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On the Origin of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  [PDF]
Andrés J. Cortés
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.410248

Phylogeographic methods provide the tools to accurately access the geographic origin and diversification of crop species. In the present commentary, I urge the common bean community to face those methods and a tree-thinking mentality with regards to the long standing debate of the origin of common bean. Such efforts will ultimately bring back interest into wild bean studies and reinforce the uniqueness of this species as a system to study diversification, domestication and adaptive processes across the two most diverse hotspots in the world.

Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2006,
Abstract: The genetic diversity of landraces is thought to be the economic valuable part of global biodiversity and is considered of paramount importance for future world production. The investigation was performed on 30 common bean landraces (Ph. vulgaris L.) from different geographic origin of Portugal and Bulgaria. The morphological characterization was done according to the IPGRI descriptors (Rome, Italy). Twenty morphological traits were studied in Portuguese and Bulgarian landraces of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Accessions number 99E059(BG), 99E0123(BG), PH2(PT) and PH23(PT) are of special interest for breeding purposes.
Genetic Relationships of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Race Chile with Wild Andean and Mesoamerican Germplasm
Becerra V,Viviana; Paredes C,Mario; Debouck,Daniel;
Chilean journal of agricultural research , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-58392011000100001
Abstract: the chilean common bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.) belongs to the cultivated race chile and its origin is presumably andean. the objective of this study was to identify the origin of a group of chilean accessions based on their genetic relationship with wild material from the mesoamerican and andean common bean gene pool. to achieve this objective, universal primers of chloroplast dna (cpdna) and mitochondrial dna (mtdna) were used to detect polymorphism using polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr-rflp). thirty-two genotypes were analyzed, including wild material from mexico, ecuador, peru, bolivia, and argentina, as well as chilean cultivated genotypes belonging to endemic chilean accession types (tórtola, coscorrón, and cuyano) and naturalized commercial lines (frutilla, bayo, manteca, and blanco grande). results showed a low level of polymorphism for cpdna (23%) and mtdna (24%) in wild and cultivated chilean common bean accessions. some universal primers and restriction enzyme combinations were more efficient than others in detecting polymorphism. the chilean materials were closely related to wild accessions collected in argentina, bolivia, and peru indicating their andean origin. the wild accessions from ecuador were located in a intermediate position between the mesoamerican and andean accessions.
Identification of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) duplicates using agromorphological and molecular data
Chiorato, Alisson Fernando;Carbonell, Sérgio Augusto Morais;Dias, Luiz Antonio dos Santos;Moura, Rafaeli Ramos;Chiavegato, Marilia Barbosa;Colombo, Carlos Augusto;
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572006000100020
Abstract: we used agromorphological and random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) molecular marker data to identify duplicate common bean (phaseolus vulgaris l. fabaceae) accessions in the common bean germplasm bank of the agronomical institute - iac (banco de germoplasma de feijoeiro do instituto agron?mico de campinas (iac), sp, brazil). a total of 116 accessions with the same names and similar agromorphological traits was analyzed. the divergence between the accessions was initially evaluated by means of the agromorphological descriptors using single linkage clustering, from the euclidean distance. multivariate analysis identified four duplicate accessions (carioca lustroso, bico de ouro, jamapa and preto), with 17 other same-name accessions being suspected duplicates due to their low divergence levels. accessions with low genetic distance values (indicating that they were duplicates) were further compared using rapd markers which confirmed the results of the multivariate analyses in relation to the four duplicate accessions, although only two of the other 17 suspect accessions were confirmed to be duplicates, in this case of accessions iapar 57 and sacavem. these results show that the combined use of agromorphological and molecular information allowed a better characterization of the acessions in the common bean germplasm bank.
