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Beyond Regulations in Fisheries Management: The Dilemmas of the "Beach Recorders" Bwana Dikos in Zanzibar, Tanzania
Maricela de la Torre-Castro
Ecology and Society , 2006,
Abstract: Institutions and organizations are considered key elements for the successful management of natural resources. However, much of the work in this field has focused mainly on regulations. This paper identifies other factors, i.e., normative, cultural-cognitive, and psychological, affecting institutional performance, management, and feedback. Using the case of Zanzibar, Tanzania, it is illustrated through the analysis of the Bwana Dikos, which are public officials placed in villages and landing sites for monitoring purposes, how a well-designed organization and clear regulations might be necessary, but not sufficient, to achieve successful management. Through triangulation of interviews, document reviews, and participant observation, it was found that four dilemmas, i.e., kinship, loyalty, poverty, and control, interfered with institutional performance, thereby decreasing efficiency. Poverty was the main driving factor explaining the Bwana Diko's performance, but loyalty elements crosscut the other dilemmas as well. Psychological aspects were important and deserve further research. The control dilemma refers to the institutional mismatches in spatial and cognitive terms. Lack of institutional replication at the proper spatial scales negatively affected the resilience of the whole institutional setting. Furthermore, the importance of embeddedness, coproduction, and windows of opportunities to improve the institutional setting and the poverty condition of the Bwana Diko is discussed. This paper shows that a broad view of institutions is urgently needed to understand the complexity of social-ecological systems, achieve sustainability goals, tackle development, and meet our fundamental challenge, poverty alleviation.
Diversity Partitioning of Stony Corals Across Multiple Spatial Scales Around Zanzibar Island, Tanzania  [PDF]
Assaf Zvuloni,Robert van Woesik,Yossi Loya
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009941
Abstract: The coral reefs of Zanzibar Island (Unguja, Tanzania) encompass a considerable proportion of the global coral-reef diversity and are representative of the western Indian Ocean region. Unfortunately, these reefs have been recently subjected to local and regional disturbances. The objectives of this study were to determine whether there are potentially non-random processes forcing the observed coral diversity patterns, and highlight where and at which spatial scales these processes might be most influential.
Education Policy Implementation: A Mechanism for Enhancing Primary Education Development in Zanzibar  [PDF]
Amran Said Suleiman, Yen Yat, Issah Iddrisu
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.53015
Abstract: The study assessed the implementation of the education policy for primary education in Zanzibar so as to enhance the quality of education as well as to ensure that every child has access to education. The descriptive statistics were employed to analyse the data from the period 2012-2016. The results indicated that the implementation of education policy in Zanzibar has a real influence on the access to education in primary schools.The number of students’ enrolment and teachers increased remarkably over these periods; however, enrolment rates were fluctuated by genders and geographical distributions. The lowest rate of enrolment was in the North “B” which was 72.0% compared with other districts. The results also revealed that dropout rate was reasonable with 6.87%. The paper suggested that the MoEVT collaborate with the other education partners to strengthen the capacity of the teachers so as to ensure the quality of education in Zanzibar.
Paperless registration during survey enumerations and large oral cholera mass vaccination in Zanzibar, the United Republic of Tanzania
Ali,Mohammad; Deen,Jaqueline L; Khatib,Ahmed; Enwere,Godwin; von Seidlein,Lorenz; Reyburn,Rita; Ali,Said Mohammed; Chang,Na Yoon; Perroud,Valérie; Marodon,Frédérique; Saleh,Abdul A; Hashim,R; Lopez,Anna Lena; Beard,James; Ley,Benedikt N; Thriemer,Kamala; Puri,Mahesh K; Sah,Binod; Jiddawi,Mohamed Saleh; Clemens,John D;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862010000700016
Abstract: problem: field trials require extensive data preparation and complex logistics. the use of personal digital assistants (pdas) can bypass many of the traditional steps that are necessary in a paper-based data entry system. approach: we programmed, designed and supervised the use of pdas for a large survey enumeration and mass vaccination campaign. local setting: the project was implemented in zanzibar in the united republic of tanzania. zanzibar is composed of two main islands, unguja and pemba, where outbreaks of cholera have been reported since the 1970s. relevant chances: pdas allowed us to digitize information at the initial point of contact with the respondents. immediate response by the system in case of error helped ensure the quality and reliability of the data. pdas provided quick data summaries that allowed subsequent research activities to be implemented in a timely fashion. lessons learnt: portability, immediate recording and linking of information enhanced structure data collection in our study. pdas could be more useful than paper-based systems for data collection in the field, especially in impoverished settings in developing countries.
