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Internalized symptoms in adolescence as predictors of mental health in adulthood in the Northern Swedish cohort  [PDF]
Helen R. Winefield, Anne Hammarstr?m, Karina Nygren, Bruno H?ggl?f
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.57157

Although mental health symptoms in children and adolescents are shown to predict young adult mental health outcomes, long-term prospective studies of childhood cohorts are few. The aim of the present study was to analyze the prospective importance of internalized mental health symptoms in adolescence for internalized symptoms in adulthood. Methods: A community-based prospective longitudinal cohort provided information by questionnaire about psychological status at age 16 and 43 (n=1010, representing 94.3% of those still alive). Socio-demographic variables which were indicative of possible childhood adversity (parental class, absence, illness, unemployment, relationship, crowding, number of moves) were treated as confounders and controlled for in ordinal regression. Results: For both women and men, internalizing mental health symptoms reported at 16 significantly predicted the same outcome at 43 years, after controlling for previous adverse environmental conditions (OR =1.2 for women, 1.3 for men). Conclusion: In this representative cohort studied over 27 years with excellent retention rates, the occurrence of self-reported worry, panic and sadness in mid-adolescence significantly increased the likelihood of similar states in middle adulthood.

Mexican ADRs in the 90s: As Good as Expected?
Fran?§ois Boye
Revista de Análisis Económico (RAE) , 2007,
Abstract: In the 90s, Mexican firms issued more than ever American Depository Receipts (ADRs), i.e, certificates of Mexican stocks, traded in U.S. markets and managed by U.S. depositories. This paper is about testing the top Mexican firms’ ADR for ability to: a) replicate the ups and downs of U.S. markets; b) outperform their U.S. peers; c) be an opportunity for diversification away from their U.S. peers. This paper’s finding is that only Telmex’s ADR passes the tests a), b) and c).
Predictors of Good Health Status of Rural Men in Jamaica  [PDF]
Paul A Bourne
Calicut Medical Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Aim: A comprehensive reivew of literature revealed that there was a gap in health researh literature in Jamaica on determinants of good health of rural men. This study seeks to fill this void by examining cross-sectional survey data to model predictors of self-reported good health status of rural men in Jamaica.Method: A sample of 5,041 respondents was extracted from a national cross sectional survey of 25,018 respondents. Stratified random probability sampling technique was used to draw the sample. Data were stored, retrieved and analyzed using SPSS for Windows 16.0. Descriptive statistics were used to provide pertinent socio-demographic characteristics of the sample and logistic regression was used to establish a predictive model of good self-reported health status or rural Jamaicans.Results: Seventeen percent of rural men claimed that they had poor health, 4.9% had health insurance, 61.6% visited a health care practitioner, 96.0% purchased prescribed medications and 45.3% completed taking the prescribed medications. The predictors of good health status of rural men in Jamaica are cost of medical care (OR = 0.916, 95% CI = 0.841 - 0.997), retirement income (OR = 0.382, 95% CI = 0.206 - 0.707), marital status - separated, divorced or widowed with reference to those never married (OR = 0.270, 95% CI = 0.178-0.410) and married with reference to never married men (OR = 0.465, 95% CI = 0.356 - 0.609) - health insurance coverage (OR = 0.041, 95% CI = 0.027 - 0.063), number of children in household (OR = 1.200, 95% CI = 1.069 - 1.347), and the number of durable goods owned by the man (OR = 1.107, 95% CI = 1.050 - 1.166).Conclusion: Children continue to be not only futuristic assets to parents, but that they currently improve the health status of rural men.