An improved method for in vitro regeneration of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)
Quintero-Jiménez, Anareli;Espinosa-Huerta, Elsa;Acosta-Gallegos, J. Alberto;Guzmán-Maldonado, H. Salvador;Mora-Avilés, M. Alejandra;
Agrociencia , 2010,
Abstract: in vitro regeneration of common bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.) is a requirement for genetic transformation which involves induction and development to the whole plant. success in regeneration of common bean from tissue organ culture has been achieved to some extent in the last years. however, genotype effects in regeneration response as well as efficiency and reproducibility have been a limiting factor. embryos, from four different varieties, were excised from sterilized mature seeds and cultured in murashige and skoog (ms) or gamborg (gm) media containing 6-benzylaminopurine (bap) (10 mg-1) and adenine (a) (0 or 20 mg-1). efficient regeneration was achieved when inducing formation of differentiation of cells like bud clusters at the internodal segment of the embryo axes in the four varieties studied. one way analysis of variance and tukey media comparison (p≤0.05) showed that regeneration efficiency varied considerably between the two basic media. gm media provided high bud cluster formation (97.8 to 100 %) and full plant regeneration (93 %), whereas ms medium showed lower bud cluster formation (15 to 73 %), and full plant regeneration (29 %). it is provided evidence of how the culture media and growth regulators influence the regeneration of common bean, when seeking for an efficient transformation protocol.
Adaptation to High Temperature and Water Deficit in the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) during the Reproductive Period  [PDF]
Hide Omae,Ashok Kumar,Mariko Shono
Journal of Botany , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/803413
Abstract: This paper reviews the adaption to heat and drought stresses in Phaseolus vulgaris, a grain and vegetable crop widely grown in both the Old and New World. Substantial genotypic differences are found in morphophysiological characteristics such as phenology, partitioning, plant-water relations, photosynthetic parameters, and shoot growth, which are related to reproductive responses. The associations between (a) days to podding and leaf water content and (b) the number of pods per plant and seed yield are consistent across different environments and experiments. Leaf water content is maintained by reductions in leaf water potential and shoot extension in response to heat and drought stress. Heat-tolerant cultivars have higher biomass allocation to pods and higher pod set in branches. These traits can be used as a marker to screen germplasm for heat and drought tolerance. In this paper, we briefly review the results of our studies carried out on heat and drought tolerance in the common bean at the Tropical Agriculture Research Front, Ishigaki, Japan. 1. Introduction Transitory or constantly high temperatures cause an array of morphoanatomical, physiological, and biochemical changes in plants, which affect plant growth and development and may lead to a drastic reduction in economic yield. The adverse effects of heat stress can be mitigated by developing crop plants with improved thermotolerance using various genetic approaches [1]. However, achieving this requires a thorough understanding of the physiological responses of plants to high temperature, the mechanisms of heat tolerance, and potential strategies for improving crop thermotolerance. The common bean (Phaseoluls vulgaris L.) is originally a crop of the New World [2], but it is now grown extensively in all major continental areas [3]. Its production spans from 52°N to 32°S latitude [4] and from near sea level in the continental US and Europe to elevations of more than 3000?m in Andean South America. The common bean has two major gene pools [5], the Andean and the Mesoamerican, based on their centers of origin in South and Central America, respectively [6]. Within these gene pools are a total of six races, including three Mesoamerican (Mesoamerica, Durango, and Jalisco) and three Andean (Peru, Nueva Granada, and Chile) [7, 8]. An additional Mesoamerican race has been designated Guatemala, which includes certain climbing beans from Central America [9]. After domestication, the common bean spread across Mesoamerica and South America and, after the European discovery of the Americas, to Europe and Africa,
Effect of natural selection on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) microsatellite alleles
Rodrigues, Taislene Butarello;Santos, Jo?o Bosco dos;
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572006000200024
Abstract: the effect of natural selection on microsatellite simple sequence repeat (ssr) alleles was investigated in two distinct common bean (phaseolus vulgaris) generations (f8 and f24) derived from the cross between the p. vulgaris cultivars carioca mg x esal 686. the f2 segregant population was propagated by the bulk method and 107 plants were sampled in two generations (f8 and f24). each plant generated one family which was replicated by the bulk method to f8:11 and f24:27 families from which dna was extracted. thirty pairs of microsatellite primers were polymorphic for the parents and the bulk of the f24:27 families. out of 30 loci selected by natural selection, 29 microsatellite alleles came from the carioca mg parent and one allele came from the esal 686 parent. natural selection affected all the generations and its intensity was specific for each locus and generation. therefore all the alleles selected at each locus must be important for adaptation in a breeding program.
