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Demand Response Management For Power Throttling Air Conditioning Loads In Residential Smart Grids  [PDF]
Yawar Ismail Khalid,Naveed Ul Hassan,Chau Yuen,Shisheng Huang
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: In this paper we develop an algorithm for peak load reduction to reduce the impact of increased air conditioner usage in a residential smart grid community. We develop Demand Response Management (DRM) plans that clearly spell out the maximum duration as well as maximum severity of inconvenience. We model the air conditioner as a power throttling device and for any given DRM plan we study the impact of increasing the number of power states on the resulting peak load reduction. Through simulations, we find out that adding just one additional state to the basic ON/OFF model, which can throttle power to 50% of the rated air conditioner power, can result in significant amount of peak reduction. However, the peak load that can be reduced is diminishing with the increase in number of states. Furthermore, we also observe the impact of inconvenience duration and inconvenience severity in terms of peak load reduction. These observations can serve as useful guidelines for developing appropriate DRM plans.
Statistical Review of UK Residential Sector Electrical Loads  [PDF]
G. Tsagarakis,A. J. Collin,A. E. Kiprakis
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1515/ijeeps-2013-0078
Abstract: This paper presents a comprehensive statistical review of data obtained from a wide range of literature on the most widely used electrical appliances in the UK residential load sector. It focuses on individual appliances and begins by consideration of the electrical operations performed by the load. This approach allows for the loads to be categorised based on the electrical characteristics, and also provides information on the reactive power characteristics of the load, which is often neglected from standard consumption statistics. This data is particularly important for power system analysis. In addition to this, device ownership statistics and probability distribution functions of power demand are presented for the main residential loads. Although the data presented is primarily intended as a resource for the development of load profiles for power system analysis, it contains a large volume of information which provides a useful database for the wider research community.
Energy Consumption Monitoring Analysis for Residential, Educational and Public Buildings  [PDF]
Allan Hani, Teet-Andrus Koiv
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2012.33032
Abstract: In the present article thermal and electrical energy consumptions for different types of buildings are analyzed. The latitude and longitude of the researched area are defined 59?00'N and 26?00'E. According to K?ppen climate classification the area is located in warm summer continental climate. The study consist 40 residential, 7 educational and 44 public buildings. Three years data for each building type among 2006-2011 was used. Several detailed energy balances are presented for apartment buildings. In addition the different ways of domestic hot water preparation are analyzed for apartment buildings. The school buildings average consumption values are represented in study. Also valuable information of measured electrical energy consumption balance for a new office building is presented. Finally there is included the energy consumption analysis of public buildings.
A comparison of non-intrusive load monitoring methods for commercial and residential buildings  [PDF]
Nipun Batra,Oliver Parson,Mario Berges,Amarjeet Singh,Alex Rogers
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Non intrusive load monitoring (NILM), or energy disaggregation, is the process of separating the total electricity consumption of a building as measured at single point into the building's constituent loads. Previous research in the field has mostly focused on residential buildings, and although the potential benefits of applying this technology to commercial buildings have been recognised since the field's conception, NILM in the commercial domain has been largely unexplored by the academic community. As a result of the heterogeneity of this section of the building stock (i.e., encompassing buildings as diverse as airports, malls and coffee shops), and hence the loads within them, many of the solutions developed for residential energy disaggregation do not apply directly. In this paper we highlight some insights for NILM in the commercial domain using data collected from a large smart meter deployment within an educational campus in Delhi, India, of which a subset of the data has been released for public use. We present an empirical characterisation of loads in commercial buildings, highlighting the differences in energy consumption and load characteristics between residential and commercial buildings. We assess the validity of the assumptions generally made by NILM solutions for residential buildings when applied to measurements from commercial facilities. Based on our observations, we discuss the required traits for a NILM system for commercial buildings, and run benchmark residential NILM algorithms on our data set to confirm our observations. To advance the research in commercial buildings energy disaggregation, we release a subset of our data set, called COMBED (commercial building energy data set).
Dragoslav ?umarac,Maja Todorovi?,Maja Djurovi? - Petrovi?,Nata?a Tri?ovi?
Thermal Science , 2010, DOI: tsci100430017s
Abstract: In this paper, presented is the state of the art of Energy Efficiency (EE) of residential buildings in Serbia. Special attention is paid to energy efficiency in already existing buildings. The average energy consumption in residential buildings in Serbia is over 150 kWh/m2 per year, while in developed European countries it is about 50 kWh/m2 per year. In this paper examined is the contribution of ventilation losses, through the windows of low quality, regardless whether they are poorly made, or made from bad materials, or with no adequate glass. Besides ventilation losses, which are of major importance in our buildings, special attention is paid to transmission losses, which are consequence of the quality and energy efficiency of the facade. All of the above statements are proved by measurements obtained on a representative building of the Block 34 in New Belgrade, built in the eighties of the last century. In addition to measurements performed the calculation of energy consumption for heating during winter has been made. The results of two different methods of calculation of energy consumption for heating are compared with the values obtained by measuring.
