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The Evolution of LTE towards IMT-Advanced  [cached]
Stefan Parkvall,David Astely
Journal of Communications , 2009, DOI: 10.4304/jcm.4.3.146-154
Abstract: This paper provides a high-level overview of some technology components currently considered for the evolution of LTE, referred to as LTE-Advanced. First, a brief overview of LTE and some of its technologies are given and then the IMT-Advanced requirements are discussed. One of the targets with the evolution of LTE is to reach or seven surpass these requirements. The technology components considered for LTE-Advanced include extended spectrum flexibility to support up to 100MHz bandwidth, enhanced multi-antenna solutions with up to eight layer transmission in the downlink and up to four layer transmission in the uplink, coordinated multi-point transmission/reception, and the use of advanced repeaters/relaying.
Neurodegenerative disorders: The Glia way forward  [PDF]
Roger A. Barker,Francesca Cicchetti
Frontiers in Pharmacology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2014.00157
Abstract: The realisation that inflammation can affect the brain is not a new one, and many diseases of the CNS, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), have been shown to clearly respond to agents that target the immune system at one level or another. However it is only more recently that the immune system has been shown to play a role in the normal development and homeostasis of the brain as well as contributing to disorders that have traditionally been thought of as being purely neurodegenerative in nature, such as Huntington’s (HD) or Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In this special issue of Frontiers in Neuropharmacology, we have sought to bring together experts in this new emerging area of neurobiology. The best place to start in this special issue is with the paper by Patrick and Edith McGeer as they lay out the history of the field and the scepticism that it has generated en route, and which still exists today. Indeed many neurologists and neurobiologists still argue that any inflammatory or glial response in neurodegenerative disorders is simply a secondary phenomenon of no pathogenic or therapeutic relevance. However, evidence has accumulated in favour of it having a role and part of this relates to our ability to better image the microglial responses in patients with neurodegenerative disorders of the brain and Marios Politis, Paul Su and Paola Piccini explore this in their review on PET and TSPO radioligands. A number of our papers summarise the role of microglia in ongoing CNS activities. Christine Ekdahl, for example, discusses how microglia may regulate adult neurogenesis in the healthy and diseased brain possibly through direct synaptic contacts. This is taken on by Wolfgang Streit and Qing-Shan Xue who put forward the theory that the loss of the normal neuroprotective function of microglial, as a result of aging, leads to disease states, especially AD. Jonas Neher, Urte Neniskyte and Guy Brown, on the other hand, discuss how microglia can directly phagocyte apparently healthy neurons as well as those in the diseased brain and by so doing are primary players in the cell loss seen in neurodegenerative disorders. This is explored in more detail by Sudarshan Phani Diane Re and Serge Przedborski in Ayotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS); Egle Solito and Magdalena Sastre in AD; and Yue Huang and Glenda Halliday for Parkinson’s disease (PD). Finally in the first of our two reviews, we discuss how the astrocytic and microglial responses are different in a range of new experimental therapies for neurodegenerative disorders. These therapies include chronic deep brain
Analyzing Area spectral efficiency and its impacts on the total spectrum requirements for IMTAdvanced  [PDF]
Amit Chaturvedi,Anil Solanki
International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems , 2012,
Abstract: Terrestrial mobile systems generally employ a cellular architecture. Typical environments include macro, micro, and pico cells, further as a complementary hot spot. In order to establish high traffic capacity in IMT-2000 and its enhancement and systems beyond IMT-2000 with minimum handovers for mobile stations at various speeds and environments, in addition to maximizing spectral efficiency, it may be beneficial for the cells of IMT-2000 and its enhancement and systems beyond IMT-2000 to have different cell types related to mobile station parameters, such as mobility characteristics, output power, and types of services utilized. The area spectral efficiency is used in the spectrum requirement calculations to convert the capacity requirements in terms of bit/s/cell to the spectrum requirements in Hz. The area spectral efficiency factor should be measured below the IP layer and/or above L2. The spectral efficiency includes all RAT specific overheads, retransmission load, scheduling, etc. Even though for several teledensities the spectral efficiency might be the same, it is possible that the spectral efficiency will also vary between teledensities. This paper provides the results as spectrum required for the possible values of area spectrum efficiency in various time shifts.
Icons: Visual Representation to Enrich Requirements Engineering Work  [PDF]
Sukanya Khanom, Anneli Heimbürger, Tommi K?rkk?inen
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2013.611073
Abstract:

Adapting icons in requirements engineering can support the multifaceted needs of stakeholders. Conventional approaches to RE are mainly highlighted in diagrams. This paper introduces icon-based information as a way to represent ideas and concepts in the requirements engineering domain. We report on icon artifacts that support requirements engineering work such as priority types, status states and stakeholder kinds. We evaluate how users interpret meanings of icons and the efficacy of icon prototypes shaped to represent those requirements attributes. Our hypothesis is whether practitioners can recognize the icons’ meaning in terms of their functional representation. According to the empirical data from 45 participants, the findings demonstrate the probability of providing users with icons and their intended functions that correspond to RE artifacts in a novel yet effective manner. Based on these findings, we suggest that icons could enrich stakeholders’ perception of the RE process as a whole; however, meaningful interpretation of an icon is subject to the user’s prior knowledge and experience.

CENSORSHIP ISSUE IN LIBRARIANSHIP: ANALYSIS AND THE WAY FORWARD  [PDF]
Olugbenga I. Ademodi
Brazilian Journal of Information Science , 2011,
Abstract: This paper examined censorship issue in Librarianship. It analyzed the different conflicting positions, the stakeholders and what they have at stake. The author also discussed the way forward.
