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Health and Household Income in Vietnam  [PDF]
Cuong Tat Do, Anh Ngoc Thi Ngo
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2013.36055

This study provides empirical evidence regarding to the relationship between household income and individual health, as well as the correlation between health and education at provincial level. We apply the concept of human health capital theory into models which treat health as a form of human capital in income process and education progress. We employ two datasets, one is Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey wave in 2002, 2004 and 2006, and the other is the dataset for provincial level in the year 1999, 2002 and 2004, in order to make two panels. Constructing panels allow us to exploit “within” variation in health, income and education to figure out the possible unobservable biased estimates of the impact of health on income and education on health in a short period of panel data. Household income is significantly affected by individual health and life expectancy is considerably influenced by education. These findings could be seen as evidence for policy makers in health and education policy in the context of development planning.


The Impact of Bank Income Diversification on Capital Buffer Periodicity  [PDF]
Yu Wang
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2017.52033
Abstract: Based on the panel data of 16 listed banks in China from 2004 to 2014, this paper makes empirical analysis to examine the relationship between bank’s capital buffer and macroeconomic fluctuations or income diversification. The results show that the banks’ income diversification has negatively correlation with macroeconomic fluctuations. It means the banks’ capital buffer behaves in a counter-cyclical way, and different bank ownership structure or capital level also has asymmetric influence in expansion and slack time. What’s more, the non-interest income of bank has a significant negative impact on capital buffer and its periodicity. The diversification of bank income structure not only reduces the bank’s capital buffer level, but also weakens the counter-cyclical characteristics of capital buffer. At the same time, the diversification of the income structure of the bank with high capital adequacy ratio has no obvious effect on the counter-cyclical characteristics of the capital buffer. Based on the above conclusions, this paper believes that the regulatory authorities in the implementation of the counter-cyclical capital regulation should fully consider the impact of bank income structure and bank capital levels.
Challenges of the Knowledge Society , 2011,
Abstract: The presence of government bonds on the Bucharest Stock Exchange has changed the behavior of institutional investors on capital market and revenues from these titles made them more attractive than those with variable income, such as shares. In this paper is presented results of research on fixed income instruments in the capital market in Romania. In conclusion, are presented some opinions about the possibility of diversification of fixed income instruments and aspects of their use in portfolio management.
Convergence and Inequality of income: the case of Western Balkan countries  [PDF]
Jalal El Ouardighi,Rabija Somun-Kapetanovic
The European Journal of Comparative Economics , 2009,
Abstract: This paper analyses the convergence process of inequality in income among five Balkan countries in the 1989-2008 period. This study is carried out in comparison with the situation in the European Union of 27 countries. The originality of our approach is to consider the convergence of countries' contributions to the international income inequality. The model allows simultaneously to test the convergence process of income and inequality. The results indicate a real convergence process between Balkan countries, while persistence is detected between European Union countries. However, the thorough investigations stress that there are differences in the pace of convergence across sub-periods. Thus, income and inequality convergence are higher during the 2000s for the EU-27, while the majority of convergence took place during the second half of the 1990s for Balkan countries. Accordingly, the development gap between Balkans and European Union remains important.
Convergence and Distributions of Income in Large European Economies
Micha? Kruszka,Marcin Puziak
Contemporary Economics , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of this paper is an empirical analysis of the convergence process in the years 1993–2008 and the impact of economic growth on income distribution in selected European Union countries. Considering this fact one can state that research was conducted from the perspective of EU citizens. The crucial hypothesis of this paper is statement that convergence is differently perceived in terms of entire economies, and gives a different picture from the perspective of the single citizen of the selected country. The analysis was carried out in several stages. Initially, the authors referred to the classical convergence hypotheses (unconditional β and σ convergence) within the EU-27, then the same assumptions were examined taking into account population – weighted indicators. However, the main aim of research undertaken in this study was to investigate the individual within – country distribution of income for the initial and final period, which allowed to answer the question whether faster growth of the ‘new EU’ was accompanied by reduction of inequalities within analyzed economic systems.
Country-Specific Dynamic Optimal Capital Income Tax Rate  [PDF]
Kazunobu Muro
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.23045
Abstract: The empirical tax rate on capital income ranges between 0.4 and 0.6 in OECD countries. This paper presents the optimal taxation problem in an one-sector dynamic general equilibrium model where the government is confronted with fiscal constraint (the ratio of government expenditure to GDP is exogenously given) while households and firms do not recognize the fiscal constraint. We derive analytically the positive optimal tax rates on capital income. Under the fiscal constraint, the optimal tax rate on capital income depends on the discount rate, the rate of capital depreciation, and the ratio of government spending to GDP. Our model can generate the country-specific optimal tax rate on capital income (0.2 to 0.4). Thus, this paper insists that the empirical data of tax rates in OECD countries are higher than the results predicted by our model.
Income Inequality in the 21st Century -- A biased summary of Piketty's Capital in the Twenty-First Century  [PDF]
Dietrich Stauffer
Quantitative Finance , 2014,
Abstract: Capital usually leads to income, and income is more accurately and easily measured. Thus we summarize income distributions in USA, Germany, etc.
Labor mobility, rural per capital wage income and urban-rural income gap

