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A Fully Automated Environment for Verification of Virtual Prototypes  [cached]
Belanovi? P,Knerr B,Holzer M,Rupp M
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing , 2006,
Abstract: The extremely dynamic and competitive nature of the wireless communication systems market demands ever shorter times to market for new products. Virtual prototyping has emerged as one of the most promising techniques to offer the required time savings and resulting increases in design efficiency. A fully automated environment for development of virtual prototypes is presented here, offering maximal efficiency gains, and supporting both design and verification flows, from the algorithmic model to the virtual prototype. The environment employs automated verification pattern refinement to achieve increased reuse in the design process, as well as increased quality by reducing human coding errors.
Fully Automated Shape Analysis Based on Forest Automata  [PDF]
Lukas Holik,Ondrej Lengal,Adam Rogalewicz,Jiri Simacek,Tomas Vojnar
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Forest automata (FA) have recently been proposed as a tool for shape analysis of complex heap structures. FA encode sets of tree decompositions of heap graphs in the form of tuples of tree automata. In order to allow for representing complex heap graphs, the notion of FA allowed one to provide user-defined FA (called boxes) that encode repetitive graph patterns of shape graphs to be used as alphabet symbols of other, higher-level FA. In this paper, we propose a novel technique of automatically learning the FA to be used as boxes that avoids the need of providing them manually. Further, we propose a significant improvement of the automata abstraction used in the analysis. The result is an efficient, fully-automated analysis that can handle even as complex data structures as skip lists, with the performance comparable to state-of-the-art fully-automated tools based on separation logic, which, however, specialise in dealing with linked lists only.
Endoscopic and anesthetic feasibility of EUS and ERCP combined in a single session versus two different sessions  [cached]
Juan J Vila, Marcos Kutz, Silvia Go?i, Miriam Ostiz, Edurne Amorena, Carlos Prieto, Cristina Rodriguez, Ignacio Fernández-Urien, Francisco J Jiménez
World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy , 2011,
Abstract: AIM: To discuss the feasibility of single session endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) to discuss and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) execution.METHODS: Retrospective endoscopic and anesthetic outcome comparison of performing both EUS and ERCP in a single endoscopic session (Group I) versus performing each procedure in two different sessions (Group II) was made. The following variables were evaluated: epidemiological variables, American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Classification (ASA) level, procedural time, propofol dose, anesthetic complications, endoscopic complications and diagnostic yield, and therapeutic procedures on both groups. T-student, Chi-Square and Fisher test were used for comparison.RESULTS: We included 39 patients in Group I (mean age: 69.85 ± 9.25; 27 men) and 46 in Group II (mean age: 67.46 ± 12.57; 25 men). Procedural time did not differ significantly between both groups (Group Ivs Group II: 93 ± 32.78 vs 98.98 ± 38.17; P >0.05) but the dose of propofol differed (Group I vs Group II: 322.28 ± 250.54 mg vs 516.96 ± 289.06 mg; P = 0.001). Three patients had normal findings on both explorations. Three anesthetic complications [O2 desaturation (2), broncoaspiration (1)] and 9 endoscopic complications [pancreatitis (6), bleeding (1), perforation (1), cholangitis (1)] occurred without significant differences between both groups (P > 0.05). We did not find any significant difference regarding age, sex, ASA scale level, diagnostic yield or therapeutic maneuvers between both groups.CONCLUSION: The performance of EUS and ERCP in a single session offers a similar diagnostic and therapeutic yield, does not entail a higher complication risk and requires a significantly smaller dose of propofol for sedation compared with performing each exploration in a different session.
A Fully Automated High-Throughput Training System for Rodents  [PDF]
Rajesh Poddar, Risa Kawai, Bence P. ?lveczky
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083171
Abstract: Addressing the neural mechanisms underlying complex learned behaviors requires training animals in well-controlled tasks, an often time-consuming and labor-intensive process that can severely limit the feasibility of such studies. To overcome this constraint, we developed a fully computer-controlled general purpose system for high-throughput training of rodents. By standardizing and automating the implementation of predefined training protocols within the animal’s home-cage our system dramatically reduces the efforts involved in animal training while also removing human errors and biases from the process. We deployed this system to train rats in a variety of sensorimotor tasks, achieving learning rates comparable to existing, but more laborious, methods. By incrementally and systematically increasing the difficulty of the task over weeks of training, rats were able to master motor tasks that, in complexity and structure, resemble ones used in primate studies of motor sequence learning. By enabling fully automated training of rodents in a home-cage setting this low-cost and modular system increases the utility of rodents for studying the neural underpinnings of a variety of complex behaviors.
