In a solar photovoltaic array, it is possible that shadow may fall over some of its cells. Under partial shading conditions the PV characteristic gets more complex with multiple peaks. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate, by analyzing different shading situations, the effects that partial shading can cause in a PV array. First this is done by simulation using Matlab/Simulink, then the impact of shading is illustrated experimentally by measurements on a two commercial 140 W PV panels series connected.
With the problem of global energy shortage and people’s awareness of energy saving, electric vehicles receive world-wide attention from government to business. Then the load of the power grid will rapidly increase in a short term, and a series of effects will bring to the power grid operation, management, production and planning. With the large-scale penetration of electric vehicles and distributed energy gradually increased, if they can be effectively controlled and regulated, they can play the roles of load shifting, stabling intermittent renewable energy sources, providing emergency power supply and so on. Otherwise they may have a negative impact, which calls for a good interaction of electric vehicles and power grid. Analyzed the status of the current study on the interaction between the electric vehicles and the power grid, this paper builds the material basis, information architecture and the corresponding control method for the interaction from the aspect of the energy and information exchanging, and then discusses the key issues, which makes a useful exploration for the further research.