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Hydro-Geophysical Investigations for the Purposes of Groundwater Artificial Recharge in Wadi Al-Butum Area, Jordan  [PDF]
Hani Al-Amoush
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.47059
Abstract: In this article, the potential for artificial groundwater recharge of Wadi Al-Butum catchments area - Jordan is studied, using geoelectrical resistivity surveys and hydro geochemical methods with the aim of storing some of surface water during flood events times to be recharged in the groundwater as an essential part of integrated water resources management. The results of geoelectrical surveys show the existence of potential zones of alluvial deposits to store and recharge the groundwater aquifers. The hydro-geochemical modeling results show an overall upgrading of the original groundwater quality could be expected.
Availability of Surface Water of Wadi Rajil as a Source of Groundwater Artificial Recharge: A Case Study of Eastern Badia /Jordan  [cached]
Rakad A. Ta'any
Current World Environment , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12944/cwe.8.2.04
Abstract: Wadi Rajil catchment area is considered as one of the major wadis entering the Azraq Basin from the north. It is ungauged wadi and covers an area of about 3910km2. The annual average rainfall on Wadi Rajil catchment area is about 126.6mm. Heavy thunderstorms occur in April and May, causing significant floods covering the area. The flood waters are not utilized, and a small portion infiltrates into the ground, where the great portion of these waters remain over Qaa’ Azraqfew months before evaporation. Due to the absence of the hydrometric stream flow station, no data are available about surface water runoff in Wadi Rajil catchment area. Therefore, the first part of this study calculates the surface water potential of Wadi Rajil to be utilized for groundwater artificial recharge, applying the SCS curvilinear synthetic unit hydrograph method. The synthesis unit hydrograph of Wadi Rajil catchment is characterized by a peak value of 1146 m3/s (4047 cfs) per one inch of rainfall excess. Flood hydrographs for 10,25,50, and 100 years return periods were derived and their peak flow are found to be 10,8,186,412, and 680 m3/s, respectively and the corresponding flood volumes are 0.95, 16.53, 36.89, and 61.5 MCM, respectively.Groundwater artificial recharge conditions are suitably prevailing in the most northern and central part of the catchment area, whereas, geological, Hydrogeological, and water quality characteristics of the floodwater encourage artificial replenishment of the exploited aquifer in the study area.
Hydrodynamic Investigation and Numerical Simulation of Intermittent and Ephemeral Flows in Semi-Arid Regions: Wadi Mekerra, Algeria
Khaled Korichi, , Abdelkrim Hazzab
Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics , 2012, DOI: 10.2478/v10098-012-0011-6
Abstract: Semi-arid regions are characterized by important infrequent rainfall. They often occur in early autumn and give rise to devastating floods. Flooding problems at Wadi Mekerra, located in the Sidi Bel Abbes town (Northwest Algeria), was traditionally the main concern of researchers and government officials. In this work, the magnitude of raging flood wave in the studied catchment and the principal causes are discussed. After this, we present the main hydromorphometric features and the results of numerical simulations of flood wave. This simulation is done by using finite volume shock capturing schemes. It concerns applying the first order Godunov scheme and the second order Monotonic Central scheme. The Manning roughness coefficient was used as a calibration parameter. The comparison of numerical results with observed data confirms more stability and accuracy of applied numerical schemes in rising limb phase than in the falling limb phase. These results provide information on flood forecasting and monitoring of changes in the magnitude of the flow in Wadi Mekerra.
Environmental factors affecting the distribution of Chironomid larvae of the Seybouse wadi, North-Eastern Algeria  [cached]
Nadjla Chaib,Zineb Bouhala,Lilia Fouzari,Laura Marziali
Journal of Limnology , 2013, DOI: 10.4081/jlimnol.2013.e16
Abstract: A survey of the Seybouse wadi (North-Eastern Algeria) between 2008 and 2011 was conducted in 26 sampling sites located on the main river and its tributaries using chironomids. From 3264 collected larvae, forty-five chironomid species were identified, and were correlated to 13 environmental variables to predict determinant factors affecting their distribution. Indicator value (IndVal) analysis was first performed to determine indicator chironomid species according to several factors (sites, seasons, source distance, granulometry, conductivity, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, water velocity, pollution and the abundance of filamentous algae). Co-inertia analysis (CoIA) supported the IndVal results, emphasising an upstream/downstream gradient in the first axis, while a granulometry gradient was emphasised by the second axis. A pollution gradient was also highlighted in the plane of the first two axes, separating tolerant Chironomus sp. 1, Cricotopus bicinctus and Cricotopus (Isocladius) sylvestris from intolerant species as Phaenopsectra flavipes, Rheotanytarsus sp.1 and Cladotanytarsus sp. 1.
