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Quantification of Flavonoids in Brazilian Orange Peels and Industrial Orange Juice Processing Wastes  [PDF]
Regina M. S. Pereira, Bego?a Giménez-Cassina López, Susana N. Diniz, Alyne Alexandrino Antunes, Daniel Moreno Garcia, Carlos Rocha Oliveira, Maria Cristina Marcucci
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/as.2017.87048
The flavonoid content in orange peels of different Brazilian citrus varieties such as bahia, lima, lima-of-persian, morcote, pera, ponkan, seleta, cravo, kinkan and pomelo was assessed. Industry processing juice wastes such as bagasse, bagasse residues, animal feeding bagasse, pulp WEUE and CORE-wash were also analyzed. The HPLC analysis indicates that the most abundant flavonoids found in these Brazilian citrus peels are hesperidin and naringin. The solvents used are selective for flavonoid extraction, and depending on their polarity, glycoside or aglycone flavonoids are extracted. The use of multivariate analysis shows that DMSO is the best solvent to extract glycosides flavanones while hexane displays high selectivity in the extraction of polymethoxylated flavones. The flavonoids present in the orange wastes, obtained at different stages of the industrial processing, are qualitative and quantitatively different. The identification and quantification of the flavonoid composition in each Brazilian citrus variety were evaluated and allowed the selection of the best solvent for the extraction of each specific class of flavonoids. These compounds were found to be more abundant in the fruit peels than in their juices, revealing their great industrial potential. The residual portion of the processing juices is also rich in flavonoids, depending on the processing step.
Orange and pineapple wastes as potential substrates for citric acid production  [cached]
Olubukola Kuforiji,Adunola Oluseye Kuboye,Sunday Ayodele Odunfa
International Journal of Plant Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/pb.2010.e4
Abstract: Orange (pulp) and pineapple wastes were used as substrates for citric acid production by two strains of Aspergillus niger. A. niger strains NRRL 567 and 328 produced the maximum amount of citric acid (57.6% and 55.4%, respectively) at a moisture content of 38.9% in orange waste and the highest yields of 46.4% and 45.4% citric acid in pineapple waste at moisture contents of 54.4% and 63.4 %, respectively. The addition of 1-3% methanol to the substrates resulted in reduction in yield in both cases.
Optimization of Saponification Process for Orange and Apple Wastes  [PDF]
K. N. Ghimire,K. Inoue
Journal of Nepal Chemical Society , 2007, DOI: 10.3126/jncs.v22i0.521
Abstract: A cheap, efficient and environmentally friendly bio-adsorbent is prepared from orange and apple juice residue by saponification process. The measure of adsorption capacity of such adsorbent is its total amount of exchangeable protons which differs drastically depending on the conditions of saponification. The most optimum condition of saponification process rendered exchangeable protons of about 2.6 mol/kg. The adsorption of heavy metal ions like lead, iron and copper has examined on the prepared bio-adsorbent at different pH values. DOI: 10.3126/jncs.v22i0.521 Journal of Nepal Chemical Society Vol. 22,2007 pp. 41-46
Heterogeneous Fenton process using steel industry wastes for methyl orange degradation
Mohamed E. M. Ali,Tarek A. Gad-Allah,Mohamed I. Badawy
Applied Water Science , 2013, DOI: 10.1007/s13201-013-0078-1
Abstract: Steel industry wastes (iron-containing waste) could be used as a Fenton-catalyst for the decolorization of methyl orange dye. Various reaction conditions were investigated including catalyst concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration and pH value. The obtained results indicated that the dye degradation rate increases with increasing catalyst and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations and with decreasing pH value. Over 98 % decolorization of the dye was achieved within 30 min at optimum reaction conditions; 200 mg/L catalyst and 34 mM H2O2 concentrations at pH 2 for 20 mg/L initial dye concentration. Reaction kinetics was also carried out to determine the order of reaction in both catalyst and H2O2 concentrations. Stability and reusability of Iron-containing waste were investigated. The iron-containing waste as catalyst can be reused several times with nearly same efficiency of Fenton-like oxidation of MO.
Recovery of Biomolecules from Food Wastes — A Review  [PDF]
Antonietta Baiano
Molecules , 2014, DOI: 10.3390/molecules190914821
Abstract: Food wastes are produced by a variety of sources, ranging from agricultural operations to household consumption. About 38% occurs during food processing. At present, the European Union legislation encourages the exploitation of co-products. This valorisation can be achieved through the extraction of high-value components such as proteins, polysaccharides, fibres, flavour compounds, and phytochemicals, which can be re-used as nutritionally and pharmacologically functional ingredients. Extraction can proceed according to solid-liquid extraction, Soxhlet extraction, pressurized fluid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field extraction, and enzyme-assisted extraction. Nevertheless, these techniques cannot be used indiscriminately and their choice depends on the type of biomolecules and matrix, the scale processing (laboratory or industrial), the ratio between production costs and economic values of the compounds to be extracted. The vegetable wastes include trimmings, peelings, stems, seeds, shells, bran, residues remaining after extraction of oil, starch, sugar, and juice. The animal-derived wastes include wastes from bred animals, wastes from seafood, wastes from dairy processing. The recovered biomolecules and by-products can be used to produce functional foods or as adjuvants in food processing or in medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations. This work is an overview of the type and amounts of food wastes; food waste legislation; conventional and novel techniques suitable for extracting biomolecules; food, medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of the recovered biomolecules and by-products, and future trends in these areas.