Improving quality and use of data through data-use workshops: Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania
Braa,J?rn; Heywood,Arthur; Sahay,Sundeep;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2012, DOI: 10.2471/BLT.11.099580
Abstract: problem: in zanzibar, united republic of tanzania, as in many developing countries, health managers lack faith in the national health management information system (hmis). the establishment of parallel data collection systems generates a vicious cycle: national health data are used little because they are of poor quality, and their relative lack of use, in turn, makes their quality remain poor. approach: an action research approach was applied to strengthen the use of information and improve data quality in zanzibar. the underlying premise was that encouraging use in small incremental steps could help to break the vicious cycle and improve the hmis. local setting: to test the hypothesis at the national and district levels a project to strengthen the hmis was established in zanzibar. the project included quarterly data-use workshops during which district staff assessed their own routine data and critiqued their colleagues' data. relevant changes: the data-use workshops generated inputs that were used by district health information software developers to improve the tool. the hmis, which initially covered only primary care outpatients and antenatal care, eventually grew to encompass all major health programmes and district and referral hospitals. the workshops directly contributed to improvements in data coverage, data set quality and rationalization, and local use of target indicators. lessons learnt: data-use workshops with active engagement of data users themselves can improve health information systems overall and enhance staff capacity for information use, presentation and analysis for decision-making.
The Effect of Stocking Density on the Performance of the Seaweed Ulva reticulata as a Biofilter in Earthen Pond Channels, Zanzibar, Tanzania
F Msuya
Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science , 2008,
Abstract: The seaweed biofilter Ulva reticulata was grown at two stocking densities (1 and 3 kg m-2) in a low cost integrated system in Zanzibar, Tanzania. The seaweed was stocked in 2 m2 cages made of 1 inch netting material placed at the outflow of fish ponds. Control seaweed was grown at the fish pond inflow channel. At a stocking density of 3 kg m-2, the weight of the seaweed increased by 700 g (fw) during the first week and then an increase of less than 200 g in the fifth week. Total weight increased from 4,500g at stocking to 6,630g during the fifth week. Growth rate was 1.3 % d-1. The seaweed also removed 0.4 g N m-2 d-1 of nitrogen from nutrient-rich fishpond effluent water. At the lower stocking density, of 1 kg m-2, biomass increased by 500 g during the first week increasing to 700 g during the fifth week. Total weight increased from 6,000 g at stocking to 30,000 g during the fifth week. Growth rate averaged 3.9% per day. The seaweed also removed TAN of 6 g N m-2 d-1. The growth rate, biomass yield and nutrient uptake were significantly (ANOVA, P<0.01) higher than those of the controls. The seaweed significantly raised pH and oxygen levels of the fish pond effluent water at both stocking densities. Therefore, both stocking densities lead to efficient performance of the seaweed biofilter Ulva reticulata, but 1 kg m-2 is better than 3 kg m-2 in this system. Higher densities are, however, known to be good in other integrated systems, calling for more work on this integrated system.
An Integrated Mobile Application for Enhancing Management of Nutrition Information in Arusha Tanzania  [PDF]
Neema Mduma,Khamisi Kalegele
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Based on the fact that management of nutrition information is still a problem in many developing countries including Tanzania and nutrition information is only verbally provided without emphasis, this study proposes mobile application for enhancing management of nutrition information. The paper discusses the implementation of an integrated mobile application for enhancing management of nutrition information based on literature review and interviews, which were conducted in Arusha region for the collection of key information and details required for designing the mobile application. In this application, PHP technique has been used to build the application logic and MySQL technology for developing the back-end database. Using XML and Java, we have built an application interface that provides easy interactive view.
