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Education and Electoral Outcomes  [PDF]
Diganta Mukherjee, Rajlakshmi Mallik
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.22033
Abstract: This paper develops a model of the electoral process for analyzing the voters’ choice faced with two parties. A typical voter is concerned with both local governance issues and macro issues. The relative importance attached by a voter to local and macro concerns is governed by the level of education of the voter. The voter must exercise his choice based on two sets of information—the first pertains to the candidate’s efficiency level and the other pertains to the efficiency of the party as a whole. The model focuses on the case where the party with the better image has been forced to put up a less efficient candidate, as this is sufficient to analyse the trade-off involved. The model shows how the election out-comes may be influenced by the education level of the electorate and the design of election campaigns. This has implications for the design of education policy in the long run and measuring social efficiency of education.
Modelos de Decisión Electoral y Perfiles de Votante en Colombia: Elecciones Presidenciales 2002: Models of Electoral Decision and Profiles of Voter in Colombia: Elections Presidential 2002
Hoskin,Gary; Masías,Rodolfo; Galvis,Marcela;
Análisis Político , 2005,
Abstract: this article is an analysis of the vote decision in the 2002 presidential election in colombia . the theoretical framework is eclectic, with an emphasis upon the rational choice literature. the data are drawn from a national survey, and the methodology utilizes logistical regression techniques. we hypothesized that electoral behavior in "fragile" democracies, like colombia 's, manifests distinct characteristics from those in more institutionalized democracies, but the analysis failed to confirm this hypothesis. contextual variables were not related to the vote, except as manifested through candidate characteristics and campaign issues. similar to results elsewhere, the variables that most impacted the vote for álvaro uribe or horacio serpa were related to candidate traits, leadership capacity and favorability, along with campaign issues. the data analysis consisted of the presentation of several logistical regression models, and a series of voter profiles that reveals the probability that a voter with certain characteristics will cast a ballot for either serpa or uribe.
Modelos de Decisión Electoral y Perfiles de Votante en Colombia: Elecciones Presidenciales 2002: Models of Electoral Decision and Profiles of Voter in Colombia: Elections Presidential 2002  [cached]
Gary Hoskin,Rodolfo Masías,Marcela Galvis
Análisis Político , 2005,
Abstract: Este artículo es un análisis de la decisión de voto en las elecciones presidenciales 2002 en Colombia. Si bien toma prestado elementos de varios enfoques teóricos sobre comportamiento electoral, se orienta básicamente en la literatura relativa a la teoría de la elección racional. Los datos que analiza provienen de una encuesta poselectoral a nivel nacional y utiliza la técnica de regresión logística como herramienta para crear modelos explicativos. La hipótesis de que parte, en el sentido que el comportamiento electoral en democracias frágiles como la Colombiana manifiesta distintas características que en las democracias mas institucionalizadas, no se ve plenamente confirmada: la decisión de voto es independiente de las aquí llamadas variables contextuales y, en cambio, resultan tener mucha incidencia las referentes a la percepción de los candidatos y la identificación de los votantes con los temas de campa a. Aparte de la presentación de los modelos logísticos que dan cuenta de estos resultados, hace un análisis casuístico de los perfiles de votante que resultan en mayores probabilidades de voto para los candidatos principales (Uribe y Serpa) en las pasadas elecciones. This article is an analysis of the vote decision in the 2002 presidential election in Colombia . The theoretical framework is eclectic, with an emphasis upon the rational choice literature. The data are drawn from a national survey, and the methodology utilizes logistical regression techniques. We hypothesized that electoral behavior in "fragile" democracies, like Colombia 's, manifests distinct characteristics from those in more institutionalized democracies, but the analysis failed to confirm this hypothesis. Contextual variables were not related to the vote, except as manifested through candidate characteristics and campaign issues. Similar to results elsewhere, the variables that most impacted the vote for álvaro Uribe or Horacio Serpa were related to candidate traits, leadership capacity and favorability, along with campaign issues. The data analysis consisted of the presentation of several logistical regression models, and a series of voter profiles that reveals the probability that a voter with certain characteristics will cast a ballot for either Serpa or Uribe.
Climate Change: Concerns, Beliefs and Emotions in Residents, Experts, Decision Makers, Tourists, and Tourist Industry  [PDF]
Igor Knez, Sofia Thorsson, Ingeg?rd Eliasson
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2013.24025
Abstract:

The aim was to investigate effects of different groups of individuals (residents, tourists, experts, decision makers and members of tourist industry) and demographic variables (gender, age, education) on climate change-related concerns, beliefs and emotions. In line with the predictions: 1) Experts were shown to be least concerned for and afraid of climate change impact; 2) Youngest participants were found to be most, and oldest least, concerned for their future; 3) Women were shown to be more concerned for and afraid of the consequences of climate change; and 4) Men and the least educated participants believed their jobs to be more threatened by the environmental laws and protection, and the latter ones believed moreover that the claims about climate change are exaggerated. Implications of these findings for value orientations and their relationships to environmental concerns, beliefs and emotions are discussed.

