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Substance abuse and intimate partner violence: treatment considerations
Keith C Klostermann
Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1747-597x-1-24
Abstract: While historically considered a private family matter, intimate partner violence (IPV) has more recently been conceptualized as a widespread public health concern, requiring the attention of both the treatment community and criminal justice system. In fact, representative surveys of couples, which include less severe instances of aggression, such as single occurrences of pushing or slapping one's partner, suggest rates of 15% to 20% annually for any husband-to-wife violence [1,2]. Yet, these estimates are dwarfed in comparison to those observed among married or cohabiting substance-abusing patients entering substance abuse treatment. More specifically, studies conducted over the last decade have consistently revealed that roughly 60% of substance-abusing men with intimate partners report at least one instance of IPV during the year prior to program entry. Given the increased use of family-involved assessments and interventions in substance abuse treatment programs, providers are increasingly faced with the challenge of addressing this complex clinical issue.Unfortunately, effective treatment options for providers who must deal with this issue are limited. To date, the typical answer has been for providers to refer these cases to agencies specializing in batterers' treatment. However, there are three fundamental problems with this strategy. First, many batterers' treatment programs will only accept individuals who are specifically mandated by the legal community to participate in IPV treatment. Yet, most patients in substance abuse treatment settings are not required to attend a batterers' program; in fact, a large majority of substance-abusing patients are not identified as having engaged in IPV or are only so identified after lengthy or careful assessment while receiving treatment for substance abuse. Second, in those instances in which batterers' programs will accept referrals of nonmandated substance-abusing patients, the vast majority of these patients typically
High Prevalence and Partner Correlates of Physical and Sexual Violence by Intimate Partners among Street and Off-Street Sex Workers  [PDF]
Elena Argento, Katherine A. Muldoon, Putu Duff, Annick Simo, Kathleen N. Deering, Kate Shannon
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102129
Abstract: Objectives Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with increased risk of HIV among women globally. There is limited evidence and understanding about IPV and potential HIV risk pathways among sex workers (SWs). This study aims to longitudinally evaluate prevalence and correlates of IPV among street and off-street SWs over two-years follow-up. Methods Longitudinal data were drawn from an open prospective cohort, AESHA (An Evaluation of Sex Workers Health Access) in Metro Vancouver, Canada (2010–2012). Prevalence of physical and sexual IPV was measured using the WHO standardized IPV scale (version 9.9). Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to examine interpersonal and structural correlates of IPV over two years. Results At baseline, 387 SWs had a male, intimate sexual partner and were eligible for this analysis. One-fifth (n = 83, 21.5%) experienced recent physical/sexual IPV at baseline and 26.2% over two-years follow-up. In multivariable GEE analysis, factors independently correlated with physical/sexual IPV in the last six months include: childhood (<18 years) sexual/physical abuse (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14–3.69), inconsistent condom use for vaginal and/or anal sex with intimate partner (AOR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.07–3.16),
History of Childhood Abuse, Sensation Seeking, and Intimate Partner Violence under/Not under the Influence of a Substance: A Cross-Sectional Study in Russia  [PDF]
Weihai Zhan, Alla V. Shaboltas, Roman V. Skochilov, Tatiana V. Krasnoselskikh, Nadia Abdala
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068027
Abstract: Objectives To examine correlates of perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence (IPV) under and not under the influence of a substance, we conducted a study among women in Russia. Methods In 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients receiving services at a clinic for sexually transmitted infections in St. Petersburg, Russia. Multinomial logistic regression was used for analysis. Results Of 299 women, 104 (34.8%) and 113 (37.8%) reported a history of IPV perpetration and victimization, respectively. Nearly half (47.1%) of perpetrators and 61.1% of victims reported that the latest IPV event (perpetration and victimization, respectively) was experienced under the influence of a substance. Factors independently associated with IPV victimization under the influence of a substance were alcohol misuse and a higher number of lifetime sex partners, whereas only experience of childhood abuse (emotional and physical abuse) was independently associated with IPV victimization that did not occur under the influence of a substance. Childhood physical abuse, lower age of first sex, sensation seeking, and alcohol misuse were independently associated with IPV perpetration under the influence of a substance, while only childhood abuse (emotional and physical abuse) was independently associated with IPV perpetration that did not occur under the influence of a substance. Conclusions IPV under and not under the influence of a substance had different correlates (e.g., alcohol misuse and sensation seeking). Despite the strong association between substance use and IPV, experience of childhood abuse is an important predictor of IPV perpetration and victimization in Russia, above and beyond substance use.
