll  [PDF]
Emily M. Cody,Andrew J. Reagan,Lewis Mitchell,Peter Sheridan Dodds,Christopher M. Danforth
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: The consequences of anthropogenic climate change are extensively debated through scientific papers, newspaper articles, and blogs. Newspaper articles may lack accuracy, while the severity of findings in scientific papers may be too opaque for the public to understand. Social media, however, is a forum where individuals of diverse backgrounds can share their thoughts and opinions. As consumption shifts from old media to new, Twitter has become a valuable resource for analyzing current events and headline news. In this research, we analyze tweets containing the word "climate" collected between September 2008 and July 2014. Through use of a previously developed sentiment measurement tool called the Hedonometer, we determine how collective sentiment varies in response to climate change news, events, and natural disasters. We find that natural disasters, climate bills, and oil-drilling can contribute to a decrease in happiness while climate rallies, a book release, and a green ideas contest can contribute to an increase in happiness. Words uncovered by our analysis suggest that responses to climate change news are predominately from climate change activists rather than climate change deniers, indicating that Twitter is a valuable resource for the spread of climate change awareness.
Using Online Tools to Assess Public Responses to Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Japan  [PDF]
Sengtha Chay,Nophea Sasaki
Future Internet , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/fi3020117
Abstract: As a member of the Annex 1 countries to the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Japan is committed to reducing 6% of the greenhouse gas emissions. In order to achieve this commitment, Japan has undertaken several major mitigation measures, one of which is the domestic measure that includes ecologically friendly lifestyle programs, utilizing natural energy, participating in local environmental activities, and amending environmental laws. Mitigation policies could be achieved if public responses were strong. As the internet has increasingly become an online platform for sharing environmental information, public responses to the need for reducing greenhouse gas emissions may be assessed using available online tools. We used Google Insights for Search, Google AdWords Keyword Tool, and Google Timeline View to assess public responses in Japan based on the interest shown for five search terms that define global climate change and its mitigation policies. Data on online search interests from January 04, 2004 to July 18, 2010 were analyzed according to locations and categories. Our study suggests that the search interests for the five chosen search terms dramatically increased, especially when new mitigation policies were introduced or when climate change related events were organized. Such a rapid increase indicates that the Japanese public strongly responds to climate change mitigation policies.
Science and the international public opinion
Greco Pietro
JCOM : Journal of Science Communication , 2004,
Abstract: On 16 January 2004, the United Nations Secretary-General and Nobel Peace Prize winner Kofi Annan launched a Global Media Aids Initiative, with the aim of convincing the press, radio, television and Internet to join the fight against what has been called the "forgotten disease of the forgotten continent". Throughout the world, over 40 million people have the Hiv virus. In 2003 there were 5 million new infections and 3 million deaths were caused by Aids. The majority of those infected live in sub-Saharan Africa –the forgotten continent–, and most of them have no access to treatment. Furthermore, the largest part of the people at risk do not have the necessary information to avoid the infection. This is why, in sub-Saharan Africa, Aids is a "forgotten disease".
Analysis of existing international policy evidence in public health genomics: mapping exercise  [cached]
Elena V. Syurina,Tobias Schulte in den B?umen,Frans J.M. Feron,Angela Brand
Journal of Public Health Research , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/jphr.2012.e8
Abstract: Background. In the last decades we have seen a constant growth in the fields of science related to the use of genome-based health information. However, there is a gap between basic science research and the Public Health everyday practice. For a successful introduction of genome-based technologies policy actions on the international level are needed. This work represents the initial stage of the PHGEN II (Public Health Genomics European Network II) project. In order to prepare a base for bridging genomics and Public Health, an inventory study of the existing legislative base dealing with controversies of genome-based knowledge was conducted. The work results in the mapping of the most and the least legislatively covered areas and some preliminary conclusions about the existing gaps. Design and Methods. The collection of the evidence-based policies was done through the PHGEN II project. The mapping covered the meta-level (international, European general guidelines). The expert opinion of the partners of the project was required to reflect on and grade the collected evidence. Results. An analysis of the evidence was made by the area of coverage: using the list of important policy areas for successful introduction of genome-based technologies into Public Health and the Public Health Genomics Wheel (originally Public Health Wheel developed by Institute of Medicine). Conclusions. Severe inequalities in coverage of important issues of Public Health Genomics were found. The most attention was paid to clinical utility and clinical validity of the screening and the protection of human subjects. Important areas such as trade agreements, Public Health Genomics literacy, insurance issues, behaviour modification in response to genomics results etc. were paid less attention to. For the successful adoption of new technologies on the Public Health level the focus should be not only on the translation to clinical practice, but the translation from bench to Public Health policy and back. Coherent and consistent coverage of all aspects of the translation of genome based information and technologies is of outmost importance.
Climate Policies and Anti-Climate Policies  [PDF]
Hugh Compston, Ian Bailey
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2013.34021
Abstract:

Although there is a clear trend towards stronger climate policies across a wide range of countries, another much less recognized but no less significant trend is the continued introduction of policies that increase net greenhouse gas emissions. This article introduces the concept of anti-climate policy as a means of focusing attention on these, and investigates their frequency in China, the US and EU, the three largest emitters of greenhouse gases. The investigation reveals that anti-climate policies take many forms and that most types are being extensively used by governments in China, the US and EU. This significantly impedes progress towards bringing emissions under control. We argue that anti-climate policies need to be recognized as an important feature of climate politics and that they need to be addressed if dangerous climate change is to be avoided. We conclude that anti-climate policies can best be tackled by targeting approvals of new fossil fuel power stations, efforts to extend trade liberalization, proposals to introduce new fossil fuel subsidies, and approvals of new airports.

The Politics of “Public Opinion” in the Philippines
Eva-Lotta E. Hedman
Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs , 2010,
Abstract: In May 2010, national elections in the Philippines saw front-runner presidential candidate Benigno “Noynoy” Aquino III win a landslide victory which set the stage for an orderly transition of power from the administration of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. This article argues that Aquino’s victory, rather than signalling a clear departure from the old ways of doing politics or the mere reproduction of established patterns of oligarchical politics, points towards a more gradual and limited change in the mobilisation of voters in the Philippines. This change, it is further argued, reflects in part the rise of “public opinion” as a social fact in Philippine politics and society in the period since the resurrection of formal democratic institutions and regular elections. The article identifies the broad parameters of the rise in polls and surveys in the Philippines, and, drawing on the critical insights of Pierre Bourdieu, examines the nature and significance of “public opinion” itself. However, the argument advanced here is a cautionary one, indicating that, while the emergence of public opinion as a social fact alters political calculations and dynamics associated with voter mobilisation, the politics of public opinion may only have limited transformative potential for democracy in the Philippines.
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