Seed development and maturation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)
Soungkrairat, M.,Santipracha, Q.,Santipracha, W.
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2007,
Abstract: An experiment was conducted at Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, during January-April, 2005 to study seed development andmaturation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). At flowering, the flowers were tagged to indicate the date of flowering. Seeds at 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 25, 28, 31 and 34 days after flowering were harvested to investigatepod color and seed quality. The results showed that common bean had 4 developmental stages of pod color: green at 10-22 days after flowering, yellow at 25 days after flowering, grey-yellow at 28 days afterflowering and yellow-white at 31-34 days after flowering. The common bean seeds were capable of germination at 16 days after flowering with seed dry weight of 112.00 mg/seed, moisture content of 68.30% and thestandard germination of 29.50%. The seeds reached physiological maturity 28 days after flowering with maximum dry weight of 218.38 mg/seed, moisture content of 24.44%, standard germination of 99.00%, soilemergence of 98.50%, with highest speed of germination index and seedling growth rate and lowest conductivity. Common bean pods harvested for seed production should be at greyed-yellow color stage with blackcolored seeds.
Salinity Stress in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Seed Germination  [cached]
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca , 2012,
Abstract: In this study, the effect of five different levels of salt (NaCl) on the germination of Phaseolus vulgaris L. seed was investigated. Laboratory experiment with completely randomized design comprising three replicates in Petri dishes was conducted at Gaziantep University Vocational School of Higher Education in Nurdagi to determine the salt effects on common bean germination. The germination of the cultivar (Tegmen) was studied using distilled water (control) and under osmotic potential of 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5 MPa NaCl. The results indicated that the Mean germination time (MGT), Germination index (GI), Coefficient of velocity of germination (CVG), Germination percentage (GP), and Seed vigor index (SVI) varied between 3.13 and 3.78 days, 6.88 and 3.93, 0.156 and 0.153, 90 and 60%, and 867.0 and 290.3, respectively. Significant differences were found among NaCl treatments in terms of GI, GP, and SVI. All the examined parameters were decreased with increasing NaCl concentration, except MGT. The max and min GI, GP, CVG, and SVI were observed at the control condition (0.0 MPa) and highest osmotic potential (1.5 MPa) of NaCl, respectively. Correlation coefficient between all possible combinations was estimated and the results indicated that MGT, GI, GP, CVG, and SVI had significant positive or negative correlation with each other.
Identification and analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) transcriptomes by massively parallel pyrosequencing
Venu Kalavacharla, Zhanji Liu, Blake C Meyers, Jyothi Thimmapuram, Kalpalatha Melmaiee
BMC Plant Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-11-135
Abstract: We obtained 1,692,972 reads with an average read length of 207 nucleotides (nt). These reads were assembled into 59,295 unigenes including 39,572 contigs and 19,723 singletons, in addition to 35,328 singletons less than 100 bp. Comparing the unigenes to common bean ESTs deposited in GenBank, we found that 53.40% or 31,664 of these unigenes had no matches to this dataset and can be considered as new common bean transcripts. Functional annotation of the unigenes carried out by Gene Ontology assignments from hits to Arabidopsis and soybean indicated coverage of a broad range of GO categories. The common bean unigenes were also compared to the bean bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) end sequences, and a total of 21% of the unigenes (12,724) including 9,199 contigs and 3,256 singletons match to the 8,823 BAC-end sequences. In addition, a large number of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and transcription factors were also identified in this study.This work provides the first large scale identification of the common bean transcriptome derived by 454 pyrosequencing. This research has resulted in a 150% increase in the number of Phaseolus vulgaris ESTs. The dataset obtained through this analysis will provide a platform for functional genomics in common bean and related legumes and will aid in the development of molecular markers that can be used for tagging genes of interest. Additionally, these sequences will provide a means for better annotation of the on-going common bean whole genome sequencing.Phaseolus vulgaris or common bean is the most important edible food legume in the world. It provides 15% of the protein and 30% of the caloric requirement to the world's population, and represents 50% of the grain legumes consumed worldwide [1]. Common bean has several market classes, which include dry beans, canned beans, and green beans. The related legume soybean (Glycine max), which is one of the most important sources of seed protein and oil content belongs to the same group
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