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Volcanosedimentary Basins in the Arabian-Nubian Shield: Markers of Repeated Exhumation and Denudation in a Neoproterozoic Accretionary Orogen  [PDF]
Peter R. Johnson,Galen P. Halverson,Timothy M. Kusky,Robert J. Stern,Victoria Pease
Geosciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/geosciences3030389
Abstract: The Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) includes Middle Cryogenian-Ediacaran (790–560 Ma) sedimentary and volcanic terrestrial and shallow-marine successions unconformable on juvenile Cryogenian crust. The oldest were deposited after 780–760 Ma shearing and suturing in the central ANS. Middle Cryogenian basins are associated with ~700 Ma suturing in the northern ANS. Late Cryogenian basins overlapped with and followed 680–640 Ma Nabitah orogenesis in the eastern ANS. Ediacaran successions are found in pull-apart and other types of basins formed in a transpressive setting associated with E-W shortening, NW-trending shearing, and northerly extension during final amalgamation of the ANS. Erosion surfaces truncating metamorphosed arc rocks at the base of these successions are evidence of periodic exhumation and erosion of the evolving ANS crust. The basins are evidence of subsequent subsidence to the base level of alluvial systems or below sea level. Mountains were dissected by valley systems, yet relief was locally low enough to allow for seaways connected to the surrounding Mozambique Ocean. The volcanosedimentary basins of the ANS are excellently exposed and preserved, and form a world-class natural laboratory for testing concepts about crustal growth during the Neoproterozoic and for the acquisition of data to calibrate chemical and isotopic changes, at a time in geologic history that included some of the most important, rapid, and enigmatic changes to Earth’s environment and biota.
The numerical modeling of the formation and evolution of rifted continental margin
张裂大陆边缘形成演化的数值模拟

CHEN Lin,SONG Hai-Bin,XU He-Hua,LIU Hong,
陈林

地球物理学报 , 2009,
Abstract: On the basis of the isoviscous corner flow model, we established upwelling divergent mantle flow field. When this flow field acts on the base of continental lithosphere, the deformation and thinning of continental lithosphere leading to breakup and the initiation of sea-floor spreading can be described. The numerical modeling results indicate that lithosphere behaves as depth-dependent stretching manifested as stretching factors from different depth are different, and the surface heat significantly increases in response to an upwelling divergent mantle flow. The isostatic adjustment due to the mantle flow-induced thermal disturbance leads to surface subsidence; meanwhile, the thermal disturbance reduces the rheological strength of lithosphere, especially at deformation center. The critical depth of brittle deformation is reduced and the range of ductile deformation becomes larger significantly. This deformation finally evolves into continental breakup, mantle exhumation, and the formation of sea-floor spreading and rifted continental margin under the continuing impact of upwelling divergent mantle flow.
Use of the GIS (Geographic Information Systems) in Determining Realtionship between Geology, Structures and Mineral Prospects, Southern Part of the Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia  [PDF]
Mustafa M. Hariri
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: GIS can be utilized in geology in different fields among them; mineral and petroleum exploration, geological mapping and reconnaissance, environmental studies, and in hydrogeological modeling. In mineral exploration the GIS is used to define a set of characteristics of specific mineral deposit that might be used as a guide to similar deposits in the region. An example is being the spatial relation of igneous intrusions and / or geological structures to the mineral prospect locations. This study aimed at using the GIS to find out the relationship of the different geological features through the layers (coverages). These features include faults, intrusions and mineral locations in the Southern Arabian Shield. Coverages (layers) for the digitized material were created using ARC INFO and consequently edited, cleaned and built. Coverages were also imported and exported in order to be read by ARC VIEW. Results of study indicated an excellent association of the faults and other structures to the known mineral locations. Positive correlation can also be concluded from the spatial distribution of the mineral locations and igneous intrusions. These results may imply that igneous intrusions and structural features control mineralizations. The conclusion can help in discorving mineralizaiton in similar geological and structural setting within the Arabian Shield area.