Assessing the Viability of Desalination for Rural Water Supply: A Case Study of Chwaka, Zanzibar
Roy Yu,Daniele Packard
Cross-Cultural Communication , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/2692
Abstract: Zanzibar has been struggling with water scarcity issues over the last few decades due to an increase in consumption on the island and a deterioration of existing supply infrastructure. Poor distribution has affected rural communities most, due to their absence of tourism development, which has gone hand in hand with infrastructure establishment. Foreign aid has begun to address the issue by investing in alternative forms of water supply. In November 2011, a solar and wind powered desalination unit was inaugurated in the village of Chwaka, which, previous studies have shown, suffers from salt contaminated wells. This study sought to assess the viability of this alternative source of water in Chwaka and found that the desalination unit installed is not a viable source of freshwater for the entire village of Chwaka compared to government piped well water. Installed with the best intentions for the people of Chwaka, the presence and purpose of the machine is unknown to most of the village and its production capacity could only hope to supplement drinking water. Relative investment costs of distributing similar volumes of water show that piped water is the cheaper option. The intentions of the project are nonetheless laudable and this type of innovative investment should be encouraged as long as the government is not asked to take the bill. Zanzibar has access to adequate freshwater resources and must look to efficient consumption before turning to alternative forms of water production. Key words: Advantages; Alternative; Chwaka; Desalination; Disadvantages; Drinking; Freshwater; Supply; Tanzania; Viability; Water; Zanzibar
High effective coverage of vector control interventions in children after achieving low malaria transmission in Zanzibar, Tanzania  [cached]
Beer Netta,Ali Abdullah S,Shakely Delér,Elfving Kristina
Malaria Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-38
Abstract: Background Formerly a high malaria transmission area, Zanzibar is now targeting malaria elimination. A major challenge is to avoid resurgence of malaria, the success of which includes maintaining high effective coverage of vector control interventions such as bed nets and indoor residual spraying (IRS). In this study, caretakers' continued use of preventive measures for their children is evaluated, following a sharp reduction in malaria transmission. Methods A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted in June 2009 in North A and Micheweni districts in Zanzibar. Households were randomly selected using two-stage cluster sampling. Interviews were conducted with 560 caretakers of under-five-year old children, who were asked about perceptions on the malaria situation, vector control, household assets, and intention for continued use of vector control as malaria burden further decreases. Results Effective coverage of vector control interventions for under-five children remains high, although most caretakers (65%; 363/560) did not perceive malaria as presently being a major health issue. Seventy percent (447/643) of the under-five children slept under a long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) and 94% (607/643) were living in houses targeted with IRS. In total, 98% (628/643) of the children were covered by at least one of the vector control interventions. Seasonal bed-net use for children was reported by 25% (125/508) of caretakers of children who used bed nets. A high proportion of caretakers (95%; 500/524) stated that they intended to continue using preventive measures for their under-five children as malaria burden further reduces. Malaria risk perceptions and different perceptions of vector control were not found to be significantly associated with LLIN effective coverage. Conclusions While the majority of caretakers felt that malaria had been reduced in Zanzibar, effective coverage of vector control interventions remained high. Caretakers appreciated the interventions and recognized the value of sustaining their use. Thus, sustaining high effective coverage of vector control interventions, which is crucial for reaching malaria elimination in Zanzibar, can be achieved by maintaining effective delivery of these interventions.
Poverty and Its Association with Child Labor in Njombe District in Tanzania: The Case of Igima Ward  [cached]
Rocky R.J. Akarro,Nathan Anthon Mtweve
Current Research Journal of Social Science , 2011,
Abstract: The main aim of the study is to present the state of child labour and factors behind this citing one of the most prevalent areas for child labour in Tanzania known as Njombe. Njombe district which is predominantly a rural area is one of the most prevalent areas of child labour in Tanzania. A survey of 300 household heads that were randomly selected from accessible four villages in Igima ward in Njombe district confirmed this phenomenon. Chi-square statistic analysis on the relationship between household poverty and child labour showed that household poverty was the factor which forced children to engage in economic activities. Major finding emanating from this study is that child labour is a reflection of poverty and therefore tackling poverty will have a positive impact on child labour. This suggests that policies such as a ban on child labour in rural areas could have an adverse effect as child labour decisions are more likely a response to poverty and subsistence requirements.
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