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Methods of Identification in Forensic Dentistry  [cached]
Ratnakar.P,Gowri Sankar Singaraju
Annals and Essences of Dentistry , 2010,
Abstract: The subject of Forensic Odontology has been generating as an area of emphasis for all interested and properly trained dentists in all hazards response. Many States have recognized the role of forensic dentist in the areas of emergency/hazard readiness. Forensic Odontology or Forensic Dentistry has been a discipline within the oral medicine fold and has been a well-accepted role for dentists. When the Tsunami in the Tamilnadu in 2001 and Bomb blasts in Mumbai in 2008 struck the people , another facet in the role of dentists and dentistry in emergency response as a forensic expert came to the collective consciousness of oral health professionals. The dentists participating in such events should be properly trained to have a meaning full role in disaster response. The dental evidence in forensic investigation is legally accepted. However there are certain pitfalls associated with the various methods in forensic dentistry. In this review various methods employed in the forenic odontology for personal identification such as Bite marks, Cheiloscopy , Rugoscopy , photographs and radiographs are discussed.
Use of DNA technology in forensic dentistry
Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves da;Sales-Peres, Arsenio;Oliveira, Rogério Nogueira de;Oliveira, Fernando Toledo de;Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho;
Journal of Applied Oral Science , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-77572007000300002
Abstract: the established importance of forensic dentistry for human identification, mainly when there is little remaining material to perform such identification (e.g., in fires, explosions, decomposing bodies or skeletonized bodies), has led dentists working with forensic investigation to become more familiar with the new molecular biology techniques. the currently available dna tests have high reliability and are accepted as legal proofs in courts. this article presents a literature review referring to the main studies on forensic dentistry that involve the use of dna for human identification, and makes an overview of the evolution of this technology in the last years, highlighting the importance of molecular biology in forensic sciences.
The Possibilities of Forensic Dentistry in Ethnicity Identification  [PDF]
P.О. Romodanovsky,М.S. Bisharyan,Е.Kh. Barinov
Sovremennye Tehnologii v Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: There have been studied the possibilities of forensic dentistry application for individual ethnic identification by the example of the analysis of dentomaxillar system features of the population of the Republic of Armenia. Complex study included clinical, morphometric, X-ray techniques and statistical analysis. The obtained data were correlated with the data of other ethnic groups living in North Caucasus, and Russian population. The investigation results after statistical data manipulation showed ethnicity to be likely identified according to the specified measurements of tooth width, height, and thickness. The study carried out can be used for ethnicity identification.
Applications of Forensic Dentistry: Part-I
C. Stavrianos,A. Kokkas,E. Andreopoulos,A. Eliades
Research Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjmsci.2010.179.186
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to review and present the aims and the applications of forensic dentistry. Dental science plays a vital role in the detection and solution of crime. Forensic dentistry compares and demonstrates post or ante-mortem dental findings to identify an unknown body. Facial reconstruction is a method used in forensic anthropology to aid in the identification of skeletal remains. Age estimation is a process of particular interest in cases of forensic dentistry. Root dentine translucency of single-rooted teeth is the only parameter giving accurate results for age estimation. Also, a dental practitioner must be able to identify and report to the authorities any kind of child or elder abuse and neglect. Thus, the analysis of bite marks is a major aspect for Forensic dentistry. Terrorism and mass disasters are sad realities of modern life. The Forensic dentist has the obligation to know how to provide immediate health care and how to collect and extract all findings. However, physicians receive minimal training in oral health, dental injury and diseases. This is the reason why they may not detect dental aspects of Forensic dentistry. Therefore, physicians and dentists are encouraged to collaborate so as to increase the prevention, detection and treatment of these conditions.