Measurements of Natural Radioactivity of Industrial Raw Materials from the West of Saudi Arabia (Arabian Shield)  [PDF]
Safia H. Q. Hamidalddin
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.64055
Abstract: Rock samples of industrial raw materials that are used in the building, from the West of Saudi Arabia (Arabian Shield), have been investigated using X-ray diffraction to identify the mineral chemical composition. The concentrations of Al%, Bi, Pb, Th, U, and K in ppm were measured by atomic absorption analysis. The activity concentrations in Bq/kg dry weight of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry where the range and average were found to be (03.04 - 10.91) 07.90, (03.19 - 13.31) 09.14 and (95.59 - 361.52) 234.81 in Basalt, for Granite (33.81 - 89.13) 80.85, (28.42 - 112.77) 68.50 and (1260.13 - 1629.21) 1376.69, for Gold (00.78 - 11.84) 04.73, (01.48 - 4.69) 02.69 and (13.76 - 445.09) 197.58, for Andesite 05.72, 03.73 and 471.93, and for Marble 01.56, 01.38 and 10.15 respectively. Most results existing within the given values in building materials by UNSCEAR 1993 included Raeq (Bq/kg), D (nGy/h), Deff (mSv/y), Hex and Hin, which meant that it was safe for humans.
Petrographic Characterization of the Different Types of Basalts of Harrat Al Fatih, Ablah Area, West Central Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia  [PDF]
Abdullah R. Sonbul, Ali A. Mesaed
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2017.76060
Abstract: Harrat Al Fatih is located southwest of Ablah area, Assir terrain, southwestern Arabian Shield. It is present as black laterally extended horizontal basaltic sheet just overlying folded strata of the volcano-sedimentary succession of Ablah Formation (green mudstones, dolostones and green and red volcaniclastic red beds). These basalts are rift-related and represent part of the Oligo-Miocene basic volcanics of the western part of Saudi Arabia. The detailed field and microscopic description of these basalts enable the author to classify it into two main types: 1) Grey tuffaceous glassy basalts that present overlying the Ablah Formation. This basalt type is generally soft, bedded and intercalated with grey, green and red tuffaceous mudstones. Microscopically it composed of minute lath-like plagioclase and pyroxene crystals embedded in glassy groundmass. 2) Black olivine-rich basalts which are present in the topmost part of harrat Al Fatih are generally black, hard and contain remarkable reddish brown oxidized olivine spots and some calcite and amorphous quartz domains. Under the microscope, this basalt type is microcrystalline and composed mainly of lamellar twined Ca-plagioclase and colored olivines and pyroxenes. The olivines show different stages of oxidation and formation of amorphous blood red iron-oxyhydroxides and black hematite. The present study revealed the formation of the grey basalts at the initial stages of the volcanic eruption in ephemeral lakes and the second type of basalt was during the consolidation of proper basic magmas at the final stages of the volcanic eruption.
Hydrogeology of Wadi Qudaid Area, Northeast Jeddah, West Central Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia  [PDF]
Abdullah R. Sonbul, Mohammed A. Sharaf, Ali A. Mesaed
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2017.712117
Abstract: The study area is a part of the Arabian Shield rocks of west central part of Saudi Arabia (150 km to the northeast of Jeddah). Geologically, the study area comprises five main geologic units i.e. 1) Layered basic volcanics and related volcaniclastics which are composed mainly from intercalated basalts and andesites and the related volcaniclastic derivatives, 2) Acidic volcanics and related volcaniclastics which are composed from layered and laminated dark and light acidic to intermediate igneous rocks, quartz and chert and marbles, 3) The Tertiary sedimentary succession which of volcaniclastic red beds and the intercalated clays; 5) Tertiary volcanics of Harrart, and 4) The Quaternary wadi fill deposits which are composed from friable pebble supported conglomerates, sandstones and clays. Hydrogeologically, the groundwater aquifer of Wadi Qudaid is present mainly in two main horizons i.e. i) unconfined shallow aquifer (13 - 37 m) within the well porous and permeable conglomerates of the Quaternary Wadi deposits, ii) The deep confined aquifer of the bedded tuffaceous sandstones and mudstone of the Tertiary sedimentary succession of Ash Shumaysi Formation. The water samples are analyzed for major elements i.e. Ca, Mg, Na, Cl, SO4, HCO3 and the results show the normal content of these elements. The study related the addition and depletion of many elements during the running trip of the groundwater from the northeast (recharge area) to the southwest (downstream) area.