Global and Local Concerns: What Attitudes and Beliefs Motivate Farmers to Mitigate and Adapt to Climate Change?  [PDF]
Van R. Haden, Meredith T. Niles, Mark Lubell, Joshua Perlman, Louise E. Jackson
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052882
Abstract: In response to agriculture's vulnerability and contribution to climate change, many governments are developing initiatives that promote the adoption of mitigation and adaptation practices among farmers. Since most climate policies affecting agriculture rely on voluntary efforts by individual farmers, success requires a sound understanding of the factors that motivate farmers to change practices. Recent evidence suggests that past experience with the effects of climate change and the psychological distance associated with people's concern for global and local impacts can influence environmental behavior. Here we surveyed farmers in a representative rural county in California's Central Valley to examine how their intention to adopt mitigation and adaptation practices is influenced by previous climate experiences and their global and local concerns about climate change. Perceived changes in water availability had significant effects on farmers' intention to adopt mitigation and adaptation strategies, which were mediated through global and local concerns respectively. This suggests that mitigation is largely motivated by psychologically distant concerns and beliefs about climate change, while adaptation is driven by psychologically proximate concerns for local impacts. This match between attitudes and behaviors according to the psychological distance at which they are cognitively construed indicates that policy and outreach initiatives may benefit by framing climate impacts and behavioral goals concordantly; either in a global context for mitigation or a local context for adaptation.
Undocumented vs. Illegal Migrant: Towards Terminological Coherence
Paspalanova, Mila;
Migraciones internacionales , 2008,
Abstract: this article offers a terminological reflection on the expression "illegal immigrant." in particular, it argues against the arbitrary choice of terminology used to refer to undocumented migration in academic and scientific texts. on the basis of certain legal, linguistic, and sociopolitical concerns, it suggests that the use of "illegal migrant/ alien" should be seriously reconsidered and replaced with alternative terms, such as "undocumented" or "irregular immigrant," which are both terminologically correct and lack the negative social implications of the phrase "illegal immigrant/alien" or "clandestine alien".
Providing medical care for undocumented migrants in Denmark: what are the challenges for health professionals?
Natasja K Jensen, Marie Norredam, Tania Draebel, Marija Bogic, Stefan Priebe, Allan Krasnik
BMC Health Services Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-11-154
Abstract: The study was carried out as part of an EU-project on European Best Practices in Access, Quality and Appropriateness of Health Services for Immigrants in Europe (EUGATE). This presentation is based on 12 semi-structured interviews with general practitioners (9) and emergency room physicians (3) in Denmark.The emergency room physicians express that treatment of undocumented migrants is no different from the treatment of any other person. However, care may become more complicated due to lack of previous medical records and contact persons. Contrary to this, general practitioners explain that undocumented migrants will encounter formal barriers when trying to obtain treatment. Additional problems in the treatment of undocumented migrants include language issues, financial aspects for general practitioners, concerns about how to handle the situation including possibilities of further referrals, and an uncertainty as to whether to involve the police.The health professionals in our study describe that undocumented migrants experience an unequal access to primary care facilities and that great uncertainties exist amongst health professionals as how to respond in such situations. The lack of official policies concerning the right to health care for undocumented migrants continue to pass on the responsibility to health professionals and, thereby, leaves it up to the individual to decide whether treatment can be obtained or not.In the public debate, undocumented migrants are often recognized only as a threat to national states, while other aspects such as the rights of undocumented migrants are frequently overlooked. Although it has been estimated that there may be as many as 1.9 to 3.8 million undocumented migrants in the European Union [1], these people remain invisible to policy makers in many countries [2-4]. Due to the unrecorded nature of the phenomenon, it is difficult to establish its exact extent; however, it has been estimated that up to 5,000 undocumented migrants
Understanding Patients’ Adherence-Related Beliefs about Medicines Prescribed for Long-Term Conditions: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Necessity-Concerns Framework  [PDF]
Rob Horne, Sarah C. E. Chapman, Rhian Parham, Nick Freemantle, Alastair Forbes, Vanessa Cooper
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080633
Abstract: Background Patients’ beliefs about treatment influence treatment engagement and adherence. The Necessity-Concerns Framework postulates that adherence is influenced by implicit judgements of personal need for the treatment (necessity beliefs) and concerns about the potential adverse consequences of taking it. Objective To assess the utility of the NCF in explaining nonadherence to prescribed medicines. Data sources We searched EMBASE, Medline, PsycInfo, CDSR/DARE/CCT and CINAHL from January 1999 to April 2013 and handsearched reference sections from relevant articles. Study eligibility criteria Studies using the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) to examine perceptions of personal necessity for medication and concerns about potential adverse effects, in relation to a measure of adherence to medication. Participants Patients with long-term conditions. Study appraisal and synthesis methods Systematic review and meta-analysis of methodological quality was assessed by two independent reviewers. We pooled odds ratios for adherence using random effects models. Results We identified 3777 studies, of which 94 (N = 25,072) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Across studies, higher adherence was associated with stronger perceptions of necessity of treatment, OR = 1.742, 95% CI [1.569, 1.934], p<0.0001, and fewer Concerns about treatment, OR = 0.504, 95% CI: [0.450, 0.564], p<0.0001. These relationships remained significant when data were stratified by study size, the country in which the research was conducted and the type of adherence measure used. Limitations Few prospective longitudinal studies using objective adherence measures were identified. Conclusions The Necessity-Concerns Framework is a useful conceptual model for understanding patients’ perspectives on prescribed medicines. Taking account of patients’ necessity beliefs and concerns could enhance the quality of prescribing by helping clinicians to engage patients in treatment decisions and support optimal adherence to appropriate prescriptions.