Unemployment in the Nigerian Democratic Setting: Challenges and the Way Forward
Alexander, H. S.,Ezugwu, D. C.,Titillayo, A. O.,Ajiboye, D. I.
International Journal of Economic Development Research and Investment , 2012,
Abstract: The economic situations of Nigeria have placed only a few as beneficiaries of the abundant resources of the country, leaving behind so many others living below the poverty line. This has posed a serious threat to national development. Due to this poor economic trend, married people are advised to give birth only to the number of children they can cater for both morally and financially. This study is therefore a review of the challenges of unemployment in the Nigerian democratic setting -the way forward. This study revealed that corruption is the challenging and disturbing thing that has made democracy in Nigeria not to yield the desire dividend as expected. Poor birth control which increases the rate of unemployment in the country was also identified as one of the democratic problems stirring Nigeria in the face. Hence, Nigerian government should borrow a leaf from countries like China and India where there is strict adherence to child birth control policies. Besides, in order to restore sanity into a democratic system, corruption should be totally eliminated to forestall peace and progress in the nation so as to make her citizens have assured Faith in democratic governance.
Integrating Europe's Securities Markets: The Way Forward
Daniel Mark Azzopardi
ELSA Malta Law Review , 2011,
Abstract: Having been earmarked as one of the primary objectives towards the creation of the Single Market from early on, the consolidation of securities legislation in the EU really took off under the auspices of the Financial Services Action Plan (or FSAP).The implementation of the Plan’s objectives was achieved most successfully through the Lamfalussy approach, a four-level model which was applied successfully to many framework Directives. While the creation of a single legal framework for the Union was in development, numerous efforts had also been made towards other aspects of market integration, namely convergence in interpretation, supervision and enforcement. With the latest round of proposals put forward by the Commission, the European securities market has never looked more likely to becoming a truly unified and singular entity. This article provides a brief overview on how the EU has fared thus far on this monumental project, while highlighting areas which need to be improved, and what measures can be taken to improve them. The article also discusses the latest measures taken by the EU to create a supervisory architecture in the financial services sphere, primarily through the introduction of three regulatory authorities for banking, insurance and securities, with particular focus on the new European Securities Market Authority.
Causes, Effects and Way Forward to Food Insecurity  [PDF]
I.R. Ilaboya,E. Atikpo,F.E Omofuma,F.F. Asekhame
Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment (IJEE) , 2012,
Abstract: This paper examines some important causes and challenges of the global food crisis on human and economic development. The main focus is on analysis of the causes and impact of food insecurity coupled with the measures to achieve adequate food security. Attempt was made to give an overview of the fundamental threat pose by insecurity of food on the people; these include: a moral and humanitarian threat, developmental threat and strategic threat. Issues on the role of biofuels on food insecurity were also discussed. Data on grain production and consumption were collated, in which the surplus/deficit values were computed. The data werethen subjected to statistical testing using the step wise regression model to ascertain the real effects of utilization of grains in biofuels production on the overall security of food. Result of the model shows significant effects of biofuels on food security. A mathematical model was also used to analyse the impact of foodinsecurity on the terms of trade of nations, data generated were also subjected to statistical analysis using the step wise regression model to ascertain the real effects of food insecurity on the terms of trade. Results also show a very high significant effect. Finally, the way forward in ensuring adequate security of food were critically analysed to include among others: Increasing agricultural production, enhancement of science and technology, facilitating market access, rural off farm opportunities and capacity building
Vocational Technical Education in Nigeria: Challenges and the Way Forward  [PDF]
Okolocha,Chimezie Comfort
Business Management Dynamics , 2012,
Abstract: There is no gainsaying that education remains the key to sustainable development of any country. It was in realization of this that a National Policy on Education was formulated. The trend now in the society shows that the level of one's education does not have a significant effect on one's growth rather the effect is more pronounced on the level of skills possessed and the ability to apply the skills in the real world of work. Possession of requisite vocational technical education (VTE) skills and its applicability will help to implement complex growth inducing technologies and productivity enhances practices. The vocational technical education systems in most nations have undergone enormous change in recent time. This was as a result of new policies on VTE, which forced most countries of the world including Nigeria to turn around their traditional VTE policies and practices in line with the recent trend. Nigeria formulates viable policies but the implementation of such policies has been the major bane to VTE development. This paper critically reviews the micro and macro vocational technical education policies in Nigeria, their current challenges and the way forward.
Public Administration in Afghanistan: Challenges and Way Forward  [PDF]
Shaheen Yusufzada, Zhiqiang Xia, Zhiqiang Xia
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.76012
Abstract: Public administration is the key instrument of government for ensuring public interests. This article seeks to explore the status of public administration in Afghanistan as well as challenges faced and way forward to sustainable development. A qualitative approach has been employed particularly desk review. A number of secondary sources have been consulted to substantiate the argument. This study reveals that the status of public administration in Afghanistan is very poor, suffering from lack of strong structural body, efficient public administrators, and bureaucracy. The public administration in Afghanistan is still facing major challenges such as corruption, lack of professionalism, absence of rule and law, lack of institutional strategic planning, politicization, and ethnical discrimination. All public agencies are also characterized by lack of transparency, nepotism and concentration of power in even in the judicial system. This article suggests that Afghan government needs a professional team with the strong political leadership with commitment to fight against, administrative corruption, ethnical discrimination, non-transparency and inefficiency to strengthen effective administrative system, and sustainable development. The implementation of rule of law is the prerequisite to ensure good governance and sustainable development. The finding of this research will support the public administrators, researchers, scholars, political leaders and policymakers to make the perfect and practical policies and plans for a sustainable future development in Afghanistan.
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