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Introducing strategic environmental assessment in Serbia with special reference to the European Union directive and infrastructure corridors
Crn?evi? Tijana M.
Spatium , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/spat0410035c
Abstract: In July 2001, the European Union (EU) adopted the Directive 2001/42/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 27 June 2001 on the Assessment of the Effects of Certain Plans and Programmes on the Environment, known as the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) Directive. The EU countries will have three years, until July 2004, for the integration of the SEA Directive into national laws. The SEA Directive introduces procedural and technical requirements, according to which environmental assessment is compulsory for certain plans and programs but not for policies, except if they are a part of a plan, as well for plans and programs of national defence, civil emergencies, finance and budgets. According to the scope of the SEA Directive, environmental assessment is compulsory for plans and programs for infrastructure corridors – transport, telecommunication and energy systems. In addition to the overview of the general framework for Strategic Environmental Assessment and the main requirements of the SEA Directive, the current situation in Serbia regarding the present condition of SEA is presented with special reference to the infrastructure corridors. One of the conclusions of this paper is that the main limitation for the implementation of SEA for plans and programs covering infrastructure corridors is the current legal situation. The main law which is supposed to introduce SEA has not been adopted yet, while the scope of the SEA within the new Planning and Construction Act includes SEA only for urban plans and does not cover, among others, plans for infrastructure corridors.
Strategic Coordination for Sustainable Investment in Critical Infrastructure  [PDF]
Jeremiah Mutamba, Ola Busari
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2014.25011
Abstract:

In demonstrating the prime place of infrastructure investment in its national long-term development framework encapsulated in Vision 2030, as well as in the related New Growth Path, South Africa recently put together a comprehensive National Infrastructure Plan. Aside from mapping out short and medium-term priorities for scaling up investment in strategic sectors and enhancing infrastructure links across the country, the initiative underscores development objectives such as community empowerment and skills development. This paper zeroes into one of the 18 strategic programs in the plan—specifically devoted to water and sanitation infrastructure—and presents the principal elements for pursuing effective inter-project coordination and integration, as well as, ultimately, for ensuring the sustainable implementation of critical infrastructure. The approaches that have influenced the success of strategic coordination include participatory planning, project prioritization, regular tracking and unblocking of implementation hurdles, localization, active stakeholder engagement and ongoing program integration.

Environmental Assessment of Infrastructure Projects of Water Sector in Baghdad, Iraq  [PDF]
Allaa M. Aenab, S. K. Singh
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.31001
Abstract: In 1970s the city of Baghdad had a good infrastructure. Education and healthcare systems were widely regarded as the best in the Middle East. Income per capita rose to over US$3600 in the early 1980s. Since that time, successive wars and a repressive, state-dominated economic system have stifled economic growth and development and debilitated basic infrastructure and social services. At the end of the 2003 war, Baghdad’s infrastructure was seriously degraded. The majority of the population had limited or inadequate access to essential basic services. Currently, there is an ongoing effort by donor countries, such as the United States (US) (through the US Agency for International Development (USAID)), Japan, the European Union (EU), etc., as well as efforts by multilateral agencies such as the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), and Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs), to restore the sector to standards that existed prior to the latest conflict. The present study deals with the evaluation of four projects proposed to improve the deteriorating status of water and wastewater treatment plants. Three methods viz. checklist, strategic environment assessment and cost and benefit analysis are used to evaluate the efficiency of the projects.
Improve the Government Strategic Petroleum Reserves  [PDF]
Xiucheng Dong, Zhongbing Zhou, Hui Li
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2013.34A1001
Abstract: The potentiality that the current government strategic petroleum reserves (GSPRs) can be improved by the pre-allocation of GSPR drawing rights has been neglected. This paper proposes to pre-allocate the GSPR drawing rights, and proves that by doing this the efficiency of GSPR and the society’s incentive to finance GSPR can be improved. Particularly, the example demonstrates that the incentive improvement can be very significant. Since it takes huge expenditure on GSPR and it is very important to gain support from the consumers by improving GSPR, the proposal is quite worth considering.

