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Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Morpho-Agronomic Characteristics of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)  [PDF]
L. Tshilenge-Lukanda, A. Kalonji-Mbuyi, K. K. C. Nkongolo, R. V. Kizungu
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.411271
Abstract:

Induced mutation in plant improvement has been used in several crops to generate new sources of genetic variations. A study was conducted to determine the effect of different doses of gamma irradiation on different morpho-agronomic characteristics. Agronomic traits that were analyzed included: grain yield, number of pods/plant, number of seeds/plant and weight of 100 seeds and numbers of days to 50% flowering. Morphometric characterisation of the descriptive data included plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves/plant, leaflet length, leaflet width and number of ramification/ plant. Groundnut seeds were treated with various doses of gamma rays (100, 200, 400 and 600 Gy). Among the various dose treatments, gamma rays treatment at 100 Gy resulted in a higher increase of grain yield and other morpho-agronomic parameters especially for the JL24 variety. In fact the gamma irradiation at 100 Gy increased significantly grain yield by 14% for JL24, and 4 % for JL12. The number of pods per plant was increased by 2% for JL12 and 37% for JL24. For the number of seeds per plant, there was a significant increase of 8% for JL12, and 62% for JL24 at 100 Gy. A similar trend was observed for the JL24 at 200 Gy dose. Higher doses of gamma rays (400 and 600 Gy) reduced significantly plant growth and grain yield. The usefulness of the mutants identified in a groundnut breeding program is discussed.

Classification and Evaluation of Greek Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Using 17 Main Agronomic and Quality Traits
S.T. Kotzamanidis,N. Stavropoulos,C.G. Ipsilandis
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Forty-three cultivars from the Greek collection of groundnut were characterized and evaluated for various agronomic and quality traits and resistance to waterlogging, during 1986-90 in the farm of the Cotton and Industrial Plants Institute. Seventeen morphological and physiological traits included in the descriptor lists of IBPGR and ICRISAT were used in total. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) extracted 5 factors representing 77.3% of the total variation. PC1 explained 35.6, PC2 14.2, PC3 13.0, PC4 8.4 and PC5 6.1% of the total variance. Cluster analysis classified the assessed cultivars into distinct cultivar-groups on the basis of pod and seed characteristics. The evaluation showed that most Greek Arachis cultivars belong to subspecies hypogaea, group Virginia. Only a few belong to subspecies fastigiata groups Valencia or Spanish. The experimental work succeeded in preliminary identification of certain cultivars with promising tolerance to waterlogging at harvest which are to be used either directly in the Arachis production zone in Northern Greece, or as breeding materials for the improvement of the species.
Effect of Palm Bunch Ash on Growth of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea)
N.S. Oguzor
Research Journal of Agronomy , 2012,
Abstract: The study investigates the effect of palm bunch ash on growth of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea). The emergence of the plant was observed to be poorly enhanced by the application of palm bunch ash. The application of 500 g and the control gave the highest emergence percentage of 25.33 and 24.7. The application of palm bunch ash affected emergence and yield significantly. It is therefore recommended that for economic purpose palm bunch ash should be applied to groundnut for optimal yield.
Chemical Analyses of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) Oil  [PDF]
G.N. Anyasor,K.O. Ogunwenmo,O.A. Oyelana,D. Ajayi
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2009,
Abstract: Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) oil from seeds of six varieties; boro red, boro light, mokwa, ela, campala and guta as well as oil from three geographical zones in Nigeria; northern, eastern and western were investigated. Gas chromatography analysis showed high concentrations of oleic and linoleic acids in the oil samples. Capric (0.0%) and Lauric (8.1%) acids were absent and highest, respectively in the mokwa variety and hence diagnostic. More so, the comparative chemical analysis of peanut oil from the three zones and some selected refined vegetable oil; sunola, grand, olive and corn oil, indicated that western and grand oil had high iodine value 1.74±0.1 and 2.63±0.1, respectively, compared to others. The northern oil had high acid and fat value than the others (4.49 and 133%, respectively). Furthermore, the saponification value of the local vegetable oil was found to be significantly higher than the refined vegetable oil (P < 0.05), the eastern oil having the highest (140.25mgKOH/g). However, the peroxide values for both the local and refined oil were less than the standard peroxide value (10mEqKg-1) for vegetable oil deterioration. Minerals were present and no rancidity was observed in all the samples. In conclusion, the groundnut oil from Nigeria may have a higher shelf life, and serve as a useful substitute in nutrition and industrial applications.
Chemical composition of groundnut, Arachis hypogaea (L) landraces
JY Asibuo, R Akromah, Osei Safo-Kantanka, HK Adu-Dapaah, S Ohemeng-Dapaah, A Agyeman
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Groundnut production and utilization in Ghana has tripled in the last decade due to its high nutritive value and the number of uses it can be put into. The chemical quality of seeds of Ghanaian groundnut are different from those of other countries, however, no previous studies has been done. This study was initiated to examine the nutritional quality of 20 groundnut varieties grown in Ghana. Dry samples were examined for oil content, crude protein, total carbohydrate, calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, copper, iron and manganese. Results from these analyses showed significant variation between the parameters measured. Virginia cultivars which belong to subspecies hypogaea had higher oil content (49.7%) than the Spanish and Valencia market types, which belong to subspecies fastigiata (47.3%). The mean protein content of subspecies fastigiata was however higher (25.69%) than subspecies hypogaea (22.78%). The mineral elements examined were substantial in reducing malnutrition especially in young and growing children. Broni fufuo, a Spanish market type had the highest crude protein content (30.53%) and the least oil content (33.60%) and is idea for products which require more protein and less oil. Substantial genetic variability exists for chemical composition and nutritional traits which could be utilised for various food preparations and selection for breeding purpose.
