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Attitudes and beliefs about environmental hazards in three diverse communities in Texas on the border with Mexico
Byrd,Theresa L.; VanDerslice,James; Peterson,Susan K.;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892001000300004
Abstract: objective. since communicating risk related to environmental hazards has consistently presented a challenge to government agencies and industries, our objective was to better understand the attitudes and beliefs of three communities, so as to help agencies and industries develop better risk communication interventions. methods. we explored attitudes and beliefs about environmental risks in three diverse communities in texas on the border with mexico, in the county of el paso. during the summer of 1995, using a door-to-door survey, we interviewed 147 individuals, using a questionnaire based upon an existing instrument. interviews were conducted in three very different areas of the county: semirural low-income, urban low-income, and suburban upper-income. we randomly selected specific sections in each of the three communities for inclusion in the sample. we assessed attitudes and beliefs about regulations and experts, risk and hazards, and how to address environmental issues. results. attitudes and beliefs varied among the three communities, especially in the assessment of riskiness of various hazards. in general, there was mistrust of government agencies and of industries, a strong feeling that the environment can be improved, and a lack of understanding about what actions individuals might take to improve the environment. discussion. agencies need to find ways to increase their credibility with the public, and they should assess communities in order to understand the attitudes of the residents.
Attitudes and beliefs about environmental hazards in three diverse communities in Texas on the border with Mexico  [cached]
Byrd Theresa L.,VanDerslice James,Peterson Susan K.
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2001,
Abstract: Objective. Since communicating risk related to environmental hazards has consistently presented a challenge to government agencies and industries, our objective was to better understand the attitudes and beliefs of three communities, so as to help agencies and industries develop better risk communication interventions. Methods. We explored attitudes and beliefs about environmental risks in three diverse communities in Texas on the border with Mexico, in the county of El Paso. During the summer of 1995, using a door-to-door survey, we interviewed 147 individuals, using a questionnaire based upon an existing instrument. Interviews were conducted in three very different areas of the county: semirural low-income, urban low-income, and suburban upper-income. We randomly selected specific sections in each of the three communities for inclusion in the sample. We assessed attitudes and beliefs about regulations and experts, risk and hazards, and how to address environmental issues. Results. Attitudes and beliefs varied among the three communities, especially in the assessment of riskiness of various hazards. In general, there was mistrust of government agencies and of industries, a strong feeling that the environment can be improved, and a lack of understanding about what actions individuals might take to improve the environment. Discussion. Agencies need to find ways to increase their credibility with the public, and they should assess communities in order to understand the attitudes of the residents.
Religion and HIV in Tanzania: influence of religious beliefs on HIV stigma, disclosure, and treatment attitudes
James Zou, Yvonne Yamanaka, Muze John, Melissa Watt, Jan Ostermann, Nathan Thielman
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-75
Abstract: A self-administered survey was distributed to a convenience sample of parishioners (n = 438) attending Catholic, Lutheran, and Pentecostal churches in both urban and rural areas. The survey included questions about religious beliefs, opinions about HIV, and knowledge and attitudes about ARVs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess how religion was associated with perceptions about HIV, HIV treatment, and people living with HIV/AIDS.Results indicate that shame-related HIV stigma is strongly associated with religious beliefs such as the belief that HIV is a punishment from God (p < 0.01) or that people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have not followed the Word of God (p < 0.001). Most participants (84.2%) said that they would disclose their HIV status to their pastor or congregation if they became infected. Although the majority of respondents (80.8%) believed that prayer could cure HIV, almost all (93.7%) said that they would begin ARV treatment if they became HIV-infected. The