Evaluation of Health Outcomes with Relation to Intimate Partner Abuse among Pregnant Women Attending Gachsaran Hospitals in 2007
M Dolatian
Qom University of Medical Sciences Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background and Objectives Intimate partner abuse during pregnancy is a major problem associated with a variety of negative health outcomes. However, this relationship has not been adequately explored, especially in the developing countries. The present study seeks to determine the relationship between of intimate partner abuse and reproductive health outcome among pregnant women attending Gachsaran Hospitals in 2007. Methods This is a correlation descriptive study performed on 500 pregnant women attending Gachsaran hospitals chosen by convenience sampling. The data collecting instrument was a questionnaire which was completed by the researchers and consisted of the section: demographic characteristics of samples and their partners, questions related to abuse screening and information of health outcome. Validity and reliability of the tool were respectively established using content validity and test-retest technique. Results The findings of this study indicated that 48/6% of women during pregnancy had suffered abuse from their husbands and there were significant correlations between abuse and unwanted pregnancy, inadequate prenatal visit, short birth interval, lack of use of contraceptive methods and delay in the initiation of breast feeding. (>p0.05 ). Conclusion According to the results of this study, intimate partner abuse can negatively affect reproductive health of pregnant women. It is therefore, necessary to detect cases of intimate partner violence at a primary health care level.
Evaluation of Health Outcomes with Relation to Intimate Partner Abuse among Pregnant Women Attending Gachsaran Hospitals in 2007
M. Dolatian,M. Gharache,M. Ahamadi,J. Shams
Qom University of Medical Sciences Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Background and ObjectivesIntimate partner abuse during pregnancy is a major problem associated with a variety of negative health outcomes. However, this relationship has not been adequately explored, especially in the developing countries. The present study seeks to determine the relationship between of intimate partner abuse and reproductive health outcome among pregnant women attending Gachsaran Hospitals in 2007.MethodsThis is a correlation descriptive study performed on 500 pregnant women attending Gachsaran hospitals chosen by convenience sampling. The data collecting instrument was a questionnaire which was completed by the researchers and consisted of the section: demographic characteristics of samples and their partners, questions related to abuse screening and information of health outcome. Validity and reliability of the tool were respectively established using content validity and test-retest technique.ResultsThe findings of this study indicated that 48/6% of women during pregnancy had suffered abuse from their husbands and there were significant correlations between abuse and unwanted pregnancy, inadequate prenatal visit, short birth interval, lack of use of contraceptive methods and delay in the initiation of breast feeding. (>p0.05 ). ConclusionAccording to the results of this study, intimate partner abuse can negatively affect reproductive health of pregnant women. It is therefore, necessary to detect cases of intimate partner violence at a primary health care level. Keywords: Violence; Outcome Assessment (Health Care); Pregnancy.
Animal abuse and intimate partner violence: researching the link and its significance in Ireland - a veterinary perspective
B Gallagher, M Allen, B Jones
Irish Veterinary Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/2046-0481-61-10-658
Abstract: A number of recent studies have highlighted the relationship between non-accidental injury (NAI) in animals (also known as 'battered pet syndrome') and domestic violence [20,3,6,15]. Further research identifies that intimate partner violence, abuse of children and abuse of companion pets tends to occur in the same families ([9,1,2]; Boat, 1995; [6,15,14]). Flynn [15] found that 46.5% of women using a refuge in South Carolina reported that their abuser had either harmed or threatened to harm their pets. Other studies have suggested a higher prevalence. Ascione [5] demonstrated that almost two-thirds of women who suffered domestic violence also witnessed abuse of, or threats to, their pets. A study in the United Kingdom identified similar statistics, with 66% of women in one survey reporting threats, and 38% reporting actual abuse of their pet [26]. This data indicates that animal abuse in the context of interpersonal violence is likely to be more prevalent and universal than was previously realised. While it is likely that similar patterns of multiple forms of abuse can be found in Ireland, no Irish study has examined this aspect of intimate partner violence.The purpose of this study, undertaken by veterinary practitioners and a social worker, was to examine the 'link' between domestic violence and animal abuse in Ireland, and to establish to what extent the abuse of pets is used to control women within an abusive relationship. In doing so, the aim is to raise awareness of the 'link' amongst the staff of women's refuges, social workers, childcare workers and veterinary practitioners.Official Irish statistics place reports of violence against women within European and US figures, with the only Irish national prevalence study to-date [19] showing that 18% of women had, at some time in their lives, been victims of emotional, sexual or physical violence, or subject to threats of violence, and had their property or pets damaged, by male intimate partners. European Union f
Correlation Between Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and Risk of Substance Abuse and Depression among African-American Women Seen in an Urban Emergency Department  [cached]
Hankin, Abigail,Smith, L. Shakiyla,Daugherty, Jill,Houry, Debra
