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Pronouns in Ode Dialect: A Grammatical Analysis  [PDF]
Oluwole Samuel Akintoye
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2014.45060
Abstract: Much attention has been paid on the pronouns in the Yoruba language by the Yoruba scholars compared to the few works on the pronouns in the dialects of Yoruba. This paper contributes to the few works on the pronouns in the dialects of Yoruba. The paper considers the pronouns in Ode, a sub-dialect of Èkìtì, and discusses the similarities and differences observed between the pronouns in Yoruba language and Ode dialect. The paper applies a descriptive approach in its analysis.
Pronouns in Estonian Child Language
Maigi Vija , Renate Pajusalu
Ad verba liberorum , 2009, DOI: 10.2478/v10196-011-0003-4
Abstract: Pronouns are words that fall on the boundaries of vocabulary and grammar. They possess several distinctive characteristics that are important for language acquisition. First, since the referent of a pronoun only becomes apparent in context, the interpretation of pronouns requires a specific kind of information. In order to understand to whom I, you or this refer, we need to know the whole communicative situation. This fact should still not complicate language acquisition too much, because the child's language development starts with ‘here and now’. Yet, the acquisition of a pragmatico-grammatical complex of pronouns is bound to take time due to the variety of pronoun functions involved. On the one hand, the referents of pronouns (especially those of speech act pronouns mina ‘I’ and sina ‘you:2SG’) change constantly, making an exact repetition of what an adult said, in most cases, impossible for the child. On the other hand, the areas of use of certain pronouns (e.g., those expressing definiteness) require the mastery of narrative principles. There are also studies that show that the acquisition of pronouns after the critical age is especially difficult or even impossible (see the discussion of Genie's case in Lust 2006: 95). This article gives an analysis of the acquisition of Estonian personal and demonstrative pronouns. In Estonian, similarly to many other languages, a group of frequently used pronouns functions as a device for minimal reference and for determining noun phrases for referential needs of ongoing discourse. The group consists of different types of pronouns: personal (mina, sina, tema, meie, teie, nemad), demonstrative (see), possessive (oma), and quantificational (üks, mingi). In addition, there are also some adverbs used for deictic reference, for example those of spatial reference (siin ‘here’, seal ‘there’, etc.). Some of these pro-words are typically used in deictic contexts and refer to entities present in the physical context (1 and 2sg personal pronouns and demonstratives); others refer primarily anaphorically (3rd person pronoun and demonstratives), and typically have an antecedent in the ongoing discourse. The same pronouns (except personal) can function as determiners very much like articles in Indo-European languages. Thus, we can see a group of core prowords that are frequent and have different functions. An overview of these devices of pronominal reference is given in Pajusalu (in press).
On some peculiarities displayed by personal pronouns in the anaphorization process  [PDF]
Ivi? Milka
Ju?noslovenski Filolog , 2003, DOI: 10.2298/jfi0359001i
Abstract: The central concern of this article is to bring into sharper focus some problems related to personal pronouns and anaphorization that need to receive their proper share of attention in Slavic grammatical descriptions. The topics examined in the article include: (1) the identification of factors preventing the occurrence of the anaphoric pronoun in a given discourse; (2) the answer to the question why Russian and Polish anaphoric pronominal expressions which substitute for the predicatively used noun do not have analogous equivalents in Modern Standard Serbian; (3) the fact that Slavic languages differ with regard to how they treat anaphoric personal pronouns in relation to "null" anaphor; (4) the phenomenon of the so-called bound I unbound anaphor; (5) the necessity to admit that the anaphorically used Serbian word jedan functions as a discrete marker for the 'indefiniteness' category; (6) the need to get still more insights into what governs the gender agreement in cases when the noun's gender semantics and its morphological gender type are noncongruent. .
La construcción imaginaria de los límites políticos a través de las personas gramaticales y los enunciados polifónicos: el caso del discurso de Néstor Kirchner Imaginary Construction of Political Frontier Through Grammatical Pronouns and Polyphonic Discourse: The Case of Néstor Kirchner's Public Speeches  [cached]
Mariana Garzón Rogé
Anclajes , 2009,
Abstract: A partir del análisis de discursos del ex Presidente Néstor Kirchner se propone indagar en la utilidad del estudio de las personas gramaticales y de las herramientas provistas por la teoría de la polifonía para el abordaje del discurso político. La palabra política no crea de manera directa significantes en una sociedad determinada, pero la indagación sobre ese decir permite comprender las pretensiones hegemónicas de quienes la profieren (lo que dicen que hacen cuando hablan). Los hablantes disponen de ciertas estrategias específicas en donde la representación política y las figuras retóricas tienen un lugar privilegiado. El caso escogido en este trabajo permite comprender algunos de los aspectos propuestos desde las esferas de poder para delimitar una inicial frontera política imaginaria propia de la enunciación peronista caracterizada por una fractura entre un conglomerado difuso compuesto por "nosotros" y otro, opositor, integrado por "los otros". La apropiación de las personas gramaticales, así como el llamado de ciertos puntos de vista (voces polifónicas) al discurso, colaboran en la tarea de revitalizar aggiornadamente una escena de enunciación peronista. An analysis of ex-President Néstor Kirchner's speeches is suggested to investigate the convenience of using grammatical pronouns and tools provided by the theory of polyphony in the construction of political discourse. The latter does not directly create meanings in a particular society, but its analysis allows people to understand the hegemonic pretensions of those who pronounce it (what they say they do when they speak). Politicians manage some specific strategies in which political representation and rhetorical formulas accomplish a fundamental role. The case studied in this work permits to comprehend some aspects proposed by the political power to define a primary imaginary frontier, peculiar to the Peronist discourse, and characterized by the opposition 'we' / 'the others'. Apparently, the appropriation of particular grammatical pronouns and the insertion of certain points of view (polyphonic voices) collaborate to revitalize the Peronist scene.