 

Strategic Environmental Assessment(SEA) and Its Development
战略环境评价(SEA)及其研究进展

Ma Weichun,Lam Kinche,Chen Limin,Yu Shubin,
马蔚纯
,林健枝,陈立民,余澍滨

环境科学 , 2000,
Abstract: Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is a frontier subject in the field of EIA.This paper reviewed the deveopment of SEA,expounded its functions and territorial characteristics and discussed the targets of assessments,its basic procedures,techniques and methodologies of SEA.The links between SEA and project level EIA,and the preliminary practice and pilot study of SEA in Hong Kong and China Mainland were also discussed.
Can RTK GPS be Used to Improve Cadastral Infrastructure?  [cached]
Volker Janssen,Thomas Grinter,Craig Roberts
Engineering Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.4186/ej.2011.15.1.43
Abstract: Cadastral surveying is concerned with the process of gathering evidence in the form of position information that is used to define the location of objects or land boundaries for the purposes of identifying ownership and/or the value of land parcels. The advent of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), has revolutionised the way 3-dimensional positions are determined and GPS surveying techniques, particularly Real Time Kinematic (RTK), are increasingly being adopted by cadastral surveyors. This paper presents a methodology for using RTK GPS observations to improve the existing cadastral survey control infrastructure, based on an extensive survey carried out in New South Wales, Australia. It is shown that accuracies (RMS) of 11 mm in the horizontal and 34 mm in the vertical component (1?) can be achieved for this dataset. Calculated bearings and distances agree very well with the official values derived from the state’s survey control database, easily meeting accuracy specifications and survey regulation requirements. 55% of the unestablished marks surveyed were able to be upgraded to cadastral survey control quality. Enhancements in the GPS survey design would have enabled an even higher percentage of marks to be classified as established, showing that the RTK GPS technique is well suited to improving survey control infrastructure for cadastral surveyors.
Integrating Environmental Considerations into Transportation Planning through Strategic Environmental Assessment  [PDF]
Ana-Maria CORPADE,Ciprian CORPADE,Danu? PETREA,Ciprian MOLDOVAN
Journal of Settlements and Spatial Planning , 2012,
Abstract: The present article analyzes the concept of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and its role in the development of local transportation strategies and plans, investigating how SEA acts as an effective tool to integrate environmental issues into transportation planning. The paper provides with useful advice for local authorities on how to comply with the European and national legislation requirements in the environmental permitting process for transportation plans. At the same time, it points out useful information for practitioners in the field of the strategic environmental assessment in the elaboration of the Environmental Report, as the key factor in SEA procedure.
Strategic environmental assessment application in spatial planning in Serbia  [PDF]
Mitrovi? Irena
Journal of the Geographical Institute Jovan Cvijic, SASA , 2007, DOI: 10.2298/ijgi0757347m
Abstract: Since two and a half year long Strategic Environmental Assessment application in Serbia is limited to spatial and urban plans with great variety in its quality, good SEA practice should be applied, and different approach towards SEA must be developed. These and other issues are discussed in the paper and main recommendations on SEA improvements in Serbia presented.
Good Practices in Strategic Environmental Assessment Processes under the Brazilian Practitioners’ Vision  [PDF]
Antonio W. L. da Silva, Marinilse Netto, Paulo Selig, Alexandre Lerípio
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2018.96045
Abstract: The use of good practices (GP) can improve the technical quality and, as a consequence, the outcome of the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) process, increasing its effectiveness. This study aimed to present GP pointed out by Brazilian practitioners (members of the SEA development teams) from the perspective afforded by their participation in processes of this tool. The data were collected through personal interviews with 11 professionals responsible for preparing a total of 17 SEAs, who were asked about what measures adopted in the SEA could be considered BP. The responses were audio-recorded, transcribed, and had their content assessed by Content Analysis technique. Nine GP were highlighted by practitioners. The GP indicated represent a valuable contribution to the improvement of future use of SEA, either in Brazil or in other countries, because they are the result of consolidated experience in real cases of application of the tool.
Sustainability Indicators Integrating Consumption Patterns in Strategic Environmental Assessment for Urban Planning  [PDF]
Valentina Castellani,Serenella Sala
Sustainability , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/su5083426
Abstract: Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) practices in Europe have been traditionally applied to assess potential environmental impacts due to socio-economic drivers implying specific land use ( viz. infrastructure, building and industrial development). However, other socioeconomic drivers related to citizen behavior, such as household consumption, may significantly contribute to the overall local impacts, but are usually neglected in SEA. Aiming at enlarging the traditional approaches adopted in SEA, the present study integrates two environmental sustainability indicators capturing different aspects of consumption patterns: ecological footprint and carbon balance. The two indicators are calculated in addition to a more traditional set of environmental indicators in order to: (i) understand if the level of consumption of the local community exceeds the limits of natural resources of the area (in a perspective of self-sustainment at the local scale); and (ii) identify the role of spatial planning choices in determining the environmental sustainability of the entire system. The two indicators are calculated and discussed in the context of the SEA of the urban master plans of four municipalities in northern Italy. The two indicators may represent a good proxy for lifestyle impacts, even if some strengths and weaknesses arose from the application to the case study.
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