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Node Disjoint-Virtual Circuit Approach in Ad Hoc On-Demand Multipath Distance Vector Routing to offer Quality of Service in Ad Hoc Networks
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: Multi-path routing represents a promising routing method for wireless mobile ad hoc networks. Multipath routing achieves load balancing and is more resilient to route failures. Numerous multipath routing protocols have been proposed for wireless ad hoc networks and the most important among them is Ad hoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV). By virtual circuit approach, using the property of node disjointness, its performance is evaluated. The simulation in Network Simulator (ns2) shows that it is good in its throughput with packet delivery ratio with less delay. The results conclude that AOMDV performs well than Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) in all above said aspects.
A Multipath Energy-Aware On demand Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks  [PDF]
Saloua Chettibi,M. Benmohamed
Computer Science , 2009,
Abstract: Energy consumption is the most challenging issue in routing protocol design for mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs), since mobile nodes are battery powered. Furthermore, replacing or recharging batteries is often impossible in critical environments such as in military or rescue missions. In a MANET, the energy depletion of a node does not affect the node itself only, but the overall network lifetime. In this paper, we present multipath and energy-aware on demand source routing (MEA-DSR) protocol, which exploits route diversity and information about batteries-energy levels for balancing energy consumption between mobile nodes. Simulation results, have shown that MEA-DSR protocol is more energy efficient than DSR in almost mobility scenarios.
Robust On-Demand Multipath Routing with Dynamic Path Upgrade for Delay-Sensitive Data over Ad Hoc Networks  [PDF]
Sunil Kumar,Siddharth Khimsara,Kashyap Kambhatla,Kalyani Girivanesh,John D. Matyjas,Michael Medley
Journal of Computer Networks and Communications , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/791097
Abstract: Node mobility in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) causes frequent route breakages and intermittent link stability. In this paper, we introduce a robust routing scheme, known as ad hoc on-demand multipath distance vector with dynamic path update (AOMDV-DPU), for delay-sensitive data transmission over MANET. The proposed scheme improves the AOMDV scheme by incorporating the following features: (i) a routing metric based on the combination of minimum hops and received signal strength indicator (RSSI) for discovery of reliable routes; (ii) a local path update mechanism which strengthens the route, reduces the route breakage frequency, and increases the route longevity; (iii) a keep alive mechanism for secondary route maintenance which enables smooth switching between routes and reduces the route discovery frequency; (iv) a packet salvaging scheme to improve packet delivery in the event of a route breakage; and (v) low HELLO packet overhead. The simulations are carried out in ns-2 for varying node speeds, number of sources, and traffic load conditions. Our AOMDV-DPU scheme achieves significantly higher throughput, lower delay, routing overhead, and route discovery frequency and latency compared to AOMDV. For H.264 compressed video traffic, AOMDV-DPU scheme achieves 3?dB or higher PSNR gain over AOMDV at both low and high node speeds. 1. Introduction Wireless mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) are usually bandwidth limited and characterized by time-varying error-prone channels due to node mobility, resulting in the link loss, route breakage, and short route lifetime. These characteristics pose a serious challenge in designing efficient routing schemes, especially for supporting the delay-sensitive traffic such as video streaming. The proactive routing protocols (e.g., destination sequenced distance vector (DSDV) [1] and optimized link state routing (OLSR) [2]) generate too much overhead in MANET because they find paths in advance for all source and destination pairs and periodically exchange topology information to maintain them, even when no data is being transmitted [3, 4]. In contrast, the reactive routing protocols (e.g., ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) [5] and dynamic source routing (DSR) [6]) have lower overhead as they find a route from the source to destination as and when required [3, 4]. Many on-demand routing protocols proposed for MANET in the past do not sufficiently address the issue of frequent route breakage due to high node mobility. Two approaches employed to overcome this problem are (i) frequent link updates along the route to notify
An Aggregated Multipath Routing Scheme for Ad Hoc Networks

GUO Xiao-Feng,CHEN Yue-Quan,CHEN Gui-Hai,

软件学报 , 2004,
Abstract: In this paper, a new scheme called aggregated multipath routing (AMR) is presented. In ad hoc networks, routing has been the most focused area for its nodes?mobility and topology variability. Now most of the on-demand routing protocols for current ad hoc networks build and rely on single route for each data session. It is proved in wireless networks that multipath routing is more effective and efficient than single path routing. So multipath routing protocols have been developed for ad hoc networks recently. Whereas these protocols have not provided a good scheme for the source node to collect enough information, a scheme called aggregated multipath routing is proposed. This scheme saves routing information in the source node, uses it to construct multipath, and sends data through these paths alternatively or simultaneously.
Enhanced Ad-Hoc on Demand Multipath Distance Vector Routing protocol  [PDF]
Sujata V. Mallapur,Sujata Terdal
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: Due to mobility in Ad-Hoc network the topology of the network may change randomly, rapidly and unexpectedly, because of these aspects, the routes in the network often disappear and new to arise. To avoid frequent route discovery and route failure EAOMDV was proposed based on existing routing protocol AOMDV. The EAOMDV (Enhanced Ad-Hoc on Demand Multipath Distance Vector) Routing protocol was proposed to solve the "route failure" problem in AOMDV. EAOMDV protocol reduces the route failure problem by preemptively predicting the link failure by the signal power received by the receiver (pr). This proposed protocol controls overhead, increases throughput and reduces the delay. The EAOMDV protocol was implemented on NS-2 and evaluation results show that the EAOMDV outperformed AOMDV.
Minimum energy node-disjoint multipath routing based on correlation factor in Ad Hoc networks