Fully Automated Detection of Corticospinal Tract Damage in Chronic Stroke Patients  [PDF]
Ming Yang,Ya-ru Yang,Hui-jun Li,Xue-song Lu,Yong-mei Shi,Bin Liu,Hua-jun Chen,Gao-jun Teng
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/370849
Abstract: Structural integrity of the corticospinal tract (CST) after stroke is closely linked to the degree of motor impairment. However, current methods for measurement of fractional atrophy (FA) of CST based on region of interest (ROI) are time-consuming and open to bias. Here, we used tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) together with a CST template with healthy volunteers to quantify structural integrity of CST automatically. Two groups of patients after ischemic stroke were enrolled, group 1 (10 patients, 7 men, and Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) scores 50) and group 2 (12 patients, 12 men, and FMA scores = 100). CST of FAipsi, FAcontra, and FAratio was compared between the two groups. Relative to group 2, FA was decreased in group 1 in the ipsilesional CST ( ), as well as the FAratio ( ). There was no significant difference between the two subgroups in the contralesional CST ( ). Compared with contralesional CST, FA of ipsilesional CST decreased in group 1 ( ). These results suggest that the automated method used in our study could detect a surrogate biomarker to quantify the CST after stroke, which would facilitate implementation of clinical practice. 1. Introduction Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can delineate anatomic connectivity of white matter and evaluate tract disruption in vivo, which is increasingly used in stroke-related research [1–5]. DTI-derived parameter such as fractional anisotropy (FA) has been found to reliably reflect the microstructural status of corticospinal tract (CST) in patients with stroke [6–8]. Greater gains in motor function were related to higher FA values of ipsilesional CST, and slice-by-slice analysis of FA values along the CST demonstrated that the more the ipsilesional FA profiles of patients resembled those of healthy controls, the greater their functional improvement was [6]. Meanwhile the reverse is also true that greater loss of structural integrity of the ipsilesional CST is associated with poorer motor outcomes in patients with hemiparetic stroke [7, 8]. Despite these advances, some factors impede the uptake of these approaches. CST tracking in individual stroke is often difficult due to interruption of fibers by the infarct which can result in the unreliable morphology of the tracts. Moreover, manual placement of regions of interest (ROI) in individual patients is also problematic because of operator bias, and manual labeling is time-consuming. For these reasons, its feasibility is limited. Therefore, a fully automated method of evaluating CST is urgently needed to satisfy the translational potential of CST injury
Development and implementation of industrialized, fully automated high throughput screening systems  [PDF]
Benjamin G. Carvalho
Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry , 2003, DOI: 10.1155/s1463924603000105
Abstract: Automation has long been a resource for high-throughput screening at Bristol-Myers Squibb. However, with growing deck sizes and decreasing time lines, a new generation of more robust, supportable automated systems was necessary for accomplishing high-throughput screening goals. Implementation of this new generation of automated systems required numerous decisions concerning hardware, software and the value of in-house automation expertise. This project has resulted in fast, flexible, industrialized automation systems with a strong in-house support structure that we believe meets our current high-throughput screening requirements and will continue to meet them well into the future.