Efficiency Analysis of Independent and Centralized Heating Systems for Residential Buildings in Northern Italy  [PDF]
Matteo Zago,Andrea Casalegno,Renzo Marchesi,Fabio Rinaldi
Energies , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/en4112115
Abstract: The primary energy consumption in residential buildings is determined by the envelope thermal characteristics, air change, outside climatic data, users’ behaviour and the adopted heating system and its control. The new Italian regulations strongly suggest the installation of centralized boilers in renovated buildings with more than four apartments. This work aims to investigate the differences in primary energy consumption and efficiency among several independent and centralized heating systems installed in Northern Italy. The analysis is carried out through the following approach: firstly building heating loads are evaluated using the software TRNSYS ? and, then, heating system performances are estimated through a simplified model based on the European Standard EN 15316. Several heating systems have been analyzed, evaluating: independent and centralized configurations, condensing and traditional boilers, radiator and radiant floor emitters and solar plant integration. The heating systems are applied to four buildings dating back to 2010, 2006, 1960s and 1930s. All the combinations of heating systems and buildings are analyzed in detail, evaluating efficiency and primary energy consumption. In most of the cases the choice between centralized and independent heating systems has minor effects on primary energy consumption, less than 3%: the introduction of condensing technology and the integration with solar heating plant can reduce energy consumption by 11% and 29%, respectively.
Modeling and Validation of Electrical Load Profiling in Residential Buildings in Singapore  [PDF]
Luo Chuan,Abhisek Ukil
Computer Science , 2015, DOI: 10.1109/TPWRS.2014.2367509
Abstract: The demand of electricity keeps increasing in this modern society and the behavior of customers vary greatly from time to time, city to city, type to type, etc. Generally, buildings are classified into residential, commercial and industrial. This study is aimed to distinguish the types of residential buildings in Singapore and establish a mathematical model to represent and model the load profile of each type. Modeling household energy consumption is the first step in exploring the possible demand response and load reduction opportunities under the smart grid initiative. Residential electricity load profiling includes the details on the electrical appliances, its energy requirement, and consumption pattern. The model is generated with a bottom-up load model. Simulation is performed for daily load profiles of 1 or 2 rooms, 3 rooms, 4 rooms and 5 rooms public housing. The simulated load profile is successfully validated against the measured electricity consumption data, using a web-based Customer Energy Portal (CEP) at the campus housings of Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
The Thermal Performance of Traditional Residential Buildings in Kathmandu Valley  [PDF]
Sushil B. Bajracharya
Journal of the Institute of Engineering , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/jie.v10i1.10898
Abstract: This paper seeks to investigate into the aspects of thermal performance of traditional residential buildings in traditional settlements of Kathmandu valley. This study proceeds to analyze the detailed field data collected, with a view to identify the indoor thermal environment with respect to outdoor thermal environment in different seasons. This paper also compares the thermal performance of traditional buildings with modern residential buildings of traditional settlements of the valley. There is a regression analysis to obtain information about the thermal environment of different traditional and modern residential buildings with different conditions. The paper concludes that, thermal performance of traditional residential building, adapted in various ways to the changing thermal regime for thermal comfort is better than that of contemporary buildings. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jie.v10i1.10898 Journal of the Institute of Engineering , Vol. 10, No. 1, 2014, ?pp. 172–183
Overall Thermal Transfer Value of Residential Buildings in Malaysia  [PDF]
R. Saidur,M. Hasanuzzaman,M.M. Hasan,H.H. Masjuki
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: This study presents the Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV) and the energy consumption of room air conditioners of the residential buildings in Malaysia. A survey has been conducted to investigate the OTTV and the energy consumption of room air conditioners of the residential buildings in Malaysia. OTTV calculation, energy consumption and effect of the building parameters on energy consumption have been investigated. It is found that OTTV of the residential buildings in Malaysia varied from 35 to 65 W m-2 with a mean value of 41.7 W m-2. The sensitivities of several parameters such as window to wall ratio (WWR), Shading Coefficient (SC), U-value for wall (Uw) and solar absorption (α) are provided to design and optimize the thermal performance of residential buildings. It is found that U and α influence more on OTTV compared to other parameters. The analysis shows that about 14, 10 and 5% of residential building air conditioners have annual electricity consumption in the ranges 500 to 1000 kWh, 1000 to 2000 kWh and 7500 to 10000 kWh, respectively. The maximum, minimum and average annual electricity consumption of the air conditioner of residential buildings is 22055.5, 136.1 and 3708.8 kWh, respectively.
Numerical prediction of wind loads on low buildings
S Ahmad, M Muzzammil, I Zaheer
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: In the present study, 2-D numerical simulation of wind loads on low-rise buildings has been carried out. The simulation was carried out under FLUENT package environment in which full-scale Reynolds number, boundary layer and turbulence properties have been simulated. Wind loading effect numerically obtained on flat roof (TTU building) and pitched roof is compared with wind tunnel data. It was found that there is fair agreement between the numerical predictions and measurements for time-averaged wind loads on buildings. The computed pressure coefficients have been validated with wind tunnel TTU building model results on 1:100 scale within an average error of 20%. The effect of roof pitch for 10°, 20° & 30° on pressure coefficients for gable roof has also been investigated and the results were compared with the available wind tunnel results for 15°, 26° & 35° roof pitch. The present study shows that the numerical simulation of wind loads hold a great potential for extending codes of practice for wind loads.
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