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Effect of Walnut on Lipid Profile in Obese Female in Different Ethnic Groups of Quetta, Pakistan  [PDF]
Rehana Mushtaq,Mushtaq Rubina,Zahida Khan Tasawar
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2009,
Abstract: Four week controlled study was designed to observe the effect of 40 g of walnut in daily breakfast on Body Mass Index (BMI), total Cholesterol (CHO), Triglyceride (TG) High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in obese female subjects of various ethnics, i.e. Baloch (B), Pathan (P), Hazara (H) and Punjabi (PU) residing in Quetta region of Balochistan. A batch of 32 obese female subjects, 8 from each ethnic group as a control and another batch of 32 obese females 8 from each ethnic group as treated were selected. Twelve hour fasting blood samples a day after stoppage of walnut were taken from obese control and obese treated subjects. Daily walnut consumption demonstrated considerable drop in body weight in all ethnic groups residing in Quetta locality. Marked and statically significant reduction in total cholesterol was noticed in all ethnic groups i.e. 3.6% (p<0.05), 5.4% (p<0.001), 5.8% (p<0.01) and 7% (p<0.001) in B, P, H and PU groups respectively. Baloch subjects showed significant reduction of 7.8% in TG (p<0.001), similarly significant lowered TG was also observed in PU group. A significant increase (p<0.001), (p<0.05) in HDL cholesterol had been observed in B and P group respectively in walnut consuming subjects. In walnut consuming female subjects significant reduction (p<0.05), (p<0.01), (p<0.01) in LDL cholesterol levels was noted in B, P and PU subjects respectively. The positive influence of walnut on lipid profile suggests that walnut rich diet may have beneficial effects beyond changes in plasma lipid level.
Resurgence of Malaria in Quetta  [PDF]
Arsala Mansoor,Shah Mohd. Marri,Hasnain Naqvi
Journal of Medical Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: The prevalence of malaria in Quetta was estimated from blood films made during malaria survey, held over 12 consecutive months. The highest parasite rate occurred during the months of August-October. Plasmodium vivax was the most common infecting species of mosquitoes during the year, while Plasmodium falciparum predominated the later transmission season. The data also reveal the slight prevalence of malaria in the male members of the family, and in the children between 1-16 years. The data pertaining to the years 1995-1998 reveal the resurgence of malaria intensity.
Monitoring and Control of Codling Moth (Cydia pomonella, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) by Pheromone Traps in Quetta, Pakistan  [PDF]
Muhammad Faheem Malik,Liaquat Ali
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: Codling moth (Cydia pomonella, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was monitored and controlled in the valley of Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan, in an apple orchard by pheromone traps. The moth got climax at 19.50 and 18.85 during Ist and 29.30 and 27.90°C during 2nd generation, 1998, 99 respectively. A total average of 267 and 273 moths were captured during the entire seasons in the said years respectively. Comparing to the chemical control, the results are not attractive, but the study reveals that the technique could be used, for monitoring/forecasting, in addition to the control of the said pest in the field.
Association between Knowledge and Drug Adherence in Patients with Hypertension in Quetta, Pakistan
F Saleem, MA Hassali, AA Shafie, AG Awad, S Bashir
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2011,
Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the association between patient’s knowledge of hypertension management and medication adherence. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken with 385 hypertensive patients who visited outpatient departments in two public hospitals in Quetta City, Pakistan. Besides demographic and disease-related questions, two validated questionnaires (Hypertension Fact Questionnaire and Drug Attitude Inventory) were used for data collection. Descriptive statistics were to determine the demographic and disease characteristics of the patients while Spearman rank correlation was employed to measure the association between knowledge and drug adherence. Results: Out of 385 patients, 236 (61.3 %) of the patients had average knowledge about hypertension while 249 (64.7 %) were categorized as poor adherent. No patient was considered as good adherent in the study. Correlation coefficient between total score of knowledge and total adherence was – 0.170 (p < 0.001), indicating an inverse association between knowledge scores and adherence level. Conclusion: Although the level of knowledge was average, patients were unsure of the benefits of continuous medication use which resulted in non-adherence to regimens. Educating patients about the benefits of medications and clarifying doubts regarding medication use should result in better control of hypertension.
PREVALENCE OF ENDO (TREMATODES) AND ECTO-PARASITES IN COWS AND BUFFALOES OF QUETTA, PAKISTAN
M. N. KAKAR AND J. K. KAKARSULEMANKHEL1
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2008,
Abstract: Prevalence of endo and ecto-parasites in cows and buffaloes were investigated in Quetta city, Pakistan. A total of 396 livers and gall bladders of cows and 340 of buffaloes were selected randomly. Overall prevalence of liver parasites in cows and buffaloes was 45.70 and 37.05%, respectively. The species found in livers of cows were: Fasciola hepatica (16.16%), Fasciola gigantica (12.37%), Paramphistomum explanatum (7.82%) and mixed infections (9.34%). The corresponding values for buffaloes were 11.47, 13.52, 5.58 and 6.47%. For ecto-parasites, out of 404 cows and 386 buffaloes examined, 28.96 and 25.64% respectively gave positive results for ecto-parasites. The prevalence of ticks, lice, mites and mixed infection was found to be 10.14, 7.17, 5.19 and 6.43%, respectively in cows and 6.99, 9.84, 4.92 and 3.88% respectively in buffaloes. It was concluded that the prevalence of endo and ecto-parasites in cows was higher than in buffaloes due to differences in feeding habits and hygienic habitats of the two species.