multivariate analysis found that respondents' hypothetical willingness to begin ARV treatme was not significantly associated with the belief that prayer could cure HIV or with other religious factors. Refusal of ARV treatment was instead correlated with lack of secondary schooling and lack of knowledge about ARVs.The decision to start ARVs hinged primarily on education-level and knowledge about ARVs rather than on religious factors. Research results highlight the influence of religious beliefs on HIV-related stigma and willingness to disclose, and should help to inform HIV-education outreach for religious groups.Religious activities, communities, and beliefs frame the daily behaviors and attitudes of many people living in countries with high rates of HIV/AIDS. Tanzania, with an estimated HIV prevalence rate of 6.5% in 2005 [1], is no exception. Christians and Muslims each make up 30% to 40% of the population. The majority of the remaining population are members of indig
Development and Assessment of Traditional and Innovative Media to Reduce Individual HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma Attitudes and Beliefs in India  [PDF]
Caricia Catalani
Frontiers in Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2013.00021
Abstract: Although stigma is considered a major barrier to effective response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, there is a lack of evidence on effective interventions. This media intervention took place among key HIV-vulnerable communities in Southern India. Two HIV stigma videos were created using techniques from traditional film production and new media digital storytelling. A series of 16 focus group discussions were held in 4 rural and 4 urban sites in South India, with specific groups for sex workers, men who have sex with men, young married women, and others. Focus groups with viewers of the traditional film (8 focus groups, 80 participants) and viewers of the new media production (8 focus groups, 69 participants) revealed the mechanisms through which storyline, characters, and esthetics influence viewers’ attitudes and beliefs about stigma. A comparative pre-/post-survey showed that audiences of both videos significantly improved their stigma scores. We found that a simple illustrated video, produced on a limited budget by amateurs, and a feature film, produced with an ample budget by professionals, elicited similar responses from audiences and similar positive short-term outcomes on stigma.
Bahamian Adolescents: A Survey of their Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs About AIDS  [cached]
Rodgers, Antoinette Y.,Rolle, Carolyn
College Forum , 1997,
Abstract: This paper reports data from a survey conducted with 260 Bahamian adolescents assessing their knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about AIDS. The results revealed that these adolescents have a high level of knowledge about AIDS. In fact, these adolescents are as knowledgeable about AIDS as adolescents in their normed group, which consisted of low-income African American adolescents. Further, neither males nor females differed in their perceptions about their risk for getting AIDS and in their perceptions about the effectiveness of condoms in preventing the spread of AIDS. Implications for the development of AIDS prevention programmes for Bahamian adolescents are discussed.
Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs on HIV/AIDS Among Tertiary Students in Papua New Guinea  [PDF]
Orathinkal Jose, Keri Totona, Alphonse Begani, Tuka Andew, Bob Tombe, Rose Begani
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2011.12009
Abstract: This cross-sectional study among 1597 tertiary level students, 757 (48%) males and 832 (52%) females (9 respondents no mention of gender), from 12 institutions, across Papua New Guinea, examined their level of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about HIV/AIDS. The study revealed that the majority of the students have a very good knowledge of HIV/AIDS; in general students have a considerate and compassionate attitude towards those infected with HIV/AIDS; and the students have positive and healthy attitudes and beliefs regarding HIV/AIDS. Among the demographic variables of gender, province and the institution of their study a significant difference showed in their levels of knowledge and also a statistically significant association was found between beliefs and knowledge. Interestingly, about 58% of the students think that HIV/AIDS is a punishment from God. Almost half (46.5%) of the respondents think that learning about sex and the use of condoms could also encourage young people to engage in more frequent sex. Although, in general the students have a very good knowledge, they indicate the need for more sex education and awareness pro-grams about HIV/AIDS that could be given in high schools.
