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Traceability in Model-Based Testing  [PDF]
Mathew George,Klaus-Peter Fischer-Hellmann,Martin Knahl,Udo Bleimann,Shirley Atkinson
Future Internet , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/fi4041026
Abstract: The growing complexities of software and the demand for shorter time to market are two important challenges that face today’s IT industry. These challenges demand the increase of both productivity and quality of software. Model-based testing is a promising technique for meeting these challenges. Traceability modeling is a key issue and challenge in model-based testing. Relationships between the different models will help to navigate from one model to another, and trace back to the respective requirements and the design model when the test fails. In this paper, we present an approach for bridging the gaps between the different models in model-based testing. We propose relation definition markup language (RDML) for defining the relationships between models.
Testing and Traceability Aspects in the Context of the Model Driven Architecture (MDA)
Andrejs Grave
Scientific Journal of Riga Technical University. Computer Sciences , 2010, DOI: 10.2478/v10143-010-0024-8
Abstract: With the growth of complexity of the software systems it becomes more complicated to ensure and evaluate quality of the software being built. This paper discusses quality of the software in the context of the Model Driven Architecture. Paper analyses factors that affect quality of the software in the software development projects that are developed using MDA. As one of the important factor that affects quality of the software, is traceability. This paper provides description of the traceability property and importance of it within development of the software. Within context of this paper traceability is considered as a property of a system description technique that allows changes in one of the system descriptions to be traced to the corresponding portions of the other descriptions. This paper is focused on such aspects of the software development as testing and traceability in the context of MDA. Paper contains in review of traceability, MDA and traceability within MDA. Also paper contains description of the method for formal definition of the problem domain - called Topological functioning modeling for model driven architecture (TFMfMDA). This paper introduces method of the application of the TFM as the traceability tool. TFM as the traceability tool can be used to analyze impact of the changes and select most important tests.
SNPs for Parentage Testing and Traceability in Globally Diverse Breeds of Sheep  [PDF]
Michael P. Heaton, Kreg A. Leymaster, Theodore S. Kalbfleisch, James W. Kijas, Shannon M. Clarke, John McEwan, Jillian F. Maddox, Veronica Basnayake, Dustin T. Petrik, Barry Simpson, Timothy P. L. Smith, Carol G. Chitko-McKown, and the International Sheep Genomics Consortium
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094851
Abstract: DNA-based parentage determination accelerates genetic improvement in sheep by increasing pedigree accuracy. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers can be used for determining parentage and to provide unique molecular identifiers for tracing sheep products to their source. However, the utility of a particular “parentage SNP” varies by breed depending on its minor allele frequency (MAF) and its sequence context. Our aims were to identify parentage SNPs with exceptional qualities for use in globally diverse breeds and to develop a subset for use in North American sheep. Starting with genotypes from 2,915 sheep and 74 breed groups provided by the International Sheep Genomics Consortium (ISGC), we analyzed 47,693 autosomal SNPs by multiple criteria and selected 163 with desirable properties for parentage testing. On average, each of the 163 SNPs was highly informative (MAF≥0.3) in 48±5 breed groups. Nearby polymorphisms that could otherwise confound genetic testing were identified by whole genome and Sanger sequencing of 166 sheep from 54 breed groups. A genetic test with 109 of the 163 parentage SNPs was developed for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The scoring rates and accuracies for these 109 SNPs were greater than 99% in a panel of North American sheep. In a blinded set of 96 families (sire, dam, and non-identical twin lambs), each parent of every lamb was identified without using the other parent’s genotype. In 74 ISGC breed groups, the median estimates for probability of a coincidental match between two animals (PI), and the fraction of potential adults excluded from parentage (PE) were 1.1×10(?39) and 0.999987, respectively, for the 109 SNPs combined. The availability of a well-characterized set of 163 parentage SNPs facilitates the development of high-throughput genetic technologies for implementing accurate and economical parentage testing and traceability in many of the world’s sheep breeds.
Central Acceptance Testing for Camera Technologies for CTA  [PDF]
A. Bonardi,T. Buanes,P. Chadwick,F. Dazzi,A. F?rster,J. R. H?randel,M. Punch,R. M. Wagner for the CTA Consortium
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an international initiative to build the next generation ground based very-high energy gamma-ray observatory. It will consist of telescopes of three different sizes, employing several different technologies for the cameras that detect the Cherenkov light from the observed air showers. In order to ensure the compliance of each camera technology with CTA requirements, CTA will perform central acceptance testing of each camera technology. To assist with this, the Camera Test Facilities (CTF) work package is developing a detailed test program covering the most important performance, stability, and durability requirements, including setting up the necessary equipment. Performance testing will include a wide range of tests like signal amplitude, time resolution, dead-time determination, trigger efficiency, performance testing under temperature and humidity variations and several others. These tests can be performed on fully-integrated cameras using a portable setup at the camera construction sites. In addition, two different setups for performance tests on camera sub-units are being built, which can provide early feedback for camera development. Stability and durability tests will include the long-term functionality of movable parts, water tightness of the camera housing, temperature and humidity cycling, resistance to vibrations during transport or due to possible earthquakes, UV-resistance of materials and several others. Some durability tests will need to be contracted out because they will need dedicated equipment not currently available within CTA. The planned test procedures and the current status of the test facilities will be presented.
