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The rate sensitivity and plastic deformation of nanocrystalline tantalum films at nanoscale  [cached]
Cao Zhenhua,She Qianwei,Huang Yongli,Meng Xiangkang
Nanoscale Research Letters , 2011,
Abstract: Nanoindentation creep and loading rate change tests were employed to examine the rate sensitivity (m) and hardness of nanocrystalline tetragonal Ta films. Experimental results suggested that the m increased with the decrease of feature scale, such as grain size and indent depth. The magnitude of m is much less than the corresponding grain boundary (GB) sliding deformation with m of 0.5. Hardness softening behavior was observed for smaller grain size, which supports the GB sliding mechanism. The rate-controlling deformation was interpreted by the GB-mediated processes involving atomic diffusion and the generation of dislocation at GB.
A study on rate sensitivity of elasto-plastic fracture toughness of TRIP steel evaluated by a small punch test  [cached]
Iwamoto T.,Hashimoto S.-ya,Shi L.
EPJ Web of Conferences , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/20122601004
Abstract: TRIP steel indicates an excellent characteristic in energy absorption because of its high ductility and strength by strain-induced martensitic transformation (SIMT). Recently, some shock absorption members are being used for automotive industries. For good fuel consumption of the automobile, it would realize the weight reduction without decaying performance if TRIP steel can be applied to those members. It can be considered that the fracture toughness is an important factor to evaluate the performance. To evaluate fracture toughness locally at any point of a product of those members, small punch testing method is quite effective. In the present study, first, an impact small punch testing apparatus is established. In addition, elasto-plastic fracture toughness of TRIP steel under impact loading and its rate sensitivity tested at various deflection rates are challenged to evaluate.
Designing Flexible GUI to Increase the Acceptance Rate of Product Data Management Systems in Industry  [PDF]
Zeeshan Ahmed
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: Product Data Management (PDM) desktop and web based systems maintain the organizational technical and managerial data to increase the quality of products by improving the processes of development, business process flows, change management, product structure management, project tracking and resource planning. Though PDM is heavily benefiting industry but PDM community is facing a very serious unresolved issue in PDM system development with flexible and user friendly graphical user interface for efficient human machine communication. PDM systems offer different services and functionalities at a time but the graphical user interfaces of most of the PDM systems are not designed in a way that a user (especially a new user) can easily learn and use them. Targeting this issue, a thorough research was conducted in field of Human Computer Interaction; resultant data provides the information about graphical user interface development using rich internet applications. The accomplished goal of this research was to support the field of PDM with a proposition of a conceptual model for the implementation of a flexible web based graphical user interface. The proposed conceptual model was successfully designed into implementation model and a resultant prototype putting values to the field is now available. Describing the proposition in detail the main concept, implementation designs and developed prototype is also discussed in this paper. Moreover in the end, prototype is compared with respective functions of existing PDM systems .i.e., Windchill and CIM to evaluate its effectiveness against targeted challenge
APPLICATION OF PROFITABILITY CONCEPT: A CASE IN THE PLASTIC RECYCLING INDUSTRY  [cached]
S.A. Oke,O.E. Charles-Owaba,I.O. Popoola
South African Journal of Industrial Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: ENGLISH ABSTRACT:In this article the principles of industrial engineering are applied to maximize the profitability of the recycling industry. A case in the plastic recycling industry is presented to demonstrate the practical application of the financial calculation functions developed in the paper. In particular, the profitability maximization concept for the plastic recycling industry was examined, based on the theory of demand and supply. By estimating the profit realizable on regular as well as high product demand, part of the objective of the paper was achieved. Inventory principles were further applied to determine optimum inventory levels. AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die beginsels van bedryfsingenieurswese word in die artikel toegepas om die maksimisering van winsgewendheid by herwinbaarheidsvraagstukke te bewerkstellig. 'n Voorbeeld wat voorkom by die herwinbaarheid van plastiek word voorgehou om te toon hoedat finansi le modellering aangewend kan word. Voorraadhouding onder toestande van stabiele en toenemende vraag word behandel en in besonderheid ondersoek.