The Frobenius anatomy of word meanings I: subject and object relative pronouns  [PDF]
Mehrnoosh Sadrzadeh,Stephen Clark,Bob Coecke
Computer Science , 2014, DOI: 10.1093/logcom/ext044
Abstract: This paper develops a compositional vector-based semantics of subject and object relative pronouns within a categorical framework. Frobenius algebras are used to formalise the operations required to model the semantics of relative pronouns, including passing information between the relative clause and the modified noun phrase, as well as copying, combining, and discarding parts of the relative clause. We develop two instantiations of the abstract semantics, one based on a truth-theoretic approach and one based on corpus statistics.
A Centering Approach to Pronouns  [PDF]
Susan E. Brennan,Marilyn Walker Friedman,Carl J. Pollard
Computer Science , 1994,
Abstract: In this paper we present a formalization of the centering approach to modeling attentional structure in discourse and use it as the basis for an algorithm to track discourse context and bind pronouns. As described in Grosz, Joshi and Weinstein (1986), the process of centering attention on entities in the discourse gives rise to the intersentential transitional states of continuing, retaining and shifting. We propose an extension to these states which handles some additional cases of multiple ambiguous pronouns. The algorithm has been implemented in an HPSG natural language system which serves as the interface to a database query application.
GRAMMATICAL SYLLABUS AND EFL TEXTBOOKS: THE NEED FOR CONSCIOUSNESS-RAISING ACTIVITIES  [cached]
Sasan Baleghizadeh
Per Linguam : A Journal of Language Learning , 2012, DOI: 10.5785/28-1-123
Abstract: In this paper, the role of the grammatical syllabus in EFL settings is examined. To this end, the grammatical syllabus and its shortcomings are first explored. It is then argued that the grammatical syllabus is perhaps the best channel through which grammar instruction can take shape, and hence the importance of grammar instruction is discussed. Finally, the concept of consciousness-raising activities is introduced and it is suggested that the explicit presentation of grammar in traditional EFL textbooks still used in certain settings be replaced by consciousness-raising activities.
Classification parameters of improper grammatical agreement
Iryna Aribzhanova
NaUKMA Research Papers. Linguistics , DOI: 10.18523/2616-8502.2018.27-34
Abstract: Background. In the studies of Ukrainian linguists of the first half of the twentieth century (S. Smal-Stotskyi, F. Gartner, V. Simovych, S. Smerechynskyi, O. Syniavskyi), there were recorded special cases of agreement that differ from a typical agreement. The opposition of two types of agreement is actualized in modern grammar in terms of proper grammatical agreement and improper grammatical agreement. The latter is of scientific interest from the perspective of the mechanisms by which the structure’s components are bound together (determinative one with the function of a designated object dependent one with the function of the attribute of an object), as well as the expression of a determinative component, the motives of the choice of dependent word, and the classification parameterization. Purpose. The aim is to consider typological signs of an improper grammatical agreement, to characterize the factors for choice of the form of a dependent attributive component (verb and adjective), and to systematize the regular cases of the implementation of associative-grammatical, semantic and conditionally grammatical subtypes of agreement in the Ukrainian language. Methods. A set of methods is used: descriptive, structural, and functional ones. Results. A differential sign of an improper grammatical agreement is the absence of formally-grammatical indicator of connection in the determinative word: такс? при?хало (unlike proper grammatical agreement, where the indicator is the forms of two combining components: машина при?хала). A determinative component can be expressed by substantives without flexions, substantives of undifferentiated gender (without indicators of the gender category), conjunctions of words, and sentences. The categorical form of a dependent component (finite verb or adjective word) is “predicted” by the structural and semantic specificity of a determinative component. Discussion. An associative-grammatical agreement, in fact, is a mediated grammatical agreement (the forms of a dependent component duplicate the forms of the word with which a determinative component is associated); the assimilation takes place following the example of grammatical agreement: сильний в?трище because of сильний в?тер?...
Instruction for Authors  [cached]
editor support
International Journal of Science and Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.12777/ijse.v3i2.4241
Abstract: Instruction for Authors
The lexical-grammatical dichotomy in Functional Discourse Grammar  [cached]
Evelien Keizer
Alfa : Revista de Linguística , 2007,
Abstract: This paper deals with the lexical-grammatical distinction in Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG), addressing such issues as the nature of linguistic categorization (strict versus gradual) and the possibility of representing gradience in underlying representation. It will be shown that both FDG and its predecessor, Functional Grammar (FG), are ambivalent with regard to the lexical-grammatical distinction. On the one hand, both models seem to accept the possibility of strict categorization, making ‘a rather sharp distinction between lexical (or content) elements and grammatical (or form) elements in the structure of linguistic expressions’ (DIK, 1997, p.159), whereby lexical elements are captured by predicates and grammatical elements are analysed as operators or functions. At the same time, however, it is implicitly accepted that categorization is not always an all-or-nothing affair (e.g. DIK, 1997, p.194). The aim of the present paper is, first, to resolve this ambivalence by offering an inventory of criteria (pragmatic, semantic, morphosyntactic and phonological) for the classification of (English) linguistic elements as lexical or grammatical. Secondly, it is argued that, although both distinctions are useful and justifiable, there is no one-to-one relationship between the lexical-grammatical dichotomy and the distinction between predicates and operators/functions. Finally, a proposal is made for an FDG-representation of a particular group of linguistic elements (including pronouns, demonstratives, numerals and prepositions) which do not clearly belong to either category but combine lexical and grammatical features.
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