Predictors for good functional outcome after neurocritical care
Ines C Kiphuth, Peter D Schellinger, Martin K?hrmann, Jürgen Bardutzky, Hannes Lücking, Stephan Kloska, Stefan Schwab, Hagen B Huttner
Critical Care , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/cc9192
Abstract: We retrospectively investigated 796 consecutive patients admitted to a non-surgical neurologic intensive care unit over a period of two years (2006 and 2007). Demographic and clinical parameters were analyzed. Depending on the diagnosis, we grouped patients according to their diseases (cerebral ischemia, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), meningitis/encephalitis, epilepsy, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and myasthenia gravis (MG), neurodegenerative diseases and encephalopathy, cerebral neoplasm and intoxication). Clinical parameters, mortality and functional outcome of all treated patients were analyzed. Functional outcome (using the modified Rankin Scale, mRS) one year after discharge was assessed by a mailed questionnaire or telephone interview. Outcome was dichotomized into good (mRS ≤ 2) and poor (mRS ≥ 3). Logistic regression analyses were calculated to determine independent predictors for good functional outcome.Overall in-hospital mortality amounted to 22.5% of all patients, and a good long-term functional outcome was achieved in 28.4%. The parameters age, length of ventilation (LOV), admission diagnosis of ICH, GBS/MG, and inoperable cerebral neoplasm as well as Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System (TISS)-28 on Day 1 were independently associated with functional outcome after one year.This investigation revealed that age, LOV and TISS-28 on Day 1 were strongly predictive for the outcome. The diagnoses of hemorrhagic stroke and cerebral neoplasm leading to neurocritical care predispose for functional dependence or death, whereas patients with GBS and MG are more likely to recover after neurocritical care.Within the last decades, specialized neurocritical intensive care units (NICU) have evolved from bigger, multi-disciplinary ICUs [1]. This specialization has led to a decrease in both in-hospital mortality and length of hospital stay without associated effects on readmission rates and long-term mortality [2]. Nevertheless, case fa
Parent-Reported Otorrhea in Children with Tympanostomy Tubes: Incidence and Predictors  [PDF]
Thijs M. A. van Dongen, Geert J. M. G. van der Heijden, Hanneke G. Freling, Roderick P. Venekamp, Anne G. M. Schilder
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069062
Abstract: Purpose Although common in children with tympanostomy tubes, the current incidence of tympanostomy tube otorrhea (TTO) is uncertain. TTO is generally a sign of otitis media, when middle ear fluid drains through the tube. Predictors for otitis media are therefore suggested to have predictive value for the occurrence of TTO. Objective To determine the incidence of TTO and its predictors. Methods We performed a cohort study, using a parental web-based questionnaire to retrospectively collect data on TTO episodes and its potential predictors from children younger than 10 years of age with tympanostomy tubes. Results Of the 1,184 children included in analyses (total duration of time since tube placement was 768 person years with a mean of 7.8 months per child), 616 children (52%) experienced one or more episodes of TTO. 137 children (12%) had TTO within the calendar month of tube placement. 597 (50%) children had one or more acute TTO episodes (duration <4 weeks) and 46 children (4%) one or more chronic TTO episodes (duration ≥4 weeks). 146 children (12%) experienced recurrent TTO episodes. Accounting for time since tube placement, 67% of children developed one or more TTO episodes in the year following tube placement. Young age, recurrent acute otitis media being the indication for tube placement, a recent history of recurrent upper respiratory tract infections and the presence of older siblings were independently associated with the future occurrence of TTO, and can therefore be seen as predictors for TTO. Conclusions Our survey confirms that otorrhea is a common sequela in children with tympanostomy tubes, which occurrence can be predicted by age, medical history and presence of older siblings.