Modeling and Analysis of Injection Moulding Process Parameters for Plastic Gear Industry Application  [PDF]
Nik Mizamzul Mehat,Shahrul Kamaruddin,Abdul Rahim Othman
ISRN Industrial Engineering , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/869736
Abstract: The performance of plastic gears in wide variety of power and motion transmission applications is rather limited due to weak mechanical properties and divergent mechanism of failures. A methodical simulation is carried out to analyze the gear performance with various gating system types, gate locations, and processing parameters via grey-based Taguchi optimization method. With the obtained optimum results in simulation stage, the flow patterns of polymer melt inside the mould during filling, packing, and cooling processes are studied and the plastic gear failures mechanism related to processing parameters are predicted. The output results in the future can be used as guidance in selecting the appropriate materials, improving part and mould design, and predicting the performance of the plastic gear before the real process of the part manufacturing takes place. 1. Introduction Gears have been in use for more than three thousand years and commonly utilized in power and motion transmission under different loads and speeds. Due to the fiscal and practical advantages, the demand of using plastics in gearing industry is significantly increased and indubitably continues in the future. In comparing with metal gears, plastic gears have several advantages such as light weight, noiseless running, resistance to corrosion, lower coefficients of friction, and ability to run under none lubricated conditions [1, 2]. Plastic gears can be produced by hobbing or shaping, likewise to metal gears or alternatively by injection moulding. With the continuous expansion of technology, plastic injection moulding bears itself to considerably more economical means of mass production to meet the rapidly rising market demand of plastic gearing in various applications. Injection moulded plastic gears have been used with success in the automotive industry, office machines, and household utensils, in food and textile machinery, as well as a host of other applications’ areas [3]. Unlike metal gears, the potential uses of plastic gear, however, are rather limited due to weak mechanical properties, poor heat conductors, and tendency to undergo creep [4]. Apart from that, the plastic gear tooth experiences complex stresses during service and can fail by divergent mechanism. Investigations on plastic gear failures were extensively conducted. Senthilvelan and Gnanamoorthy [5] observed different types of failures on the Nylon 66 spur gears such as gear tooth wear, cracking at the tooth surface, tooth root cracking, and severe shape deformation. In the review work of Breeds et al. [6] and Hooke
Practical Applications of Taguchi Method for Optimization of Processing Parameters for Plastic Injection Moulding: A Retrospective Review  [PDF]
Ng Chin Fei,Nik Mizamzul Mehat,Shahrul Kamaruddin
ISRN Industrial Engineering , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/462174
Abstract: Determining the optimal processing parameter is routinely performed in the plastic injection moulding industry as it has a direct and dramatic influence on product quality and costs. In this volatile and fiercely competitive market, traditional trial-and-error is no longer sufficient to meet the challenges of globalization. This paper aims to review the research of the practical use of Taguchi method in the optimization of processing parameters for injection moulding. Taguchi method has been employed with great success in experimental designs for problems with multiple parameters due to its practicality and robustness. However, it is realized that there is no single technique that appears to be superior in solving different kinds of problem. Improvements are to be expected by integrating the practical use of the Taguchi method into other optimization approaches to enhance the efficiency of the optimization process. The review will shed light on the standalone Taguchi method and integration of Taguchi method with various approaches including numerical simulation, grey relational analysis (GRA), principal component analysis (PCA), artificial neural network (ANN), and genetic algorithm (GA). All the features, advantages, and connection of the Taguchi-based optimization approaches are discussed. 1. Introduction Injection moulding has the highest efficiency, largest yield, and highest dimensional accuracy among all the processing methods. More than 1/3 of all thermoplastic materials are injection moulded and more than half of all polymer processing equipments are for injection moulding [1]. Nowadays, injection moulding bears the responsibility of mass-producing plastic components to meet the rapidly rising market demand as a multitude of different types of consumer products including medical, electronics, and automobile products are made of injection-moulded plastic parts [2]. Moreover, the final products, which exhibit good dimensional accuracy and excellent surface finish, have further proven the value of injection moulding process. However, as with any process, there are also some drawbacks associated with plastic injection moulding. Typically, injection moulding process is a cyclic process which consists of four significant phases: filling, cooling, packing, and ejection [3]. Hence, the complexity of injection moulding process creates a very intense effort to keep the quality characteristics under control. Product quality is the concern of the manufacturers and customers while high product quality consistency and high production rate is the key to the