Applications of Forensic Dentistry: Part-II
C. Stavrianos,A. Kokkas,A. Eliades,E. Andreopoulos
Research Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjmsci.2010.187.194
Abstract: The purpose of the study is to review and present the aims and the applications of Forensic dentistry. Bite marks are usually seen in cases involving sexual assault, murder, child abuse and can be a major factor in leading to a conviction. Bite marks can be found anywhere on a body particularly on soft and fleshy tissue such as the stomach or buttocks. In addition, bite marks can be found on objects present at the scene of the crime. However, there are two types of family violence, the child abuse and the adult violence in the house or marital abuse or elder abuse. These types of family violence can happen to any of environment. Child abuse, intimate partner abuse and elder abuse victims often have signs of injury or bite marks that are readily visible to dentists. Dentists have a moral and legal obligation to recognize and report suspected abuse. It is important to realize that all dentists have a unique opportunity and ethical obligation to assist in the struggle against child abuse. The dentists are likely to be in contact with these individuals who have been exposed to this kind of violence. The dental team that is alert to the fact that many elderly or vulnerable person or child are abused and that many of these abused individuals have injuries to the head and around the mouth may be able to identify an abused person and institute steps that might save someone s life. Finally, the important role of forensic odontology in archaeological research is reported.
Cicera Aparecida Lima Malheiro,Klaus Schlünzen Junior,Danielle Aparecida Nascimento dos Santos
Revista Gest?o & Saúde , 2012,
Abstract: We describe the analysis of a course in distance mode for the use of Assistive Technology promoted through a Continuing Education Program for Teachers in Special Education from the Ministry of Education. Thus, we performed an analysis of documents (notices, references, manual) Course: Assistive Technology, Projects and Accessibility: Promoting Inclusion School (Course TA).The course objective is to support the development of theoretical and practical knowledge to the students in attendance target of special educationin public schools.Thus, we believe that the demonstrations participant teachers are scoring on the need to participate in a process of continuous training on Special Education from the perspective of inclusive education.
Are there any similarities and/or differences in sex determination methods used in forensic dentistry and paleodontology?  [PDF]
Aleksandar Kova?evi?,Lea Gruengold
Bulletin of the International Association for Paleodontology , 2010,
Abstract: Estimation of sex is one of the most important procedures in the identification of an unknown person. Teeth are a potential source of information in that process. Estimation of sex in paleodontology is based on two approaches: visual inspection and statistical analysis. Many techniques have been developed within these two approaches. Forensic dentistry and paleodontology are two disciplines that share common observation platforms and methodology.
Learner evaluation of an online continuing medical education course for general practitioners  [cached]
Nandani de Silva
Sri Lanka Journal of Bio-Medical Informatics , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4038/sljbmi.v3i3.4470
Abstract: Societal expectations for quality medical care have made it imperative that doctors undergo Continuing Medical Education (CME) to keep abreast of new developments in medicine. Taking cognizance of the potential of ‘Online Learning’, the OUSL offered an online CME course on cardiovascular health for physicians.The course purchased from Monash University, Australia was updated and adapted to suit the Sri Lankan context. The course which was available in print format was converted into an online format on the learning management system ‘Moodle’. While designing the online format, the course was enriched by using audio visual material, discussion forums, self assessment activities and an online reflective journal. Online assessments included a variety of assessment methods. The course team functioned as tutor mentors to facilitate learning.All learners (n=21) participated in the evaluation of the course by completing an online questionnaire. The questionnaire had 16 closed questions and seven open ended questions. Responses to the closed questions were gathered on a four point Likert scale. Frequencies were computed for closed questions and content analysis was carried out for open-ended questions.Learners perceived interactive and collaborative learning as the most liked features. They agreed that the audiovisual material enriched the course and that sessions were well structured, easy to understand and interesting. Some disliked essays and reflective writing while others suggested more interaction and audio-visual material to improve the course. Problems faced by learners were mainly of a technical nature. Finally, learners expressed an overall satisfaction with the course and thought that online learning was a rewarding experience. Learner evaluation showed that pedagogy, social environment and technical underpinning should be properly utilised in optimising learning in an online learning environment. The course had provided an enjoyable, satisfying and useful experience for physicians who lack the opportunity of undergoing face to face CME.
