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Aerobic training affects fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes
Marina Marini, Provvidenza M Abruzzo, Alessandra Bolotta, Arsenio Veicsteinas, Carla Ferreri
Lipids in Health and Disease , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1476-511x-10-188
Abstract: Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species (RONS) can be generated during physical activity by several different tissues, and increase cellular free radical content and circulating oxidative stress markers [1-3]. In particular, exhaustive endurance exercise generates excess RONS, leading to inflammatory responses and damage to DNA, proteins and lipids [4]. On the other hand, moderate exercise induces low levels of RONS, which are more involved in signaling pathways than in detrimental effects; in particular, adaptive responses may be generated, which ultimately counteract age-related degenerative diseases [1,5].Membrane fatty acid composition is a very sensitive indicator of oxidative damage, since it may be affected by lipid peroxidation, which in turn may lead to the propagation of free radical reactions. Membrane fluidity and permeability is highly affected by fatty acid residues, namely saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (SFA, MUFA and PUFA, respectively) and endogenous trans fatty acids (FA), and is strictly related to the ability to perform its many, various and demanding tasks. We asked how the exercise-related peroxidation of membrane FA reconciled with the well-known benefits of exercise training. Thus, we decided to investigate how a 10-wk aerobic training, which we previously showed to lead to adaptive responses, beneficial for the cardiocirculatory system [1,6-9], affected cell membrane FA composition. Gene expression evaluation of selected enzymes involved in lipid biosynthesis contributed to this lipidomic analysis, intended as an integrated approach to the study of the pathways ultimately leading to the membrane lipid composition. Erythrocyte membranes are thought to be a highly representative model for these studies [10].Rat care, exercise training and experimental groups were those described in a previous work [9]. Briefly, male Sprague-Dowley rats (2 months age) were trained at low (LT, ~60%VO2max), or high (HT, ~80%VO2max) intens
Effects of Intake of Maternal Dietary Elaidic Acids during Pregnancy and Lactation on the Fatty Acid Composition of Plasma, Erythrocyte Membrane, and Brain in Rat Pups  [PDF]
Noriko Komatsuzaki,Ayumi Eda,Rie Kameoka,Yoko Nakashima
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/701818
Abstract: To investigate the effects of a dam’s dietary elaidic acid (EA) intake during pregnancy and lactation on the fatty acid composition of plasma, erythrocyte membrane, and brain in rat pups, we fed two groups of dams either a soybean oil diet (SOD) or a shortening diet (SHD) containing soybean oil (10%) or shortening (10%), respectively. Although EA was not detected in the SOD, EA accounted for 25.3% of all fatty acid content in the SHD. On day 8 after birth, the EA levels in the stomach, plasma, and erythrocyte membrane of pups nursed by the dams fed the SHD were %, %, and %, respectively. Although on day 8 after birth the EA level of the brains of pups nursed by SHD-fed dams was %, EA was not detected on day 21 or day 82 after birth. These results suggest that EA intake during pregnancy and lactation supplies EA to plasma, remains in the erythrocyte membrane of pups, and moves into the brain in early infancy. 1. Introduction Trans fatty acids (TFAs) are created from vegetable oils through hydrogenation. In the trans configuration, the carbon chain extends from opposite sides of the double bond, rendering a straight molecule. Elaidic acid (EA; C18:1) is the principal TFA often found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, margarine, and shortening [1, 2]. Young people in Japan have come to prefer a Western-style diet, and now more than 29% of the calories consumed by Japanese people are provided by fat [3]. The consumption of trans fats increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) by raising the levels of LDL cholesterol and lowering the levels of HDL cholesterol [2, 4, 5]. It has been reported that an elevated TFA blood cell content increased the risk of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) [6, 7]. Infants are exposed to TFA before and after birth by the transfer of fatty acids originating from the maternal diet [9]. On average, mature human milk provides 3.7?g?fat/100?mL, representing about 50% of the dietary energy intake of the young infant [10, 11]. Infants receiving human milk ingest levels of TFAs and essential fatty acids that reflect short-and long-term maternal diets [12–14]. Recent studies have indicated that the EA content of the maternal diet may be associated with both maternal and infant body composition in the early postpartum period [15]. We previously reported that dietary fish oil intake during pregnancy and lactation provides more n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to pups and alters their brain fatty acid composition [16]. However, it has been reported that prenatal essential fatty acid deficiency may result in myelin with an
Influencing of Deep Frying in Forming of Trans Fatty Acid.
Ratu Ayu Dewi Sartika
Makara Seri Sains , 2009,
Abstract: Frying process is one of the cooking's techniques usingvegetable oil. This process is commonly used in food industry, restaurants, food services, food retail and householdscale. This is a laboratory experimental study which performed in laboratory of Public Health Nutrition FKM-UI andIntegrated Laboratory IPB, Bogor from December 2005 until March 2006. It was conducted by two (2) type oftreatment (used cooking oil ex cassava and meat) with 4 (four) times for each treatment. The objective of this study is toknow the influence of frying by using deep frying (frying in high temperature and in a long time) and repeating to transfatty acid formation in cooking oil. From the result revealed that fatty acid type mostly contained in a fresh cooking oilis oleic acid. Trans fatty acid was formed after second repeating of deep frying and increased in line with the frequent ofrepeating. Correlation test result had shown that negative association between elaidic acid (trans) and oleic acid (cis)(r = - 0,8; p value = 0.016). In accordance with the beginning of trans fatty acid formation, it would be better to use thecooking oil not more than twice.