Predictors of short-term course in Mexican first-episode psychosis patients
Gómez-de-Regil, Lizzette;Kwapil, Thomas R.;Rosado-Franco, Arsenio;Barrantes-Vidal, Neus;
Salud mental , 2010,
Abstract: background and objectives the identification of prognostic factors in patients with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders should enhance our understanding of the aetiology of these disorders and improve their treatment. the first years following an initial episode of psychosis are a <> for biological and psychosocial influences that affect future outcome. both, short-term outcome and baseline predictors, have been defined by different measures, making the comparison among studies difficult. studies of the predictive value of baseline demographic and clinical characteristics in the mexican population are still limited. hence, the present study aims to: 1. replicate the prognostic value of selected patient characteristics previously related to the short-term course of psychosis in mexican first-episode psychosis patients, and 2. retrospectively assess their prognostic value in the prediction of diagnosis, presence of psychotic residual symptoms, and number of psychotic episodes at least three-years later. methods information on baseline predictor variables (sociodemographic, premorbid phase, context of the first episode, dimensions of psychopathology) and clinical outcome (diagnosis, residual symptomatology, psychotic episodes) was obtained from the clinical records of 51 patients with a short-term course of psychosis and whose available follow-up period was at least three years long (mean = 5.8,sd = 2.1). results poor premorbid adjustment and hospitalization at first psychotic episode were significant predictors of a schizophrenia diagnosis. lower educational level and an insidious type of onset significantly predicted the presence of residual symptoms. hospitalization at first psychotic episode and higher scores on the psychotic dimension at onset significantly predicted subsequent psychotic episodes. discussion low educational level increased the risk of residual symptoms, possibly because it hinders treatment continuity. poor premorbid adj
Childhood and adolescent predictors of leisure time physical activity during the transition from adolescence to adulthood: a population based cohort study
Kim A Jose, Leigh Blizzard, Terry Dwyer, Charlotte McKercher, Alison J Venn
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-54
Abstract: Childhood and adolescent data (at ages 7-15 years) were collected as part of the 1985 Australian Health and Fitness Survey and subdivided into sociodemographics (socioeconomic status, parental education), behavioral (smoking, alcohol, sports diversity, outside school sports), sociocultural (active father, active mother, any older siblings, any younger siblings, language spoken at home), attitudinal (sports/recreational competency, self-rated health, enjoyment physical education/physical activity, not enjoying school sports) and physical (BMI, time taken to run 1.6 km, long jump) factors. Physical activity between the ages 15 and 29 years was reported retrospectively using the Historical Leisure Activity Questionnaire at follow-up in 2004-2006 by 2,048 participants in the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study (CDAH). Australia's physical activity recommendations for children and adults were used to categorize participants as persistently active, variably active or persistently inactive during the transition from adolescence to adulthood.For females, perceived sports competency in childhood and adolescence was significantly associated with being persistently active (RR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.39, 2.55). Smoking (RR = 0.31 CI = 0.12, 0.82) and having younger siblings (RR = 0.69 CI = 0.52, 0.93) were inversely associated with being persistently active after taking physical and attitudinal factors into account. For males, playing sport outside school (RR = 1.47 CI = 1.05, 2.08), having active fathers (RR = 1.25 CI = 1.01, 1.54) and not enjoying school sport (RR = 4.07 CI = 2.31, 7.17) were associated with being persistently active into adulthood. Time taken to complete the 1.6 km run was inversely associated with being persistently active into adulthood (RR = 0.85 CI = 0.78, 0.93) after adjusting for recreational competency.Perceived sports competency (females) and cardiorespiratory fitness, playing sport outside school and having active fathers (males) in childhood an
The wider social environment and changes in self-reported quality of life in the transition from late childhood to early adolescence: a cohort study
Marjan Drukker, Charles Kaplan, Josien Schneiders, Frans JM Feron, Jim van Os
BMC Public Health , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-6-133