Citric acid production from orange peel wastes by solid-state fermentation
Torrado, Ana María;Cortés, Sandra;Salgado, José Manuel;Max, Belén;Rodríguez, Noelia;Bibbins, Belinda P;Converti, Attilio;Domínguez, José Manuel;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822011000100049
Abstract: valencia orange (citrus sinensis) peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (ca) by solid-state fermentation (ssf) of aspergillus niger cect-2090 (atcc 9142, nrrl 599) in erlenmeyer flasks. to investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculum concentration was varied in the range 0.5·103 to 0.7·108 spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume), and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (mwrc) of the material. moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. the optimal conditions for ca production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·106 spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % mwrc at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 ml h2o/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the mwrc) every 12 h starting from 62 h. the addition of methanol was detrimental for the ca production. under these conditions, the ssf ensured an effective specific production of ca (193 mg ca/g dry orange peel), corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) of 376 and 383 mg ca/g, respectively. these results, which demonstrate the viability of the ca production by ssf from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications.
Altaf Halim Basta,Magdy Z. Safain,Iman El-Rewainy
BioResources , 2011,
Abstract: Rice straw (RS) and sawdust (SD) were evaluated for the manufacturing of fiber-cement bricks. The utilization of these bio-wastes will contribute to the reduction of the environmental impact of waste disposal. Pre-treating the fiber wastes, mechanically and/or chemically, was carried out before mixing them with cement and the appropriate amount of water. This approach was done for trials to reduce the tendency of fibers to absorb water, and consequently overcome the side effects of exposing the fiber-bricks to humidity. Different chemical treating agents, based on organic and inorganic materials, were used, e.g., gelatin-hexamine mixture, sodium silicate, and linseed oil. The results obtained show that the investigated organic treatments, especially linseed oil, were effective to reduce the water retention value (WRV) of RS and SD by 60% and 65%, respectively. The treatment provided bricks with compressive strengths of 4.9 MPa and 5.4 MPa, respectively. According to the Engineering Encyclopedia of Building standards, these values are suitable for construction purposes. The bricks manufactured from linseed oil-treated fibers with cement and Nitobond AR may be suited for load-bearing walls, since the compressive strength reached is 7.8 to 8.6 MPa.
Zinc recovery from iron and steel making wastes by conventional and microwave assisted leaching
Ján Vere?,?tefan Jakabsky,Michal Lovás
Acta Montanistica Slovaca , 2011,
Abstract: Significant quantities of sludge and dust are generated as a waste material or byproduct every day from iron and steel industries.Nowadays The occurrence and recovery of metallurgical wastes from steelmaking and iron making processes is a great problem, mainlydue to the big amount and environmental pollution of these wastes by heavy metals. The future technology of fine-grain metallurgicalwastes treatment is mainly the thing of ecological and financial limits. This work explains the removal of zinc from blast furnace sludgeby hydrometallurgical process. The aim of this work was to carry out a chemical, physical, structural, and morphologicalcharacterization of these waste materials and subsequently to find out the best suitable method for the hydrometallurgical treatment.The experimental work includes full plant experiments. Extraction conditions such as the effect of microwave power, leaching agent,acid concentration, S/L ratio and extraction time on the zinc removal efficiency were evaluated. The main goal is to set the bestconditions to transfer zinc into the solution while the iron should to remain in the solid phase.
Factors affecting yeast growth and protein yield production from orange, plantain and banana wastes processing residues using Candida sp.
A Adoki
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Agricultural residues rich in carbohydrates can be utilized in fermentation proceses to produce microbial protein which in turn can be used to upgrade both human and animal feeds. Studies to determine the factors influencing cell biomass production with Candida sp. using citrus fruit wastes showed that the test strain was capable of meeting its amino acid requirements in culture when supplied with inorganic nitrogen sources. The organism was capable of growth at 37°C. Supplementation of media with 0 – 15% and 0 - 6% w/v combination of dextrose and ammonium nitrate, respectively, resulted in optimal growth at a pH of 4.6 (optimum pH) after 6.0 h. However, supplementation with phosphorus was not a critical condition for growth.
Purification and characterization of pectinmethylesterase from Aspergillus repens isolated from cultivated soil
DJ Arotupin, FA Akinyosoye, AK Onifade
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Aspergillus repens isolated from cultivated soils released pectinmethylesterase (PME) into the liquid culture medium during growth. The enzyme preparation was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysed. The ammonium sulphate-dialysate fraction of the enzyme was separated by molecular exclusion and ion exchange chromatography. The molecular weight of the enzyme was found to be 141,300 daltons. The optimum temperature for PME activity was 30oC and most active at pH 6.5. The activity of the enzyme was stimulated by Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Zn2+, while EDTA, PbCl2, HgCl2 and IAA inhibited enzyme activity. The activity of the enzyme increased with increase in substrate concentration reaching maximum at 4 mg/ml. The Lineweaver-Burk plot for the hydrolysis of pectin indicated approximately 1.3 mg/ml. These qualities could be explored during the industrial applications of this enzyme.
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