A general theory of rotorcraft trim
Peters David A.,Barwey Dinesh
Mathematical Problems in Engineering , 1996,
Abstract: In this paper we offer a general theory of rotorcraft trim. The theory is set in the context of control theory. It allows for completely arbitrary trim controls and trim settings for multi-rotor aircraft with tests to ensure that a system is trimmable. In addition, the theory allows for “optimal trim” in which some variable is minimized or maximized rather than set to a specified value. The theory shows that sequential trim cannot work for free flight. The theory is not tied to any particular trim algorithm; but, in this paper, it is exercised with periodic shooting to show how free-flying rotorcraft can be trimmed in a variety of ways (zero yaw, zero pitch, zero roll, minimum power, etc.) by use of the general theory. The paper also discusses applications to harmonic balance and auto-pilot trim techniques.
Climatic Changes and Natural Population of Anopheles Species in Quetta Valley  [PDF]
Arsala Mansoor
Journal of Medical Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: An entomological study of Anopheles species was conducted to find the seasonal variation of prevalent vectors to establish their correlation with the malaria parasite in Quetta. Vector collection was done according to World Health Organization standards of surveying. Analyses reveal the predominantly rapid increase in density of Anophles stephensi in rural areas, over Anophles culicifacies. The changing pattern of vectors in rural area must be due to some strong factor, which could obviously be attributed to the migration of million of Afghan refugees living mostly in the suburbs of Quetta.
PREVALENCE OF LICE SPECIES ON COWS AND BUFFALOES OF QUETTA, PAKISTAN  [PDF]
MAHRUKH N. KAKAR AND JUMA K. KAKARSULEMANKHEL
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2009,
Abstract: The prevalence of lice with species identification was studied during April to November 2006 in cows and buffaloes. During this period, various farm houses of Quetta city were randomly visited for the collection of lice. A total 909 cows and 671 buffaloes were examined for the presence of lice. Out of these, 38.3% cows and 41.2% buffaloes gave positive results for different lice species. Only one lice species i. e Bovicola bovis (38.3%) was recorded from cows and two species belonging to genus Haematopinus i. e. H. quadrpertusis (23.5%) and H. eurysternus (17.7%) were encountered in buffaloes. Lice seem to be host specific with B. bovis occur in cows, while both H. quadripertusus and H. eurysternus usually infest buffaloes.
Origin and Diversification of TRIM Ubiquitin Ligases  [PDF]
Ignacio Marín
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050030
Abstract: Most proteins of the TRIM family (also known as RBCC family) are ubiquitin ligases that share a peculiar protein structure, characterized by including an N-terminal RING finger domain closely followed by one or two B-boxes. Additional protein domains found at their C termini have been used to classify TRIM proteins into classes. TRIMs are involved in multiple cellular processes and many of them are essential components of the innate immunity system of animal species. In humans, it has been shown that mutations in several TRIM-encoding genes lead to diverse genetic diseases and contribute to several types of cancer. They had been hitherto detected only in animals. In this work, by comprehensively analyzing the available diversity of TRIM and TRIM-like protein sequences and evaluating their evolutionary patterns, an improved classification of the TRIM family is obtained. Members of one of the TRIM subfamilies defined, called Subfamily A, turn to be present not only in animals, but also in many other eukaryotes, such as fungi, apusozoans, alveolates, excavates and plants. The rest of subfamilies are animal-specific and several of them originated only recently. Subfamily A proteins are characterized by containing a MATH domain, suggesting a potential evolutionary connection between TRIM proteins and a different type of ubiquitin ligases, known as TRAFs, which contain quite similar MATH domains. These results indicate that the TRIM family emerged much earlier than so far thought and contribute to our understanding of its origin and diversification. The structural and evolutionary links with the TRAF family of ubiquitin ligases can be experimentally explored to determine whether functional connections also exist.
Human TRIM Gene Expression in Response to Interferons  [PDF]
Laetitia Carthagena, Anna Bergamaschi, Joseph M. Luna, Annie David, Pradeep D. Uchil, Florence Margottin-Goguet, Walther Mothes, Uriel Hazan, Catherine Transy, Gianfranco Pancino, Sébastien Nisole
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004894
Abstract: Background Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins constitute a family of proteins that share a conserved tripartite architecture. The recent discovery of the anti-HIV activity of TRIM5α in primate cells has stimulated much interest in the potential role of TRIM proteins in antiviral activities and innate immunity. Principal Findings To test if TRIM genes are up-regulated during antiviral immune responses, we performed a systematic analysis of TRIM gene expression in human primary lymphocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in response to interferons (IFNs, type I and II) or following FcγR-mediated activation of macrophages. We found that 27 of the 72 human TRIM genes are sensitive to IFN. Our analysis identifies 9 additional TRIM genes that are up-regulated by IFNs, among which only 3 have previously been found to display an antiviral activity. Also, we found 2 TRIM proteins, TRIM9 and 54, to be specifically up-regulated in FcγR-activated macrophages. Conclusions Our results present the first comprehensive TRIM gene expression analysis in primary human immune cells, and suggest the involvement of additional TRIM proteins in regulating host antiviral activities.
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