Re-evaluation of the Mentelle Basin, a polyphase rifted margin basin, offshore southwest Australia: new insights from integrated regional seismic datasets
D. Maloney, C. Sargent, N. G. Direen, R. W. Hobbs,D. R. Gr cke
Solid Earth (SE) & Discussions (SED) , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/se-2-107-2011
Abstract: Vintage 2-D (two-dimensional) seismic reflection surveys from the sparsely explored Mentelle Basin (western Australian margin) have been reprocessed and integrated with a recent high-quality 2-D seismic survey and stratigraphic borehole data. Interpretation of these data sets allows the internal geometry of the Mentelle Basin fill and depositional history to be reanalysed and new insights into its formation revealed. Basin stratigraphy can be subdivided into several seismically defined megasequences separated by major unconformities related to both breakup between India-Madagascar and Australia-Antarctica in the Valanginian-Late Hauterivian and tectonically-driven switches in deposition through the Albian. Resting on the Valanginian-Late Hauterivian breakup unconformity are several kilometre-scale mounded structures that formed during Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous extension. These have previously been interpreted as volcanic edifices although direct evidence of volcanic feeder systems is lacking. An alternative interpretation is that these features may be carbonate build-ups. The latter interpretation carries significant climatic ramifications since carbonate build-ups would have formed at high palaeolatitude, ~60° S. Soon after breakup, initial subsidence resulted in a shallow marine environment and deposition of Barremian-Aptian silty-sandy mudstones. As subsidence continued, thick successions of Albian ferruginous black clays were deposited. Internally, seismic megasequences composed of successions of black clays show previously unresolved unconformities, onlapping and downlapping packages, which reflect a complex depositional, rifting and subsidence history at odds with their previous interpretation as open marine sediments. Southwestwards migration of the Kerguelen hotspot led to thermal contraction and subsidence to the present day water depth (~3000 m). This was accompanied by Turonian-Santonian deposition of massive chalk beds, which are unconformably overlain by pelagic Palaeocene-Holocene sediments. This substantial unconformity is related to the diachronous breakup and onset of slow spreading between Australia and Antarctica, which may have led to the reactivation and inversion of basement faults and was followed by rapid seafloor spreading from the Middle Eocene to the present.
Wadi Fatima Thin-Skinned Foreland FAT Belt: A Post Amalgamation Marine Basin in the Arabian Shield  [PDF]
Zakaria Hamimi, Mohamed Matsah, Mohamed El-Shafei, Abdelhamid El-Fakharani, Abdulrahman Shujoon, Majid Al-Gabali
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2012.24027
Abstract: Wadi Fatima fold-thrust (FAT) belt is a distinctive foreland FAT belt in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) involving unmetamorphosed to slightly metamorphosed sedimentary sequence of Fatima Group, deposited over a metamorphic/igneous basement, comprising ortho-amphibolites, orthoand para-schists (with chaotic unmappable blocks of marbles, pyroxenites and metagabbros), older granite (773 ± 16 Ma) and younger granite. The basement exhibits structural fabrics, such as attenuated tight isoclinal folds, sheared-out hinges, NE-SW penetrative foliation and subhorizontal stretched and mineral lineations, related to an oldest prominent dextral shearing phase affected the main Wadi Fatima during the Neoproterozoic. In Wadi Fatima FAT belt, the style of deformation encompasses flexural-slip folding forming mesoscopicand map-scales NE to ENE plunging overturned antiforms and synforms, and a thrust duplex system bounded by floor thrust and sole thrust (basal detachment) dipping gently towards the hinterland (SE to SSE direction) and rises stratigraphically upwards towards the foreland. Such style is affiliated to thin-skinned deformation. Several lines of evidence, such as geometry of interacting outcropand map-scale folds and thrusts, patterns of thrust displacement variations and indications for hinge migration during fold growth, strongly suggest that folding and thrusting in Wadi Fatima FAT belt are geometrically and kinematically linked and that thrusting initiated as a consequence of folding (fold-first kinematics). Thrusts frequently show flat-ramp-flat geometry, and every so often give an impression that they are formed during two main sub-stages; an older sub-stage during which bedding sub-parallel thrusts were formed, and a younger sub-stage which generated younger ramps oblique to bedding. Thrust ramps with SE to SSE dipping regularly show sequential decrease in dip or inclination (due to piggy-back imbrication) into their transport direction which is proposed to be towards NW to NNW. Evidence indicating this transport direction of Wadi Fatima FAT belt embrace NW to NNW oriented stretching lineations recorded along thrust planes, NW to NNW folding vergence, and diminishing of the intensity of deformation and thrust stacking and imbrication from SE to NW; i.e. from hinterland to foreland. The tectonic transport vector is congruent with the mean orientation of slickenline striae formed by layer-parallel slipping along folded bedding planes. The mean orientation of slickenline lineations, after their host beds were rotated to horizontal about their