Abstract: A cohort of adolescents living in Maastricht (The Netherlands), with a mean age of 11.2 years at baseline and of 13.5 years at follow-up was followed. Adolescents who responded both at baseline and at follow-up were included in the analysis (n = 475). Multilevel regression analyses estimated neighbourhood effects while controlling for individual-level effects. Neighbourhood-level socioeconomic and social capital variables, individual-level confounders, and baseline values of the outcome measures were included in the models.None of the neighbourhood factors was associated with changes in general health or mental health over the two-year period. However, two-year exposure to greater disparity between individual level socioeconomic status on the one hand and neighbourhood level of socioeconomic status on the other (e.g. high socioeconomic status adolescents living in deprived neighbourhoods and vice versa) negatively impacted on self-esteem and satisfaction.The neighbourhood environment per se does not contribute to change in quality of life during the transition to early adolescence. However, adolescents living in families whose socioeconomic status deviates from the mean level of neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation may be negatively affected.Previous cross-sectional research has demonstrated associations between neighbourhood factors and adolescent well-being, mental health and smoking initiation [1-3]. However, in order to make causal inferences longitudinal studies are required. In addition, the time window over which neighbourhood impacts on development is unknown. Effects demonstrated in adolescence may be evidence of an exposure that originated in childhood. Alternatively, neighbourhood effects may impact cumulatively over the developmental course with effects increasing linearly with exposure time. Previously, a longitudinal study [4] reported increasing youth-reported behavioural problems (YSR) between the ages of 11 and 13 years in socioeconomically depri
Overall and worst gleason scores are equally good predictors of prostate cancer progression
Teemu T Tolonen, Paula M Kujala, Teuvo LJ Tammela, Vilppu J Tuominen, Jorma J Isola, Tapio Visakorpi
BMC Urology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2490-11-21
Abstract: The study material consisted of needle biopsies from 236 prostate cancer patients that were endocrine-treated in 1999-2003. Biopsies from left side and right side were embedded separately. Haematoxylin-eosin-stained slides were scanned and analyzed on web-based virtual microscopy. Worst and overall Gleason scores were assessed according to the modified Gleason score schema after analyzing each biopsy separately. The compound Gleason scores (CGS) were obtained from the original pathology reports. Two different grade groupings were used: GS 6 or less vs. 7 vs. 8 or above; and GS 7(3 + 4) or less vs. 7(4 + 3) and 8 vs. 9-10. The prognostic ability of the three scoring methods to predict biochemical progression was compared with Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses.The median follow-up time of the patients was 64.5 months (range 0-118). The modified GS criteria led to upgrading of the Gleason sums compared to the original CGS from the pathology reports 1999-2003 (mean 7.0 for CGS, 7.5 for OGS, 7.6 for WGS). In 43 cases WGS was > OGS. In a univariate analysis the relative risks were 2.1 (95%-confidence interval 1.8-2.4) for CGS, 2.5 (2.1-2.8) for OGS, and 2.6 (2.2-2.9) for WGS. In a multivariate analysis, OGS was the only independent prognostic factor.All of the three Gleason scoring methods are strong predictors of biochemical recurrence. The use of modified Gleason scoring leads to upgrading of GS, but also improves the prognostic value of the scoring. No significant prognostic differences between OGS and WGS could be shown, which may relate to the apparent narrowing of the GS scale from 2-10 to 5-10 due to the recent modifications.Grading of prostatic needle biopsies has undergone several refinements in the last decade. First, Epstein suggested that a diagnosis of Gleason score (GS) 2 + 2 = 4 cancer should not be made on the needle biopsies, because subsequent radical specimens showed upgrading in virtually all cases [
Cancer during Adolescence: Negative and Positive Consequences Reported Three and Four Years after Diagnosis  [PDF]
Gunn Engvall, Martin Cernvall, Gunnel Larsson, Louise von Essen, Elisabet Mattsson
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029001
Abstract: Persons diagnosed with cancer during adolescence have reported negative and positive cancer-related consequences two years after diagnosis. The overall aim was to longitudinally describe negative and positive cancer-related consequences reported by the same persons three and four years after diagnosis. A secondary aim was to explore whether reports of using vs. not using certain coping strategies shortly after diagnosis are related to reporting or not reporting certain consequences four years after diagnosis. Thirty-two participants answered questions about coping strategies shortly after diagnosis and negative and positive consequences three and four years after diagnosis. Answers about consequences were analysed with content analysis, potential relations between coping strategies and consequences were analysed by Fisher's exact test. The great majority reported negative and positive consequences three and four years after diagnosis and the findings indicate stability over time with regard to perceived consequences during the extended phase of survival. Findings reveal a potential relation between seeking information shortly after diagnosis and reporting a more positive view of life four years after diagnosis and not using fighting spirit shortly after diagnosis and not reporting good self-esteem and good relations four years after diagnosis. It is concluded that concomitant negative and positive cancer-related consequences appear stable over time in the extended phase of survival and that dialectical forces of negative and positive as well as distress and growth often go hand-in-hand after a trauma such as cancer during adolescence.
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