Western Journal of Emergency Medicine : Integrating Emergency Care with Population Health , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: To assess rates of substance abuse (including tobacco, alcohol, and drug abuse) as well as rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among African-American women seen in an urban Emergency Department (ED). Methods: Eligible participants included all African-American women between the ages of 21-55 years old who were seen in an urban ED for any complaint, and who were triaged to the waiting room. Eligible women who consented to participate were taken to complete a computer-based survey that focused on demographic information and general health questions as well as standardized instruments including the Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA), the Tolerance, Worried, Eye openers, Amnesia, K(C)ut down (TWEAK) screen for alcohol abuse, Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST20), and Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC). This analysis uses results from a larger study evaluating the effects of providing patients with targeted educational literature based on the results of their screening. Results: 610 women were surveyed. Among these, 85 women (13.9%) screened positive for IPV. Women who screened positive for IPV were significantly more likely to also screen positive for tobacco abuse (56% vs. 37.5%, p< 0.001), alcohol abuse (47.1% vs. 23.2%, p < 0.001), and drug abuse (44.7% vs. 9.5%, p<0.001). Women who screened positive for IPV were also more likely to screen positive for depression and to report social isolation. Conclusion: African-American women seen in the ED, who screen positive for IPV, are at significantly higher risk of drug, alcohol, tobacco abuse, depression and social isolation than women who do not screen positive for IPV. These findings have important implications for ED-based and community-based social services for women who are victims of intimate partner violence. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3): 253-257.]
Screening on Perpetration and Victimization of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV): Two Studies on the Validity of an IPV Screening Instrument in Patients in Substance Abuse Treatment  [PDF]
Fleur L. Kraanen, Ellen Vedel, Agnes Scholing, Paul M. G. Emmelkamp
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063681
Abstract: Background About 50% of patients in substance abuse treatment with a partner perpetrated and/or experienced intimate partner violence in the past year. To date, there are no screeners to identify both perpetrators and victims of partner intimate violence in a substance abusing population. We developed a 4 item screening instrument for this purpose, the Jellinek Inventory for assessing Partner Violence (J-IPV). Important strengths of the J-IPV are that it takes only 2 minutes to administer and is easy to use and to score. Methods To investigate the validity of the J-IPV, two independent studies were conducted including 98 and 99 participants, respectively. Aim of the second study was to cross-validate findings from the first study. Psychometric properties of the J-IPV were determined by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and positive and negative likelihood ratio’s by comparing J-IPV outcomes to outcomes on the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (‘gold standard’). Also, receiver operator characteristics (ROC)-curves were determined to weight sensitivity and specificity as a result of different J-IPV cutoffs, and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Results Results of the first study demonstrated that the J-IPV possesses good psychometric properties to detect perpetrators and victims of any as well as severe intimate partner violence. Results from the second study replicated findings from the first study. Conclusions We recommend administering the J-IPV to patients entering substance abuse treatment. If perpetrators and victims of partner violence are identified, action can be taken to stop IPV perpetration and arrange help for victims, for example by offering perpetrators treatment or by providing safety planning or advocacy interventions to victims.
Intimate Partner Violence in African American Women
Campbell, D., Sharps, P., Gary, F., Campbell, J., Lopez, L
Online Journal of Issues in Nursing , 2002,
Abstract: Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women.
Magnitude and Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence against Women and Its Outcome in Southwest Ethiopia  [PDF]
Kebede Deribe, Biruk Kebede Beyene, Anbessu Tolla, Peter Memiah, Sibhatu Biadgilign, Alemayehu Amberbir
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036189
Abstract: Background Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a major public health problem with serious consequences. This study was conducted to assess the magnitude of IPV in Southwest Ethiopia in predominantly rural community. Methods This community based cross-sectional study was conducted in May, 2009 in Southwest Ethiopia using the World Health Organization core questionnaire to measure violence against women. Trained data collectors interviewed 851 ever-married women. Stata version 10.1 software and SPSS version 12.0.1 for windows were used for data analysis. Result In this study the life time prevalence of sexual or physical partner violence, or both was 64.7% (95%CI: 61.4%–67.9%). The lifetime sexual violence [50.1% (95% CI: 46.7%–53.4%)] was considerably more prevalent than physical violence [41.1% (95%:37.8–44.5)]. A sizable proportion [41.5%(95%CI: 38.2%–44.8%)] of women reported physical or sexual violence, or both, in the past year. Men who were controlling were more likely to be violent against their partner. Conclusion Physical and sexual violence is common among ever-married women in Southwest Ethiopia. Interventions targeting controlling men might help in reducing IPV. Further prospective longitudinal studies among ever-married women are important to identify predictors and to study the dynamics of violence over time.
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