Supporting acceptance testing in distributed software projects with integrated feedback systems: Experiences and requirements  [PDF]
Olga Liskin,Christoph Herrmann,Eric Knauss,Thomas Kurpick,Bernhard Rumpe,Kurt Schneider
Computer Science , 2014, DOI: 10.1109/ICGSE.2012.34
Abstract: During acceptance testing customers assess whether a system meets their expectations and often identify issues that should be improved. These findings have to be communicated to the developers a task we observed to be error prone, especially in distributed teams. Here, it is normally not possible to have developer representatives from every site attend the test. Developers who were not present might misunderstand insufficiently documented findings. This hinders fixing the issues and endangers customer satisfaction. Integrated feedback systems promise to mitigate this problem. They allow to easily capture findings and their context. Correctly applied, this technique could improve feedback, while reducing customer effort. This paper collects our experiences from comparing acceptance testing with and without feedback systems in a distributed project. Our results indicate that this technique can improve acceptance testing if certain requirements are met. We identify key requirements feedback systems should meet to support acceptance testing.
Acceptance of referral for partners by clients testing positive for human immunodeficiency virus
Netsanet F, Dessie A
HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S39250
Abstract: cceptance of referral for partners by clients testing positive for human immunodeficiency virus Original Research (860) Total Article Views Authors: Netsanet F, Dessie A Published Date January 2013 Volume 2013:5 Pages 19 - 28 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S39250 Received: 16 October 2012 Accepted: 15 November 2012 Published: 24 January 2013 Fetene Netsanet,1 Ayalew Dessie2 1IMA World Health SuddHealth Multi Donor Trust Fund-Basic Package of Health Services Project, Juba, South Sudan; 2United States Agency for International Development, Private Health Sector Program, Abt Associates Inc, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals who do not disclose their HIV status to their partners are more likely to present late for HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) care than those who have disclosed their HIV status to their partners. A major area of challenge with regards to HIV counseling for clients is disclosure of their HIV status to their partners. The main methods of partner notification are patient referral, provider referral, contract referral, and outreach assistance. The emphasis on a plausible and comprehensive partner referral strategy for widespread positive case detection in resource-limited countries needs to be thought out and developed. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted among newly HIV-positive clients to identify partners for notification and acceptance of referral by their partners. Health service providers working in HIV testing and counseling clinics were also provided with semistructured questionnaires in order to assess their view towards partner notification strategies for clients testing positive for HIV. Results: Fifteen newly diagnosed HIV-positive clients were counseled to provide referral slips to their partners. All clients agreed and took the referral card. However, only eight were willing and actually provided the card to their partners. Five of the eight partners of clients who tested HIV-positive and who were provided with referral cards responded to the referral and were tested for HIV. Three were positive and two were negative. Nine of 11 counselors did not agree to requesting partner locator information from HIV-positive clients for contractual referral and/or outreach assistance. The findings from the study were categorized by nine themes. A comprehensive and integrated approach of partner notification and a referral framework with active counselor involvement was developed. Conclusion: Partner notification and referral can be improved by an integrated and comprehensive framework, with active involvement of HIV counselors in the disclosure process.