A Multi-Site Study on Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs and Practice of Child-Dog Interactions in Rural China  [PDF]
Jiabin Shen,Shaohua Li,Huiyun Xiang,Shulan Pang,Guozhang Xu,David C. Schwebel
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph10030950
Abstract: This study examines demographic, cognitive and behavioral factors that predict pediatric dog-bite injury risk in rural China. A total of 1,537 children (grades 4–6) in rural regions of Anhui, Hebei and Zhejiang Provinces, China completed self-report questionnaires assessing beliefs about and behaviors with dogs. The results showed that almost 30% of children reported a history of dog bites. Children answered 56% of dog-safety knowledge items correctly. Regressions revealed both demographic and cognitive/behavioral factors predicted children’s risky interactions with dogs and dog-bite history. Boys behaved more riskily with dogs and were more frequently bitten. Older children reported greater risks with dogs and more bites. With demographics controlled, attitudes/beliefs of invulnerability, exposure frequency, and dog ownership predicted children’s self-reported risky practice with dogs. Attitudes/beliefs of invulnerability, dog exposure, and dog ownership predicted dog bites. In conclusion, both demographic and cognitive/behavioral factors influenced rural Chinese children’s dog-bite injury risk. Theory-based, empirically-supported intervention programs might reduce dog-bite injuries in rural China.
Attitudes and beliefs among patients treated with mood stabilizers  [cached]
Kessing Lars,Hansen Hanne,Bech Per
Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1745-0179-2-8
Abstract: Background There is increasing evidence that attitudes and beliefs are important in predicting adherence in depressive and bipolar disorders. However, such attitudes and beliefs on mood stabilizers have not been analysed by socio-demographic and clinical variables. Methods The Mood Stabilizer Compliance Questionnaire (MSQC) was mailed to a large population of patients with depressive or bipolar disorder representative of patients treated at their first contacts to hospital settings in Denmark. Results Of the 1005 recipients, 49.9 % responded to the letter and among these 256 indicated that they previously had been or currently were in treatment with a mood stabilizer. A large proportion of the patients (40 to 80 %) had non-correct views on the effect of mood stabilizers. Older patients consistently had a more negative view on the doctor-patient relationship, more non-correct views on the effect of mood stabilizers and a more negative view on mood stabilizers. There was no difference in the attitudes and beliefs according to the type of disorder (depressive or bipolar), the number of psychiatric hospitalisations or according to the type of the current doctor (general practitioner, private psychiatrist, community psychiatry doctor, hospital doctor, other doctor). Conclusion There is a need of improving knowledge and attitudes toward diagnosis and treatment especially among elder patients as this may add to improve the prognosis of depressive and bipolar disorders.
Pedagogical beliefs and attitudes of computer science teachers in Greece
Georgios Fessakis,Tsampika Karakiza
Themes in Science and Technology Education , 2011,
Abstract: Pedagogical beliefs and attitudes significantly determine the professional skills and practice of teachers. Many professional development programs for teachers aim to the elaboration of the pedagogical knowledge in order to improve teaching quality. This paper presents the study of pedagogical beliefs of computer science teachers in Greece. The research data reveal that computer science teachers usually hold mixed traditional and constructivist theories which are generally irrelevant to either demographic factors or their pedagogical training. In some cases statistically significant correlations to the educational level or the total teaching service are detected. The results of the study set out suggestions concerning the design of pedagogical training programs.
Beliefs and attitudes about endemic dental fluorosis among adolescents in rural Brazil
Castilho,Lia Silva de; Ferreira,Efigênia Ferreira e; Velásquez,Leila Nunes Menegasse; Fantinel,Lucia Maria; Perini,Edson;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102010000200005
Abstract: objective: to understand beliefs and attitudes about fluorosis among young people living in a rural area. methodological procedures: qualitative study consisting of semi-structured interviews with 23 adolescents with dental fluorosis, 14 teachers and three health authorities in the city of s?o francisco, southeastern brazil, in 2002. content analysis and social representation theory were applied. analysis of results: the organoleptic characteristics of carbonates that affect groundwater (salty flavor, whitish coloration, and turbidity) associated with negative aspects of household use of this water are considered a cause of mottled enamel. even after contact with researchers who investigated this phenomenon and helped find a solution for this condition, the local population is still unwilling to accept fluoride as the cause of the problem and does not fully agree to use water from other sources because they are afraid of the quality of water. conclusions: misperceptions of the causes of dental fluorosis and water treatment costs compromise the implementation of uncontaminated surface water supplies. health education strategies are required in parallel with solutions for securing water supply in drought-ravaged areas.
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