Environmental determinants of diatom assemblages along a North African wadi, the Kebir-East, North-East Algeria  [cached]
Journal of Limnology , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/jlimnol.2011.33
Abstract: A total of 322 benthic diatoms with the majority being cosmopolitan species was recorded during a survey of the catchment area of the Kebir-East wadi, northeast Algeria. The spatial distribution patterns of diatom communities in relation to environmental gradients were examined using Co-Inertia Analysis (CIA) for ascertaining the interdependence between physico-chemical descriptors and diatom assemblages in 182 samples, collected over a period of 3 years, across 23 sampling stations. There was a significant covariance between the environmental data set and the benthic diatom data set with the CIA highlighting correlations between environmental factors and diatom species. A clear longitudinal gradient was a main driver of diatom communities with upstream sites characterized by high dissolved oxygen concentrations and downstream sites characterized by high organic load and nutrient enrichment of the water. A further factor influencing the shape of diatom assemblages was related to the conductivity, and the high values possibly reflected the close proximity of the sea to the downstream sites. An anthropogenic impact was also most evident in structuring diatom assemblages at sites close to Lake Oube ra where agriculture was concentrated.
Evaluation of Groundwater Quality and its Recharge by Isotopes and Solute Chemistry in Wadi Malal, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Saudi Arabia  [PDF]
Omar. A. Al-Harbi,Ghulam Hussain,M. Mujtaba Khan,Mohammaed A. Moallim
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: The present study was conducted to determine groundwater chemistry, ascertain quality of water for various uses (domestic and agriculture) and define recharge sources of environmental isotopes in Wadi Malal, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Saudi Arabia. Evaluation of water quality revealed that salinity and nitrate concentration are much higher than the established standards for various uses (so to say: irrigation and drinking etc.). Generally, the groundwater has been salinized by the equilibrium of infiltrated rainwater with slight soluble minerals in the regolith and evapoconcentration of groundwater that has been used for irrigation. Well waters in Wadi Malal along its flow path are too saline and the nitrate levels are too high to be used as drinking water. The salinity and sodicity levels in about 80% of the surveyed well waters are sufficiently high, when used for irrigation, to pose constraints on soil, crop and water management. Based on the concentration of the environmental isotopes (Deuterium and Oxygen-18) coupled with different ratios of NO3/Cl and HCO3/Cl, the primary source of the groundwater is rainfall that has occurred during the last 100-200 years with slight fractionation process in the water system.
Geophysical Investigation Using Time Domain Electromagnetic Method (TDEM) at Wadi Deir Al-Kahaf Area/Jordan for Groundwater Artificial Recharge Purposes  [PDF]
Hani Al-Amoush, Eid Al-Tarazi, Jafar Abu Rajab, Younis Al-Dwyeek, Mohammed Al-Atrash, Ahmed Shudiefat
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.73012
Abstract: In this study, Ten Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) measuring points have been conducted at four pre-selected sites along Wadi Deir Al-Kahaf in order to investigate the potential of the near subsurface deposits and aquifer for groundwater artificial recharge applications. The surveyed results suggest well resolved geological layers such as alluvial mudflat, basalt layers and their saturation states. In addition a hydrogeophysical cross section along the studied sites was constructed which permits to locate the lateral variations in rock properties due to water saturation and or facies changes. The saturated thickness of the Upper Aquifer System in the study area was found to be changed from 5 m near TEM 1 to about 120 m near TEM 4 in thickness. The Abed Basalt Aquifer (AOB) has an average saturation thickness of about ~60 m, and forming the main aquifer (~100 m thickness) near surface to the north of the study area. TEM-3 and TEM-4 sites were found to be potential sites for groundwater artificial recharge based on the constructed hydro-geophysical model. This study recommends implementing detailed geophysical investigations particularly in the most northern parts of the study area.