Evaluation of Speakers at a National Continuing Medical Education (CME) Course
Jannette Collins, MD, MEd, FCCP
Medical Education Online , 2002,
Abstract: Purpose: Evaluations of a national radiology continuing medical education (CME) course in thoracic imaging were analyzed to determine what constitutes effective and ineffective lecturing. Methods and Materials: Evaluations of sessions and individual speakers participating in a five-day course jointly sponsored by the Society of Thoracic Radiology (STR) and the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) were tallied by the RSNA Department of Data Management and three members of the STR Training Committee. Comments were collated and analyzed to determine the number of positive and negative comments and common themes related to ineffective lecturing. Results: Twenty-two sessions were evaluated by 234 (75.7%) of 309 professional registrants. Eighty-one speakers were evaluated by an average of 153 registrants (range, 2 313). Mean ratings for 10 items evaluating sessions ranged from 1.28 2.05 (1=most positive, 4=least positive; SD .451 - .902). The average speaker rating was 5.7 (1=very poor, 7=outstanding; SD 0.94; range 4.3 6.4). Total number of comments analyzed was 862, with 505 (58.6%) considered positive and 404 (46.9%) considered negative (the total number exceeds 862 as a comment could consist of both positive and negative statements). Poor content was mentioned most frequently, making up 107 (26.5%) of 404 negative comments, and applied to 51 (63%) of 81 speakers. Other negative comments, in order of decreasing frequency, were related to delivery, image slides, command of the English language, text slides, and handouts. Conclusions: Individual evaluations of speakers at a national CME course provided information regarding the quality of lectures that was not provided by evaluations of grouped presentations. Systematic review of speaker evaluations provided specific information related to the types and frequency of features related to ineffective lecturing. This information can be used to design CME course evaluations, design future CME course outcomes studies, provide training to presenters, and monitor presenter performance.
Comparative study among Dentistry undergraduates and Forensic Odontology postgraduate students through smile photographs for human identification  [PDF]
Rhonan Ferreira da Silva,Laíse Nascimento Correa Lima,Leandro Brambilla Martorell,Mauro Machado do Prado
RSBO , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction: The execution of forensic odontology technique for human identification depends on the existence of dental files produced ante-mortem (dental records, clinical notes, radiographs or dental casts). However, when these are not present, other sources of dental data should be searched, such as photographs of the smile. Objective: To compare the performance of undergraduates of Dentistry and postgraduate students of Forensic Odontology to execute human identification through the analysis of photographs of the smile based on decisive dental parameters. Material and methods: Forty Dentistry undergraduates of a School of Dentistry (20 presenting history of orthodontic treatment and 20 without treatment were photographed as follows: 1) extraoral photograph of posed smile, at frontal position and; 2) intraoral photograph, at frontal position. Using these 40 pairs of photographs, four tests were prepared (A, B, C and D) which were sent to both 12 undergraduates of Dentistry and 12 postgraduate students of Forensic Odontology both from another School of Dentistry. The examiners should analyze and correlate a picture randomly and previously selected (photograph of the smile or intraoral photograph) with its corresponding one (photograph of the smile or intraoral photograph), which was set in a showcase composed by 10 images, by pointing out the main criteria for reaching a final conclusion. Results: All the subjects of the research, in both groups, correctly answered to test A (analysis of a photograph of the smile in a group of 10 intraoral photographs). The tests B (analysis of an intraoral photograph in a group of 10 photographs of the smile) and D (analysis of a photograph of the smile in a group of 10 intraoral photographs) had 91.6% success among postgraduate students; and test C (analysis of an intraoral photograph in a group of 10 photographs of the smile) had 83.3% success among undergraduate students. Conclusion: Among the most relevant parameters to achieve the result of Forensic dentistry identification through the analysis of photographs of the smile, the morphology of the incisal edges of anterior teeth was the aspect most often cited by both undergraduate students (83.3%) and postgraduate students (72.9%), within the 48 tests applied to each group. Most of the Dentistry undergraduates and Forensic Odontology postgraduate students were capable of performing the human identification through the analysis of photographs of the smile, considering the wide variety of potentially demonstrable dental characteristics of the anterior teeth.
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