Biochemical Screening of Some Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Genotypes for Drought Tolerance  [PDF]
D.E. Jharna,B.L.D. Chowdhury,M.A. Haque,M.R.H. Bhuiyan
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: A pot experiment was conducted for screening of ten drought tolerant groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotypes. Ten genotypes were collected from the International Crop Research Institute for Semi Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), India. Plants were grown in Hoagland solution and by adding 4% polyethylene glycol-6000, water stress was imposed. As index of drought tolerance, change in free proline content and stability of nitrate reductase activity in the leaves of water stressed plants was monitored. In the drought tolerant plant, the increase in proline over the control varied from 5.44 to 7.16 fold and the decrease in nitrate reductase activity ranged from 4.97 - 6.69%. On the basis of increase in proline accumulation and degree of stability of nitrate reductase, 3 genotypes were selected as drought tolerant and they were 3203, ICGV-93269 and ICGV-93232.
Effects of sodium azide on yield parameters of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
JK Mensah, B Obadoni
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: The mutagenic effects of different concentrations of sodium azide (0.01 – 0.05%) on groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. cv SS1145B and RMP 91) were investigated. The characters studied include; plant height, number of branches per plant, pods/plant, seeds/pod, seeds/plant and 100 seed weight in the M1 and M2 generations. Both negative and positive shifts in mean values were recorded as a result of the chemical treatment. The most effective dosage for inducing mutation/morphological aberration was established at 0.03%. Increases in genetic parameters of variation, heritability and genetic gain under the chemical treatment indicate the possibility of evolving higher yield variants through proper crop selection. Thus, economic traits like pods/plant, seeds/plant with high heritability and genetic gain values in the M3 generation offer good scope for selection and improvement.
Effect of EM on Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Growth  [PDF]
Zaheer Yousaf,Ghulam Jilani,Rizwana Aleem Qureshi,Abdul Ghani Awan
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2000,
Abstract: Effect of Effective Microorganisms is seen on groundnut growth. EM is applied on two varieties (V1 =1 C G 2261 and V2 = 1CGV-86550) in three treatments. These three treatments are T1= control, T2=seed inoculation and T3=seed inoculation with EM + EM spray . Treatment T3 showed more growth than T2 and T1 because in T3, EM is applied in the form of seed inoculation as well as EM spray on ground. So, growth can be increased by the application of more EM concentration
Evaluation of nutritional quality of groundnut (Arachis Hypogaea L.) from Ghana.
J Asibuo, R Akromah, HK Adu-Dapaah, O Safo-Kantanka
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2008,
Abstract: Groundnut is the most important legume in Ghana. The crop is grown in all the agroecologies in the country; from the dry savannah regions to the moist forest areas. Several food preparations incorporate groundnut to improve the protein level, taste and flavour. Despite the importance of the crop, the chemical compositions of the varieties grown by farmers have not been analyzed according to their nutritional quality. Oil, fatty acids, protein, oleic/linoleic (O/L) acid ratio, iodine value and free soluble sugars were studied in 20 groundnut varieties grown in Ghana to determine their nutritional quality and to inform endusers which variety to choose for maximum benefit. Results indicated a significant difference (p<0.05) in oil content among the varieties. Oil content ranged from 33.60 to 54.95%. Mean oil content of the subspecies hypogaea (49.7%) was higher than in subspecies fastigiata (47.3%). The major fatty acids were oleic and linoleic which accounted for 77.89% of the total fatty acids. The subspecies hypogaea had significantly higher (p<0.01) content of oleic acid (55.9%) than the subspecies fastigiata (43.3%). The sum of three fatty acids oleic, linoleic and palmitic acid constitute 89.35% of the total fatty acids of the seeds. The mean O/L ratio ranged from 1.14 to 3.66; the mean for subspecies hypogaea was 2.59 as compared to 1.28 for subspecies fastigiata. There was high correlation between oleic and O/L acid ratio (r2=0.983) and negative correlation between oleic acid and linoleic acid (r2=-0.996). The iodine value ranged from 85.77 to 98.43% and total soluble sugars from 9.20 to 13.30%. Protein of defatted portion ranged from 39.65 to 53.45%. Subspecies fastigiata had higher mean protein content than subspecies hypogaea. Generally, there were significant variations in the parameters measured in the groundnut varieties. Five varieties with O/L ratio more than 2.0 were identified and their oils would be further tested for their stability.
Effect of Pre-emergence Herbicides on Nodulation, Nitrogen Fixation and Morphological Characters in Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea)  [PDF]
M. Fayyaz Chaudhary,Azhar Ali Abbasi
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2000,
Abstract: Effect of different concentrations of three pre-emergence herbicides namely, pendimethalin (N-(1-ethylopropyl) 2,6-dinitro-3-4-xylidine), trifluralin (2,6-dinitro-N-N-dipropyl-4-trifluoromethylaniline) and oxadiazon (3-(2-4 dichloro-5isopropoxy Phenyl) -5-t-butyl -3, 4 oxadizaolin 2-one) on nodulation, nitrogen fixation, morphological characters and some other parameters have been investigated in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), L. cv Banki. Pendimethalin @ 0.74, 1.49, 2.23, trifluralin @ 0.37, 0.75, 1.20 and oxadizon @ 0.30, 0.60, and 0.90 kg ha -1 was incorporated in soil before sowing. Data were recorded 40, 70 and 90 days after germination. Recommended doses of these herbicides in general had no significant effect on different parameters under investigation. Higher doses of these herbicides adversely affected the nodulation and the fresh and dry weights of nodules. However higher concentration of oxadiazon resulted in increased N. accumulation in shoots of groundnut plants. It was concluded that the herbicides under investigation did not affect the groundnut plants adversely if used at recommended levels.
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