Flash Floods and Groundwater Recharge Potentials in Arid Land Alluvial Basins, Southern Red Sea Coast, Egypt  [PDF]
F. Abdalla, I. El Shamy, A. O. Bamousa, A. Mansour, A. Mohamed, M. Tahoon
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2014.59083

Flash flooding is one of the periodic geohazards in the southern Red Sea Coast. However, their freshwaters are the main source of recharging alluvial and fractured aquifers. This paper presents hydrological and geomorphologic classification of Wadi El-Gemal, Wadi Umm El-Abas, Wadi Abu Ghuson and Wadi Lahmi, along the southeastern Red Sea Coast in Egypt. The main goal is to find a relationship of flash floods and groundwater recharge potentials. Satellite imageries and topographic data were analysed via remote sensing and GIS techniques. The main four valleys’ orders range from six to seven. Wadi El-Gemal was the main focus of this study; it is characterized by high stream frequency, low stream density and coarse texture, reflecting influence of highly fractured Precambrian rocks. Most of the wadis have umbrella-shaped catchment areas, due to the influence of NW-SE Najd Fault System and late E-W strike-slip faults. The main wadis were divided into 45 sub-basins. 14 of the studied sub-basins flow into Wadi El-Gemal, 7 flow into Wadi Umm El-Abas, 10 are in Abu Ghuson, and rest of the basins flow into WadiLahmi. A conceptual model was used in this study, showing that most of the sub-basins have high flash flooding and low groundwater recharge potentials. However, only two sub-basins have low potential of flooding and high potential of groundwater recharge, whereas few sub-basins have moderate potential of groundwater recharge as well as flooding. For flash floods beneficiation and mitigation, construction of multifunctional embankment dams is imminent.

Hydrochemical and Isotopic Characteristics of the Basement Aquifer in the Wadi Fira Area, Eastern Chad  [PDF]
Hamza B. Mahamat, Mathieu Le Coz, Hamit Abderamane, Paul Sardini, Moumtaz Razack
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2017.913105
Abstract: The Wadi-Fira region in eastern Chad is facing dramatic water supply problems, related to the climatic semi-arid context and the reception of refugees from the Darfour, which has increased the local population by 22% these last years. Expansion of agglomerations (temporary new towns), development of agricultural and pastoral practices together with the augmentation of the population have led to dramatic water needs. The basement aquifer of Wadi-Fira constitutes the main source of water supply. However, little is known about this system. Within this context, this work aims at better understanding and identifying hydrogeochemical processes and their relations to groundwater quality within this complex environment, and groundwater recharge mechanisms. 31 groundwater samples were collected at two sites, Am Zoer and Guereda-Iriba, from hand dug wells and deep wells. Major chemical elements were analyzed on all samples and stables isotopes (oxygen-18 and deuterium) on 17 samples. Various methods were used to interpret the hydrochemical data (descriptive and multivariate statistics, Piper and Schoeller diagrams, scatter plots, minerals saturation indices). The stable isotopes were interpreted using conventional IAEA methods. The results permitted to differentiate the laterite reservoir from the deep fractured reservoir. The main process controlling groundwater mineralization is water-rocks interaction and natural minerals dissolution. Ion exchanges, evaporation and anthropogenic activities have also a moderate impact on groundwater quality. Based on isotopes data, it is concluded that groundwater in the basement aquifer is related with modern rainfall. These results provide further insights into this basement aquifer, which is a vital resource for the region of Wadi-Fira.
G-WADI—the first decade
W. Mike Edmunds,Ramasamy Jayakumar,Anil Mishr,Abdin Salih,Soroosh Sorooshian,Howard S. Wheater,William Logan
寒旱区科学 , 2013,
Abstract: The G-WADI network by UNESCO promotes the global capacity for management of water resources in arid and semi-arid areas. The primary aim has been to build a comprehensive global network to promote regional and international cooperation so as to increase knowledge and improve management practices through the sharing of information. The G-WADI objectives and achievements of the past 10 years are reviewed. A number of key initiatives have been implemented––the formation of five regional networks, the creation of a central G-WADI web site, promotion of near-real-time rainfall distribution software enhanced by the inclusion of satellite based precipitation estimations, as well as workshop and web-based activities on chemical and isotopic tracers and on rain water harvesting. Two workshops on surface and on groundwater modeling, supported by publications have been held in India and China. The Asian G-WADI network remains very active, but activities in the other three regions are developing (Africa, Arab Region, Latin America and the Caribbean).
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