YANG Jun-li,LIU Ming,

计算机应用 , 2006,
Abstract: The energy of network nodes is supplied by battery,once exhausted can not charge up,therefore,energy management is an important aspect for Ad hoc network.Although using multipath routing can reduce energy consumption,the wireless multicast brings about serious collision problem,even if node-disjoint multipath.A minimum energy node-disjoint multipath routing algorithm was put forward based on correlation factor.In this algorithm,correlation factor was introduced to weigh the collision probability between node-disjoint multipath when transmitting data simultaneously,then a upper limit for correlation factor was calculated according to service requirements,finally a minimum energy node-disjoint multipath routing was found to satisfy the limit.The simulation results show that the algorithm can obviously reduce the packet loss rate,and doesn't add energy consumption or prolong the time of finding routing compared to pure minimum energy algorithm STPS(Source Transmit Power Selection Algorithm).
A QoS Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Based on Multipath  [cached]
Sihai Zheng,Layuan Li,Yong Li
Journal of Networks , 2012, DOI: 10.4304/jnw.7.4.691-698
Abstract: With the development of Ad Hoc networks, the demand of QoS becomes more and more than ever before, it is more important to provide QoS guarantee for multimedia application. Most of present QoS routing algorithm based on single path, which do not take full advantage of resource of networks. This paper proposes a QoS-based multipath routing protocol for Ad Hoc network. Routing mechanism is described in detail and node disjoint path algorithm is a key. New routing protocol takes bandwidth and delay constraint into account, it can find several paths to provide QoS guarantee. Also, it can simultaneously use the node disjoint paths to transmit application data flow. The results of experiment show new protocol can significantly increase the packet delivery ratio and decrease the average delay, the performance is better than other protocols. This paper provides a good idea to study further QoS routing protocol.
An Energy-Aware Multipath Routing Algorithm for Ad hoc Networks
一种具有能量感知的多路径Ad hoc路由算法

Chen Jin-lun,Jiang Ting,Zhou Zheng,
,蒋 挺,周 正

电子与信息学报 , 2006,
Abstract: In mobile Ad hoc networks, the topology is dynamic, the energy of node is always limited, and there are always asymmetric links between nodes. This paper presents an Energy-Aware Multipath Routing Algorithm(EAMRA) which intends to prolong the TTL(Time-To-Live) of this kind of mobile Ad hoc networks. EAMRA is a connection-oriented and reactive path-pool-based routing algorithm which chooses randomly the routing for user data according to path metrics. The path metrics, reliability and residual-energy, are updated in communication process. The simulation results show that EAMRA can effectively prolong the TTL of mobile Ad hoc networks.
An Efficient Multipath Routing Protocol for Cognitive Ad hoc Networks  [PDF]
Ms. Rohini D. Pochhi,Prof. R. P. Deshmukh,Prof. P. D. Dorge
International Journal of Advanced Electrical and Electronics Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: A cognitive radio is designed for the utilization of unused frequency. The transmission opportunity of a cognitive node is not guaranteed due to the presence of primary users (PUs). The performance of Cognitive Radio Adhoc Networks (CRAHNS) will significantly degrade when there are faulty nodes in the network. To provide efficient fault tolerance in the sense of faster and efficient recovery from route failure in CRAHNS, in this paper we present a multipath routing protocol, that uses on-demand distance vector routing, called Ad hoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV) Routing Protocol. The various parameters have to evaluate. Since here we initially discuss about the packet transmission over number of nodes with effective end- to-end delay. Here we also analyze its performance using Network simulator (NS-2) software tool for the simulation purpose to give effective result of cognitive radio ad hoc networks.
QoS in Node-Disjoint Routing for Ad Hoc Networks  [PDF]
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2008, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2008.11011
Abstract: Ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes that can communicate with each other without using any fixed infrastructure. To support multimedia applications such as video and voice MANETs require an efficient routing protocol and quality of service (QoS) mechanism. Node-Disjoint Multipath Routing Protocol (NDMR) is a practical protocol in MANETs: it reduces routing overhead dramatically and achieves multiple node-disjoint routing paths. QoS support in MANETs is an important issue as best-effort routing is not efficient for supporting multimedia applications. This paper presents a novel adaptation of NDMR, QoS enabled NDMR, which introduces agent-based SLA management. This enhancement allows for the intelligent selection of node-disjoint routes based on network conditions, thus fulfilling the QoS requirements of Service Level Agreements (SLAs).
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