Trans Fatty Acid Content of Iranian Edible Oils  [PDF]
Mannan Hajimahmoodi, Sarvenaz Arami, Marzieh Nosrati, Ghazaleh Moghaddam, Naficeh Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza Oveisi, Behrooz Jannat, Fatemeh Zamani Mazdeh
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.411150
Abstract:

Clinical and epidemiologic studies showed that among dietary factors the type of fatty acids (FAs) in the diet plays an important role in determining risk of chronic disease. The aim of our study was to determine the levels of Trans FA (TFA) in edible oil samples consumed in Tehran, Iran analyzed by gas chromatograph (GC). The mean of total TFA was 0.45% ranging from (0.11% - 1.61%) for liquid frying oils and 2.92% ranging from (0.46% - 5.40%) for solid oils. The major TFA observed in these two groups was elaidic acid in solid oils. The highest content of total saturated fatty acid (SFA) was detected in solid oils with average of 32.07 and palmitic acid was the major SFA in these four groups. Linoleic and linolenic acid are the most important poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). The variance in the percentage of TFA in the edible oils probably resulted from differences in the type of oils, quality, heating, processing technique and storage condition of the edible oils. The results indicated that, edible oils contain considerable proportions of trans fatty acids. Therefore, it is important to assess the content of TFA in edible oils in Iran.

Exploring the Role of Fatty Acid on Transcription Factors Regulating Fatty Acid Metabolism with Emphasis on Trans Fatty Acid  [PDF]
Ransi Ann Abraham, Lakshmy Ramakrishnan, Rajinder Parshad, Varna Seenu, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Vinay Kumar Bahl
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.49A1006
Abstract:

Fatty acids are unique macromolecules as they act as biological modulators of transcription factors and regulate their own metabolism by controlling the activity or abundance of transcription factors of fatty acid metabolism either by RNA processing and RNA stability. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPAR-γ) and Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein (SREBP-1c) are transcription factors expressed primarily in adipose tissue. We have studied the relation of fatty acid including trans fatty acid assessed in adipose tissue with the transcription factors. Adipose tissue was collected from 50 healthy subjects undergoing elective abdominal surgery. Fatty acid was assessed in the tissue by gas chromatography. The expressions of PPARγ and SREBP-1c were studied by real time RT-PCR. The expressions of PPARγ and SREBP1c were significantly correlated (r = 0.4 p < 0.005). The trans fatty acid did not show any significant correlation with expression but significant correlation was observed between DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid) and PPARγ expression (r = 0.33 p < 0.03) which remained significant (r = 0.87, p < 0.0001) after being adjusted for BMI and insulin. An upregulation of PPARγ led to decreased levels of SREBP1c. In conclusion, trans fatty acid did not affect the expressions of PPAR-γ and SREB1c in this study.

Trans fatty acid isomers in human health and in the food industry  [cached]
ALFONSO VALENZUELA,NORA MORGADO
Biological Research , 1999,
Abstract: Trans fatty acids are unsaturated fatty acids with at least one double bond in the trans configuration. These fatty acids occur naturally in dairy and other natural fats and in some plants. However, industrial hydrogenation of vegetable or marine oils is largely the main source of trans fatty acids in our diet. The metabolic effect of trans isomers are today a matter of controversy generating diverse extreme positions in light of biochemical, nutritional, and epidemiological studies. Trans fatty acids also have been implicated in the etiology of various metabolic and functional disorders, but the main concern about its health effects arose because the structural similarity of these isomers to saturated fatty acids, the lack of specific metabolic functions, and its competition with essential fatty acids. The ingestion of trans fatty acids increases low density lipoprotein (LDL) to a degree similar to that of saturated fats, but it also reduces high density lipoproteins (HDL), therefore trans isomers are considered more atherogenic than saturated fatty acids. Trans isomers increase lipoprotein(a), a non-dietary-related risk of atherogenesis, to levels higher than the corresponding chain-length saturated fatty acid. There is little evidence that trans fatty acids are related to cancer risk at any of the major cancer sites. Considerable improvement has been obtained with respect to the metabolic effect of trans fatty acids due the development of analytical procedures to evaluate the different isomers in both biological and food samples. The oleochemical food industries have developed several strategies to reduce the trans content of hydrogenated oils, and now margarine and other hydrogenated-derived products containing low trans or virtually zero trans are available and can be obtained in the retail market. The present review provides an outline of the present status of trans fatty acids including origin, analytical procedures, estimated ingestion, metabolic effects, efforts to reduce trans isomers in our diet, and considerations for future prospects on trans isomers
Alterations in Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Erythrocyte Membrane Fatty Acid Profile of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Experimentally Infected with Aeromonas salmonicida
Serdar Bektas,Ozer Ayik
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2010.2472.2476
Abstract: Erythrocyte osmotic fragility and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid profiles of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) experimentally infected with Aeromonas salmonicida were investigated at different days of injection. Erythrocytes of the infected fish were found more fragile than the controls. While 50% of haemolysis of diseased fish erythrocytes occurred at chloride concentration of 0.49±0.01%, it was 0.40±0.01% for controls. Three remarkable trends in erythrocyte fatty acid patterns in infected fish observed when compared with the controls. While no significant differences in saturated fatty acids were detected significant decrease in monounsaturated acids and increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids were also detected.