Fully Automated Approaches to Analyze Large-Scale Astronomy Survey Data  [PDF]
A. Prsa,E. F. Guinan,E. J. Devinney,S. G. Engle,M. DeGeorge,G. P. McCook,P. A. Maurone,J. Pepper,D. J. James,D. H. Bradstreet,C. R. Alcock,J. Devor,R. Seaman,T. Zwitter,K. Long,R. E. Wilson,I. Ribas,A. Gimenez
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: Observational astronomy has changed drastically in the last decade: manually driven target-by-target instruments have been replaced by fully automated robotic telescopes. Data acquisition methods have advanced to the point that terabytes of data are flowing in and being stored on a daily basis. At the same time, the vast majority of analysis tools in stellar astrophysics still rely on manual expert interaction. To bridge this gap, we foresee that the next decade will witness a fundamental shift in the approaches to data analysis: case-by-case methods will be replaced by fully automated pipelines that will process the data from their reduction stage, through analysis, to storage. While major effort has been invested in data reduction automation, automated data analysis has mostly been neglected despite the urgent need. Scientific data mining will face serious challenges to identify, understand and eliminate the sources of systematic errors that will arise from this automation. As a special case, we present an artificial intelligence (AI) driven pipeline that is prototyped in the domain of stellar astrophysics (eclipsing binaries in particular), current results and the challenges still ahead.
A fully automated liquid–liquid extraction system utilizing interface detection  [PDF]
Eugene Maslana,Robert Schmitt,Jeffrey Pan
Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry , 2000, DOI: 10.1155/s146392460000033x
Abstract: The development of the Abbott Liquid-Liquid Extraction Station was a result of the need for an automated system to perform aqueous extraction on large sets of newly synthesized organic compounds used for drug discovery. The system utilizes a cylindrical laboratory robot to shuttle sample vials between two loading racks, two identical extraction stations, and a centrifuge. Extraction is performed by detecting the phase interface (by difference in refractive index) of the moving column of fluid drawn from the bottom of each vial containing a biphasic mixture. The integration of interface detection with fluid extraction maximizes sample throughput. Abbott-developed electronics process the detector signals. Sample mixing is performed by high-speed solvent injection. Centrifuging of the samples reduces interface emulsions. Operating software permits the user to program wash protocols with any one of six solvents per wash cycle with as many cycle repeats as necessary. Station capacity is eighty, 15 ml vials. This system has proven successful with a broad spectrum of both ethyl acetate and methylene chloride based chemistries. The development and characterization of this automated extraction system will be presented.
An Improved Design of a Fully Automated Multiple Output Micropotentiometer  [PDF]
Hala Mohamed Abdel Mageed, Ahmed Faheem Zobaa, Mohamed Helmy Abdel Raouf, Abla Hosni Abd El-Rahman, Mohamed Mamdouh Abdel Aziz
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2010.22015
Abstract: This paper describes in details a new design of a fully automated multiple output micropotentiometer (?pot). A prototype has been built at the National Institute for Standards (NIS), Egypt to establish this highly improved AC voltage source in the millivolt range. The new device offers three different outputs covering a wide frequency range from only one outlet. This valuably supports the precise sourcing ranges of low AC voltage at NIS. The design and the operation theory of this prototype have been discussed in details. An automatic calibration technique has been introduced through specially designed software using the LabVIEW program to enhance the calibration technique and to reduce the uncertainty contributions. Relative small AC-DC differences of our prototype in the three output ranges are fairly verified. The expanded uncertainties of the calibration results for the three output ranges have been faithfully estimated. However, further work is needed to achieve the optimum performance of this new device.
A Fully Automated Robotic System for Microinjection of Zebrafish Embryos  [PDF]
Wenhui Wang, Xinyu Liu, Danielle Gelinas, Brian Ciruna, Yu Sun
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000862
Abstract: As an important embodiment of biomanipulation, injection of foreign materials (e.g., DNA, RNAi, sperm, protein, and drug compounds) into individual cells has significant implications in genetics, transgenics, assisted reproduction, and drug discovery. This paper presents a microrobotic system for fully automated zebrafish embryo injection, which overcomes the problems inherent in manual operation, such as human fatigue and large variations in success rates due to poor reproducibility. Based on computer vision and motion control, the microrobotic system performs injection at a speed of 15 zebrafish embryos (chorion unremoved) per minute, with a survival rate of 98% (n = 350 embryos), a success rate of 99% (n = 350 embryos), and a phenotypic rate of 98.5% (n = 210 embryos). The sample immobilization technique and microrobotic control method are applicable to other biological injection applications such as the injection of mouse oocytes/embryos and Drosophila embryos to enable high-throughput biological and pharmaceutical research.
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