A Theoretical Note on the Relationship between Documented and Undocumented Migration  [PDF]
Peter V. Schaeffer,Mulugeta S. Kahsai
International Journal of Population Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/873967
Abstract: Undocumented migration is a (inferior) substitute to documented migration. Hence, policies affecting documented migration also affect undocumented migration. This paper explores this relationship from a theoretical perspective. The implications of this exploration are that lax enforcement of visa rules and national borders, combined with a very long waiting line (small annual quotas) for immigrant visas, can make illegal immigration a preferred option over legal immigration or, more generally, that for policy purposes all types of migrations should be regarded as interdependent. Therefore, policies aimed solely at, say, undocumented immigration will generally be less effective than an integrated policy approach. 1. Introduction Mass immigration is a hotly contested topic. Public concerns apply particularly to those who enter or stay without permission, often called undocumented immigrants. This paper studies the relationships between documented (legal) and undocumented (illegal) immigration, and to proceed, we first define who is an immigrant. We exclude short-term foreign business travelers and tourists. It is less obvious how to classify those entering on a student visa and planning to stay for several years.1 For a systematic terminology in international migration statistics, see United Nations [1]. For the purpose of this study, we consider as immigrants only those who enter with the intention to work in the host country and plan to stay for the rest of their working life or beyond. We will not separately model all possible migration behaviors. Thus, in this study, we also consider as permanent those immigrants who are itinerant workers who move forth and back repeatedly between the home and the host country, assuming that the majority of their earnings are obtained in the host county. We assume that here are only two ways to immigrate: legally (DIM) and illegally (UDIM). Under undocumented immigration (UDIM), we understand entry into a country without permission or by ignoring the conditions of a visa to enter, such as staying beyond the expiration of the visa, not reporting to hearings regarding asylum applications [2] or engaging in activities excluded by the visa. The term undocumented can be misleading because the immigrant may have documents but they are either no longer valid, stolen, forged or the holder engages in activities they do not permit [3, 4]. By documented immigration (DIM) we mean legal entry into a country on a permanent resident visa (“Green Card” in the case of the USA, or a visa, such as an H-1B, that can lead to a green
Birth outcomes in Colorado's undocumented immigrant population
Mary M Reed, John M Westfall, Caroline Bublitz, Catherine Battaglia, Alexandra Fickenscher
BMC Public Health , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-5-100
Abstract: Retrospective descriptive study of singleton births to 5961 undocumented women using birth certificate data for 1998–1999.Undocumented mothers were younger, less educated, and more likely to be single. They had higher rates of anemia, were less likely to gain enough weight, and less likely to receive early prenatal care. They were much less likely to use alcohol or tobacco. Undocumented women had a lower rate of low birth weight (5.3% v 6.5%, P < .001) or preterm infants (12.9% v 14.5%; p = .001). Undocumented women experienced higher rates of labor complications including excessive bleeding (2.3% v 0.8%, p < .001) and fetal distress (8.7% v 3.6%, p < .001).Undocumented women have lower rates of preterm delivery and low birth weight infants, but higher rates of pregnancy related risk factors. Higher prevalence of some risk factors which are amenable to medical intervention reveals the need for improved prenatal care in this group.Studies of health status and health care in the undocumented immigrant population in the United States have been limited in both number and scope due to the transient and clandestine nature of the population, as well as the lack and inaccessibility of their medical records [1]. There are an estimated 7 million undocumented immigrants in the United States, growing 5% each year [2]. Birth certificate data is recorded for undocumented women who give birth in the United States; however, information regarding the mother's immigration status is not collected. Therefore, it is not possible to describe this population using birth certificate data alone. Previous studies of pregnancy and birth in this population have been limited to chart review in a single hospital setting,[3,4] analysis of proxy populations, like migrant women enrolled in Federal nutritional programs,[5,6] or by identifying the mothers by their country of origin[7].Although the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 bans undocumented immigrants form receiving mos
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