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ON A NEW TRANSDUCER TO BE USED WITHIN FORCE MEASUREMENTS
CORNEL SANDI BIT,TRAIAN BOLFA
Journal of Engineering Studies and Research , 2012,
Abstract: The optical techniques are very suited for different investigations concerning the elastic contact between two bodies. Using such an optical method the authors have managed to construct a very simple and useful transducer which to provide instantaneous information concerning the loads applied on different bodies. The transducer presented in this paper is specialized for elastic contact force measurements but, using the same principle, it is possible to get any information about the elastic contact..
The characterisation of ferroelectric thin films using nanoindentation  [cached]
Algueró, M.,Bushby, A. J.,Cheng, B. L.,Guiu, F.
Boletín de la Sociedad Espa?ola de Cerámica y Vidrio , 1999,
Abstract: Nanoindentation techniques have been used to determine the mechanical properties of two well characterised Pb0.88La0.08TiO3 ferroelectric thin films which have been shown to be promising for MEMs applications. Aceramic with the same nominal composition and the substrate material were also tested as an aid in the interpretation of results. Test routines have been developed using the spherical indentation geometry to distinguish the elastic and permanent deformation of the materials. Mechanical data for different layers in the heterostructure could be determined by using indenters with different radii. The technique provides information on the elastic modulus of the film, the onset and nature of permanent deformation, film delamination and the effects of porosity and residual stress. These techniques open the possibility to characterise fully the mechanical response of a microdevice. Se han usado técnicas de nanoindentación para determinar las propiedades mecánicas de dos láminas delgadas ferroeléctricas de Pb0.88La0.08TiO3 bien caracterizadas y que se han considerado prometedoras para aplicaciones MEMs. También se han realizado medidas en una cerámica con la misma composición nominal y en el sustrato de las láminas como ayuda para la interpretación de los resultados. Se han desarrollado rutinas usando la geometría de indentación con esfera para distinguir las deformaciones elástica y permanente del material. Podría ser posible obtener parámetros mecánicos de las distintas capas de la heteroestructura lámina sustrato mediante el uso de indentadores con radio distinto. La técnica proporciona información sobre el modulo elástico de la lámina, el comienzo y la naturaleza de la deformación permanente, delaminación y el efecto de la porosidad y las tensiones residuales. Estas técnicas abren la posibilidad de caracterizar completamente la respuesta mecánica de un microdispositivo.
STATISTICAL INSTRUMENTS USED IN THE AUDIT PROCESS  [PDF]
Atanasiu POP,Claudia URDARI
Scientific Annals of the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi : Economic Sciences Series , 2010,
Abstract: This study is about the importance of statistical instruments in the audit process. No theory has any value without a practical finality. If we are not using adequate tools and technologies to highlight the importance of the audits from a practical standpoint, we wouldn’t be able to improve on the audit systems.As in any emerging field we need a lot of feedback. The process starts by developing a theory, applying the theory in the field, analyzing the results, make needed changes and corrections, and then, if necessary, revise the theory. Through this kind of process the statistical audit instruments (tools) are at the foundation of theories, analysis, continuing a cycle meant to bring improvements in this field.Considering that we can not analyze the whole audit process, the most utilized technique is polling. In order for the results to be correct we need to ensure that we have a fair representation both as subject and as scale. We also have to keep in mind the human error margin. All the results are being analyzed by an auditor, who needs to be objective and very careful in handling the data. It is the auditor’s ultimate responsibility to ensure that the final conclusions drawn at the end of the audit process are correct and provide useful information to the customers.
RELEVANCE OF ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS USED IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS  [PDF]
SORINA-GEANINA M?RG?RIT (ST?NESCU),NICOLETA-CORNELIA BRAN (STAN)
Annals of the University of Petrosani : Economics , 2011,
Abstract: The interaction between environmental, economic and social factors influences the ecological balance and generates the change of living conditions and those of socio-economic development. One of the essential conditions for building a sustainable economic development is the identification and implementation of active or voluntary instruments to influence economic and social activity towards ensuring their sustainability. In this paper, we intend to introduce the tools used in the process of sustainable development, which have a key role in adopting an environmentally responsible behavior. The results of this study are represented by the drafting of the advantages and disadvantages of using these economic and financial instruments. The purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of costs for environmental protection and the relevance of instruments used at the national level in environmental protection.