Prospects of Energy Savings in the Jordanian Plastic Industry
A. Al-Ghandoor,I. Al-Hinti
Jordan Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering , 2007,
Abstract: With the rapid and sharp rise in energy prices in Jordan, energy cost is becoming a value that cannot be ignored in the Jordan’s industrial sector. However, there are still many practices adopted in industry that do not take energy efficiency as a prime consideration, but rather focus on immediate and direct savings in materials and machinery. This study examines potential opportunities of electrical energy savings in the Jordanian plastic industry. It demonstrates that electrical energy saving can be considered as a superior option to increase profit and competition within this sector. To achieve this purpose, detailed energy audits have been carried out for the most common plastic facilities in Jordan. An electrical energy conservation guideline is recommended and each recommendation is illustrated in terms of electrical energy savings, demand savings, cost savings, and payback period. A substantial annual electricity cost saving of 871,940 JD is reported in this study. This represents nearly 23% of the total plastic industry electricity bill with a payback period of less than 7 months. Thecontribution of electricity cost to the total value added can be reduced from 0.08 to 0.0616 (JD of electricity/JD of valueadded) if such recommendations are adopted.
Product Elimination in the Nigerian Insurance Industry
Aduloju, S. A.,Olowokudejo, F. F.,Oghojafor, B. E. A.
International Journal of Economic Development Research and Investment , 2011,
Abstract: Traditionally, organizations have focused their attention on new product development giving little or no consideration to product elimination. However, there is a growing interest in the way products are eliminated in order to prevent purchase discontinuity. This study presented empirically the ways products should be eliminated in the Nigerian insurance industry. Specifically, it examined the factors normally considered before elimination decisions are taken, and the key problems encountered during elimination processes. The data obtained through a structured questionnaire were analyzed and provided a ranking of the variables relevant to the elimination process. As observed, government policies and regulations as well as operational problems are the most important factors leading to elimination process in insurance industry. The paper also reported that the most difficult problem encountered during the elimination process is maintaining customer's goodwill.
Collaborative Product Development in PCB Industry
Chia-Jung Chang,Chih-Hsing Chu
International Journal of Electronic Business Management , 2004,
Abstract: Collaborative product development has become a critical issue for companies to strengthen their core competence and remain competitive in the global market due to the rapid change of global economics. However, most companies have a lack of experience in conducting collaborative design and implementing IT environment that facilitates it. To overcome these deficiencies, this research studies collaborative new product development (CNPD) in the PCB industry based on a case study of one major manufacturer in that sector worldwide. The current practices of the NPD, ODM, and OEM processes for IC substrate design are described. The implications of CNPD for the company are analyzed systematically from three levels: business model, operation process, and information technology. Each level is elaborated from four aspects: Early Readiness, Early Involvement, Multi-side Collaboration, and Design In. Finally, four success factors (C4): Commitment, Coordination, Control, and Creation, are identified for the introduction of CNPD.
Product Repositioning in the UK Newspaper Industry  [PDF]
Stefan Behringer
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2016.65099
Abstract: This paper investigates the alleged predatory behaviour in the UK quality newspaper industry in the 1990s in terms of product repositioning using a horizontal differentiation model and industry data. It supports the call for an effects based approach to competition law by showing that non-price conduct can be a critical and less visible, complementary means to achieve a predatory goal than mere price cuts.
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