The East Greenland rifted volcanic margin  [PDF]
C. Kent Brooks
Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin , 2011,
Abstract: The Palaeogene North Atlantic Igneous Province is among the largest igneous provinces in the world and this review of the East Greenland sector includes large amounts of information amassed since previous reviews around 1990.The main area of igneous rocks extends from Kangerlussuaq (c. 67°N) to Scoresby Sund (c. 70°N), where basalts extend over c. 65 000 km2, with a second area from Hold with Hope (c. 73°N) to Shannon (c. 75°N). In addition, the Ocean Drilling Project penetrated basalt at five sites off South-East Greenland. Up to 7 km thickness of basaltic lavas have been stratigraphically and chemically described and their ages determined. A wide spectrum of intrusions are clustered around Kangerlussuaq, Kialeeq (c. 66°N) and Mesters Vig (c. 72°N). Layered gabbros are numerous (e.g. the Skaergaard and Kap Edvard Holm intrusions), as are under- and oversaturated syenites, besides small amounts of nephelinite-derived products, such as the Gardiner complex (c. 69°N) with carbonatites and silicate rocks rich in melilite, perovskite etc. Felsic extrusive rocks are sparse. A single, sanidine-bearing tuff found over an extensive area of the North Atlantic is thought to be sourced from the Gardiner complex.The province is famous for its coast-parallel dyke swarm, analogous to the sheeted dyke swarm of ophiolites, its associated coastal flexure, and many other dyke swarms, commonly related to central intrusive complexes as in Iceland. The dyke swarms provide time markers, tracers of magmatic evolution and evidence of extensional events. A set of dykes with harzburgite nodules gives unique insight into the Archaean subcontinental lithosphere.Radiometric dating indicates extrusion of huge volumes of basalt over a short time interval, but the overall life of the province was prolonged, beginning with basaltic magmas at c. 60 Ma and continuing to the quartz porphyry stock at Malmbjerg (c. 72°N) at c. 26 Ma. Indeed, activity was renewed in the Miocene with the emplacement of small volumes of basalts of the Vindtoppen Formation to the south of Scoresby Sund.Although the basalts were extruded close to sea level, this part of East Greenland is a plateau raised to c. 2 km, but the timing of uplift is controversial. Superimposed on the plateau is a major dome at Kangerlussuaq.East Greenland presents a rich interplay between magmatic and tectonic events reflecting the birth of the North Atlantic Ocean. It was active over a much longer period (36 Ma) than other parts of the province (5 Ma in the Hebrides, Northern Ireland and the Faroe Islands) and contains a wider range
Re-evaluation of the Mentelle Basin, a polyphase rifted margin basin, offshore south-west Australia: new insights from integrated regional seismic datasets
D. Maloney,C. Sargent,N. G. Direen,R. W. Hobbs
Solid Earth Discussions , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/sed-3-65-2011
Abstract: Vintage 2-D (two dimensional) seismic reflection surveys from the sparsely explored Mentelle Basin (western Australian margin) have been re-processed and integrated with recent high quality seismic survey, and stratigraphic borehole data. Interpretation of these data sets allows the internal geometry of the Mentelle Basin fill and depositional history to be reanalysed with a greater degree of confidence. Basin stratigraphy can be subdivided into several seismically defined megasequences, separated by major unconformities related to both the Valanginian breakup between India-Madagascar and Australia-Antarctica, and tectonically-driven switches in deposition through the Albian. Resting on the Valanginian unconformity are several kilometre-scale mounded structures that formed during late Jurassic to early Cretaceous extension. These have previously been interpreted as volcanic edifices, although direct evidence of volcanic feeder systems is lacking. An alternative interpretation is that these features may be carbonate build-ups. The latter interpretation carries significant climatic ramifications, since carbonate build-ups would have formed at high palaeolatitude, ~60° S. Soon after breakup, initial subsidence resulted in a shallow marine environment and Barremian-Aptian silty-sandy mudstones were deposited. As subsidence continued, thick Albian ferruginous black clays were deposited. Internally, black clay megasequences show previously unresolved unconformities, onlapping and downlapping packages, which reflect a complex depositional, rifting and subsidence history, at odds with their previous interpretation as open marine sediments. Southwestwards migration of the Kerguelen hotspot led to thermal contraction and subsidence to the present day water depth (~3000 m). This was accompanied by Turonian-Santonian deposition of massive chalk beds, which are unconformably overlain by pelagic Palaeocene-Holocene sediments. This substantial unconformity is related to the diachronous breakup and onset of slow spreading between Australia and Antarctica, which may have led to the reactivation and inversion of basement faults, followed by rapid seafloor spreading from the middle Eocene to the present.
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