- , 2016, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.2016.04.005
Abstract: 农民工资地区趋同、行业差异区域缩小、城乡收入差距与农村居民工资性收入占比同势变化的中国城乡经济特征事实,表明劳动力用脚投票,流向差距小的地区,同时也发现劳动力流动、农民人均工资性收入和城乡收入差距存在因果循环关系,并运用1990-2012年中国省级面板数据,建立联立方程模型进行计量分析,检验结果表明:农民受教育水平与人均工资性收入呈现非线性关系。劳动力流动是农民人均工资性收入及份额提高的重要途径,增加地区的农民人均工资性收入份额是改变城乡收入差距空间格局的重要手段。因此,流入地中城乡收入差距大的地区可以通过吸引更多农村流动劳动力而改善本地区的城乡收入差距,流出地则可以通过增加更多的流出人口缩小该地区的城乡收入差距。然而从流入地农民人均工资性收入在区域间所占比重看,容易形成“城乡收入差距大—农民工资性收入份额低—城乡收入差距大”的恶性循环。从农村劳动力流动视角解释城乡收入差距空间格局保持不变的原因在于,农村劳动力的流动会使流入地的农民人均工资性收入及份额增加幅度、城乡收入差距的缩小幅度均超过流出地。
The macro facts of China urban and rural that the convergence of farmer's wage income and industrial difference are narrowing between regions, the trend of urban-rural income gap is the same as the share of rural per capital wage income in all regions, show that the labor force by "foot vote" will flow to the areas with smaller income gap. This research elaborates the causal relationship between labor mobility, rural per capital wage income and urban-rural income gap, and establishes simultaneous equations using 1990-2012 China provincial panel data, The results conclude:There exists inverted "U" shaped relationship between rural per capital income wage and rural average education. Labor mobility is an important way to increase rural per capita wage income and the proportion, and increasing the share of the rural per capital wage income in all regions is important to change the spatial pattern of urban-rural income gap. Therefore, for the population inflow region, larger urban-rural income gap can narrow local income gap by attracting more migrant labor; for the population outflow region, larger urban-rural income gap can narrow local income gap by adding more migrant labor to increase rural per capital wage income. However, from the viewpoint of regional proportion of rural per capital wage income in the region where the population flow in, the population inflow region form such vicious circle "lager income gap-lower proportion of rural per capital wage income-larger income gap". Finally, from the perspective of rural labor mobility, the paper attributes the spatial patterns of urban-rural income gap remains unchanged to the facts that labor mobility brings rural per capital wage income in the population inflow region more than the population outflow region, and also the urban-rural income gap in the population region narrowing more than the population outflow region.
The association of state per capita income and military service deaths in the Vietnam and Iraq wars
Charles Maynard
Population Health Metrics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1478-7954-7-1
Abstract: The numbers of deaths by the home state of record for each conflict were obtained from Department of Defense records on the Internet as were key variables including age at death, gender, race, branch of service, rank, circumstances of death, home state of record and the ratio of wounded to dead. In addition, we obtained state per capita income and state population for the relevant times.Characteristics of decedents in the 2 conflicts were very similar with young, white enlisted men accounting for the majority of deaths. However, in the Iraq war, women accounted for a 2.4% of casualties. Also of note was the higher ratio of wounded to dead in Iraq. At the level of the state, the correlation between the ratio of deaths per 100,000 and per capita income was -0.51 (p < 0.0001) for Vietnam and -0.52 for Iraq (p < 0.0001). In both eras, states with lower per capita income tended to have higher ratios of deaths per population.For military service members serving in the Vietnam and Iraq conflicts, there were many more women who died in the latter war. Whether war deaths resulted in lower per capita income cannot be determined from these cross sectional data; we simply note a strong association between per capita income and war casualty rates for both wars.In the United States, social burdens including war casualties are often distributed unequally across groups of individuals, communities, and states. In both Vietnam and Iraq the majority of deaths occurred in white enlisted men who served in the US Army or Marine Corps in hostile situations [1-4]. Less is known about the association between war casualties and income of states. The purpose of this report was to examine the association between war deaths and per capita income in the 50 states and District of Columbia during the Vietnam and Iraq wars. A secondary objective was to compare the characteristics of individuals who died in the 2 conflicts.The numbers of deaths by the home state of record for each conflict were obta
Tax Competition and Strategic Delegation with Interregional Asymmetries in Capital Endowment and Income Inequality  [PDF]
Takahiro Watanabe
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2019.95092
Abstract: This study examines a two-country tax competition model, in which the capital endowment and income inequality are asymmetric in each country. Hwang and Cheo [1] and Peralta and van Ypersele [2] show that when countries differ in capital endowments, the country with the higher capital endowment sets a lower capital tax rate. However, their studies assume that all inhabitants are homogeneous. We extend the models of the two aforementioned studies and conduct an analysis taking into account the asymmetry in income inequality within countries. The tax rate is set by the policy maker elected by majority voting in each country’s election. We find that a higher tax rate may be set in the country with higher capital endowment under certain conditions. Further, if the income inequality is sufficiently large, the median voters in each country unambiguously delegate the right to decide the tax rate to residents who prefer a higher tax rate than their own, regardless of the capital endowments of the two countries.
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