Mathematical Instruments Commonly Used among the Ottomans  [PDF]
Irem Aslan Seyhan
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2019.81003
Abstract:

At the end of 17th century and during 18th century, after devastating Russian wars the Ottomans realized that they fell behind of the war technology of the Western militaries. In order to catch up with their Western rivals, they decided that they had to reform their education systems. For that they sent several students to abroad for education and started to translate Western books.? They established Western style military academies of engineering. They also invited foreign teachers in order to give education in these institutes and they consulted them while there were preparing the curriculum. For all these, during the modernization period, the reform (nizama-1 cedid) planers modelled mainly France, especially for teaching the applied disciplines. Since their main aim was to grasp the technology of the West, their interest focused on the applied part of sciences and mathematics. For that reason, they had a very keen interest on mathematical instruments. The main objective in this article is to examine mathematical instruments commonly used in the Ottoman empire. We examined that by dividing the subject in two periods: The Classical period (Medieval Islamic Echole) and the Modernization period (Western Echole). Our main focus in this article will be the Modernization period and the instruments used in the Ottoman military academies.

DLC coatings on martensitic steel used for surgical instruments  [PDF]
J. Marciniak,Z. Paszenda,W. Walke,M. Basiaga
Archives of Materials Science and Engineering , 2007,
Abstract: Purpose: The main aim of the work was evaluation of corrosion resistance, mechanical properties and topography of DLC coating formed by means of RF PACVD and magnetron method on the X39Cr13 martensitic steel used for surgical instruments.Design/methodology/approach: The corrosion resistance tests of samples were carried out by means of potentiodynamic method registering anodic polarization curves in physiological Tyrode’s solution at temperature 37±1oC. Registering of anodic polarization curves was conducted at the pace of potential change equal to 1 mV/s. As the reference electrode saturated calomel electrode (SCE) was, the auxiliary electrode was platinium electrode. Mechanical properties were evaluated on the basis of the Vickers hardness test. The test was realized with the use of the CSEM NHT hardness tester. The topography observations of the surface with the DLC coating by means of the confocal laser scanning microscope LEXT OLS3000 Olympus were carried out. The following surface treatments were applied: barrel finishing, chemical passivation and deposition of DLC coating by means of the RF PACVD and magnetron method.Findings: The investigations revealed diverse corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of the individual samples. The highest corrosion resistance was observed for the barrel finished, passivated and DLC coated samples obtained by means of magnetron method.Research limitations/implications: Usefulness of DLC coatings will be evaluated in further research in in vitro conditions. Furthermore wear a measurements of surgical drills coated with DLC layer (RF PACVD and magnetron method) will be carried out.Originality/value: The improvement of physico-chemical properties of surgical instruments made of martensitic steel will undoubtedly increase the safety of surgical procedures and reduce costs.
FINANCING INSTRUMENTS USED IN THE CENTRE DEVELOPMENT REGION  [PDF]
Hada Teodor,Cretu Simion
Annals of the University of Oradea : Economic Science , 2011,
Abstract: The paper presents the main financing instruments (projects) used in the Centre Region, approaching aspects regarding the Centre Development Region, such as its features in terms of the geographical profile of employment. In regard to the involvement of the population to the economic life, statistics show relatively low values of the overall activity and employment rates recorded primarily in the rural area. If we consider only the population included in the age group 15 to 64, the active population represent 62.2% of total, and the employment rate is 56.3% of the total active population, both declining in the last 15-20 years. At regional level, in order to implement the regional development policy in accordance with Law no. 315/2004 on regional development in Romania, two institutions are functioning: Regional Development Board and Centru Regional Development Agency. The paper also presents the use dynamics of funds in the Centre Region. Starting with 2007, Centru Regional Development Agency has become an intermediary body within ROP 2007-2013 with the role of promoting and managing the funds allocated to this region. In regard to the stage of implementation of ROP in the Centre Region, starting with February 25th, 2011, all 12 key areas of intervention of the programme were launched and a number of 1.053 projects were submitted in the Centre Region for a total amount of 1.033,99 million euro, the paper showing a diagram of the submitted projects. There is also a diagram of the amounts requested for funding the projects submitted until February 25th, 2011 at the Centru RDA and the available financing budgets on priority axes. Until February 25th, 2011, a number of 174 projects were contracted under ROP for a total value of 1.549.430.419,97 lei. In the end, we review the main indicators of the contracted projects. They belong to rural development, transport infrastructure, social infrastructure, regional and local business environment, tourism development and promotion.