Acceptance of referral for partners by clients testing positive for human immunodeficiency virus
Netsanet F,Dessie A
HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care , 2013,
Abstract: Fetene Netsanet,1 Ayalew Dessie21IMA World Health SuddHealth Multi Donor Trust Fund-Basic Package of Health Services Project, Juba, South Sudan; 2United States Agency for International Development, Private Health Sector Program, Abt Associates Inc, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals who do not disclose their HIV status to their partners are more likely to present late for HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) care than those who have disclosed their HIV status to their partners. A major area of challenge with regards to HIV counseling for clients is disclosure of their HIV status to their partners. The main methods of partner notification are patient referral, provider referral, contract referral, and outreach assistance. The emphasis on a plausible and comprehensive partner referral strategy for widespread positive case detection in resource-limited countries needs to be thought out and developed.Methods: A qualitative study was conducted among newly HIV-positive clients to identify partners for notification and acceptance of referral by their partners. Health service providers working in HIV testing and counseling clinics were also provided with semistructured questionnaires in order to assess their view towards partner notification strategies for clients testing positive for HIV.Results: Fifteen newly diagnosed HIV-positive clients were counseled to provide referral slips to their partners. All clients agreed and took the referral card. However, only eight were willing and actually provided the card to their partners. Five of the eight partners of clients who tested HIV-positive and who were provided with referral cards responded to the referral and were tested for HIV. Three were positive and two were negative. Nine of 11 counselors did not agree to requesting partner locator information from HIV-positive clients for contractual referral and/or outreach assistance. The findings from the study were categorized by nine themes. A comprehensive and integrated approach of partner notification and a referral framework with active counselor involvement was developed.Conclusion: Partner notification and referral can be improved by an integrated and comprehensive framework, with active involvement of HIV counselors in the disclosure process.Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, partner notification and referral, partner locator information
High acceptance of home-based HIV counseling and testing in an urban community setting in Uganda
Juliet N Sekandi, Hassard Sempeera, Justin List, Micheal Mugerwa, Stephen Asiimwe, Xiaoping Yin, Christopher C Whalen
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-730
Abstract: A cross-sectional house-to-house survey was conducted in Rubaga division of Kampala from January-June 2009. Residents aged ≥ 15 years were interviewed and tested for HIV by trained nurse-counselors using the national standard guidelines. Acceptance of HBHCT was defined as consenting, taking the HIV test and receipt of results offered during the home visit. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine significant factors associated with acceptance of HBHCT.We enrolled 588 participants, 408 (69%, 95% CI: 66%-73%) accepted testing. After adjusting for confounding, being male (adj. OR 1.65; 95%CI 1.03, 2.73), age 25-34 (adj. OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.40, 0.94) and ≥35 years (adj. OR 0.30; 95%CI 0.17, 0.56), being previously married (adj. OR 3.22; 95%CI 1.49, 6.98) and previous HIV testing (adj. OR 0.50; 95%CI 0.30, 0.74) were significantly associated with HBHCT acceptance. Of 408 who took the test, 30 (7.4%, 95% CI: 4.8%- 9.9%) previously unknown HIV positive individuals were identified and linked to HIV care.Acceptance of home-based counseling and testing was relatively high in this urban setting. This strategy provided access to HIV testing for previously untested and unknown HIV-infected individuals in the community. Age, sex, marital status and previous HIV test history are important factors that may be considered when designing programs for home-based HIV testing in urban settings in Uganda.Worldwide, HIV counseling and testing (HCT) is a key intervention for HIV prevention and a critical entry point into life-sustaining treatment and care programmes [1-4]. As the scale-up to anti-retroviral treatment access continues to accelerate in Sub-Saharan Africa, innovative strategies to increase access to HCT services should be simultaneously implemented [5]. In the past decade, a variety of HIV counseling and testing approaches have been used, including provider-initiated testing and counseling as part of medical care, and client-initiated or voluntary te
Economic order quantity with imperfect quality, destructive testing acceptance sampling and inspection errors
Muhammad Al-Salamah
Advances in Management and Applied Economics , 2011,
Abstract: This paper proposes another realistic application of the economic order quantity EOQ model. Researchers have studied EOQ models that assume the received lot contains items that are perfect and imperfect. All models in the literature assume that the received lot goes through a 100% inspection to separate acceptable items from the non-acceptable items. This paper argues that 100% inspection is not always a cheap option to the buyer; instead, the received lot is subjected to an acceptance sampling plan before the lot can be accepted. In addition, for real life cases, destructive testing of items in the acceptance sample must be performed to test the acceptability of the items in the lot, as in packaged food and electrical wires. This paper will develop an EOQ model when items are of perfect and imperfect quality and a single acceptance sampling plan with destructive testing and inspection errors is adopted. It is assumed that when the lot is rejected, items in the rejected lot are sold at a secondary market at a reduced price and the buyer will place another order. It is also assumed that there are inspection errors.
Practice-based Perspective on Technology Acceptance: Analyzing Bioactive Point of Care Testing  [cached]
Ismo Alak?rpp?,Anu Valtonen
International Journal of Marketing Studies , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ijms.v3n3p13
Abstract: In this study, we focus on identifying the context-specific characteristics related to the use and adoption of a bioactive innovation. Through qualitative methodology the study focuses on the existing practices of point of care testing (POCT) in the human and pet health care and wellness markets. The empirical data was collected in Finland through individual interviews, target group discussions, and self-documentation packages. Our results show that innovation characteristics are reflected through the events of existing practices in the field. We conclude our findings by presenting a practice-based framework for the adoption of an innovation, highlighting the role of events in practices as well as their interaction with actors and innovation characteristics. This framework allows us to suggest that the acceptance of an innovation is closely connected with the acceptance of existing and emerging practices.
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