Techniques and Instruments Used in Construction Project Management Costs Dimensioning  [PDF]
C?t?lin Onu?u
Bulletin of the Polytechnic Institute of Jassy, Constructions, Architechture Section , 2005,
Abstract: The paper aims to establish a series of methods regarding the dimensioning of the main economic parameters specific to the accomplishment of a building design, parameters generally linked to the total cost of the project. The total realization cost of a construction project represents the money expression of all “efforts” (labor force, material resources, equipment and technological units, informational resources, services, taxes, technical-administrative actions, etc.) necessary for the realization of the project in all its constitutive stages.
Developmental norms for eight instruments used in the neuropsychological assessment of children: studies in Brazil
Brito, G.N.O.;Alfradique, G.M.N.;Pereira, C.C.S.;Porto, C.M.B.;Santos, T.R.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X1998000300012
Abstract: norms for a battery of instruments, including denckla's and garfield's tests of motor persistence, benton's right-left discrimination, two recall modalities (immediate and delayed) of the bender test, wechsler's digit span, the color span test and the human figure drawing test, were developed for the neuropsychological assessment of children in the greater rio de janeiro area. additionally, the behavior of each child was assessed with the composite teacher rating scale (brito gno and pinto rca (1991) journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology, 13: 417-418). a total of 398 children (199 boys and 199 girls balanced for age) with a mean age of 9.3 years (sd = 2.8), who were attending a public school in niterói, were the subjects of this study. gender and age had significant effects on performance which depended on the instrument. nonachievers performed worse than achievers in most neuropsychological tests. comparison of our data to the available counterparts in the united states revealed that american children outperformed brazilian children on the right-left discrimination, forward digit span, color span and human figure drawing tests. further analysis showed that the neurobehavioral data consist of different factorial dimensions, including human body representation, motor persistence of the legs, orbito-orobuccal motor persistence, attention-memory, visuospatial memory, neuropsychomotor speed, hyperactivity-inattention, and anxiety-negative socialization. we conclude that gender and age should be taken into account when using the normative data for most of the instruments studied in the present report. furthermore, we stress the need for major changes in the brazilian public school system in order to foster the development of secondary cognitive abilities in our children
Developmental norms for eight instruments used in the neuropsychological assessment of children: studies in Brazil  [cached]
Brito G.N.O.,Alfradique G.M.N.,Pereira C.C.S.,Porto C.M.B.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1998,
Abstract: Norms for a battery of instruments, including Denckla's and Garfield's tests of Motor Persistence, Benton's Right-Left Discrimination, two recall modalities (Immediate and Delayed) of the Bender Test, Wechsler's Digit Span, the Color Span Test and the Human Figure Drawing Test, were developed for the neuropsychological assessment of children in the greater Rio de Janeiro area. Additionally, the behavior of each child was assessed with the Composite Teacher Rating Scale (Brito GNO and Pinto RCA (1991) Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13: 417-418). A total of 398 children (199 boys and 199 girls balanced for age) with a mean age of 9.3 years (SD = 2.8), who were attending a public school in Niterói, were the subjects of this study. Gender and age had significant effects on performance which depended on the instrument. Nonachievers performed worse than achievers in most neuropsychological tests. Comparison of our data to the available counterparts in the United States revealed that American children outperformed Brazilian children on the Right-Left Discrimination, Forward Digit Span, Color Span and Human Figure Drawing Tests. Further analysis showed that the neurobehavioral data consist of different factorial dimensions, including Human Body Representation, Motor Persistence of the Legs, Orbito-Orobuccal Motor Persistence, Attention-Memory, Visuospatial Memory, Neuropsychomotor Speed, Hyperactivity-Inattention, and Anxiety-Negative Socialization. We conclude that gender and age should be taken into account when using the normative data for most of the instruments studied in the present report. Furthermore, we stress the need for major changes in the Brazilian public school system in order to foster the development of secondary cognitive abilities in our children
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