Trans fatty acid isomers in human health and in the food industry
VALENZUELA,ALFONSO; MORGADO,NORA;
Biological Research , 1999, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-97601999000400007
Abstract: trans fatty acids are unsaturated fatty acids with at least one double bond in the trans configuration. these fatty acids occur naturally in dairy and other natural fats and in some plants. however, industrial hydrogenation of vegetable or marine oils is largely the main source of trans fatty acids in our diet. the metabolic effect of trans isomers are today a matter of controversy generating diverse extreme positions in light of biochemical, nutritional, and epidemiological studies. trans fatty acids also have been implicated in the etiology of various metabolic and functional disorders, but the main concern about its health effects arose because the structural similarity of these isomers to saturated fatty acids, the lack of specific metabolic functions, and its competition with essential fatty acids. the ingestion of trans fatty acids increases low density lipoprotein (ldl) to a degree similar to that of saturated fats, but it also reduces high density lipoproteins (hdl), therefore trans isomers are considered more atherogenic than saturated fatty acids. trans isomers increase lipoprotein(a), a non-dietary-related risk of atherogenesis, to levels higher than the corresponding chain-length saturated fatty acid. there is little evidence that trans fatty acids are related to cancer risk at any of the major cancer sites. considerable improvement has been obtained with respect to the metabolic effect of trans fatty acids due the development of analytical procedures to evaluate the different isomers in both biological and food samples. the oleochemical food industries have developed several strategies to reduce the trans content of hydrogenated oils, and now margarine and other hydrogenated-derived products containing low trans or virtually zero trans are available and can be obtained in the retail market. the present review provides an outline of the present status of trans fatty acids including origin, analytical procedures, estimated ingestion, metabolic effects, ef
Fatty acid contents of Brazilian soybean oils with emphasis on trans fatty acids
Martin, Clayton Antunes;Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio;Oliveira, Adriana Nery de;Oliveira, Claudio Celestino de;Matsushita, Makoto;Souza, Nilson Evelázio de;
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-50532008000100017
Abstract: the fatty acid composition of the main soybean oil brands consumed by the brazilian has been determined. the mean trans fatty acids (tfa) levels ranged between 0.8 and 2.6% of the total fatty acids and comprised 18:1, 18:2, and 18:3 isomers. 18:1 tfa levels were lower than 0.1% in all the studied brands. among the polyunsaturated tfa, 18:3 predominated, with levels ranging from 0.5 to 1.4%. this group comprised mono and di-trans fatty acids and the main acid was 18:3 9c,12c,15t. the amounts of 18:2 tfa ranged from 0.3 to 1.1% with a predominance of acid 18:2 9c,12t . alpha-linolenic acid contents ranged from 3.5 to 5.4%, with a mean value of 4.1%. the degree of isomerization of linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids ranged from 0.5 to 2.1% and from 9.1 to 27.2%, respectively. this study probably indicates that the thermal treatment applied to soybean oil during the deodorization step in the last years is too intense and that it results in a significant decrease in oil alpha-linolenic acid content and an increase in the n-6/n-3 ratio in the brazilian diet.
Use of dried blood for measurement of trans fatty acids
Ruby Gupta, Ransi Abraham, Savita Dhatwalia, Lakshmy Ramakrishnan, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Kolli Reddy
Nutrition Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-8-35
Abstract: Blood samples were collected from 19 healthy volunteers. The blood was spotted (30 spots of 10 μl each) on filter paper, dried at room temperature and stored at 4°C in zip-lock poly bags. For comparison whole blood stored at -70°C was simultaneously analyzed.A good agreement was seen between trans fatty acid values obtained in dried blood and whole blood as evident from the pearson correlation coefficients ('r' for monounsaturated (trans) 0.70 and for polyunsaturated (trans) 0.692 respectively). The intraclass correlation coefficient for monounsaturated trans was 0.805 and for polyunsarurated trans was 0.776.Dried blood spots can be used for trans fatty acid analysis.Fatty acid measurement in adipose tissue, whole blood, erythrocyte membrane, serum or plasma, and specific plasma fractions serve as biomarkers of exogenously consumed fatty acids [1,2]. The different biomarkers reflect intake over several hours to past few years. Adipose tissue is considered to be the best biomarker for the long term dietary intake [3] because of its slow turnover but the invasive nature of tissue aspiration reduces its utility. Whole blood as a biomarker of fatty acid assessment is amenable to widespread usage in epidemiological studies due to the relative ease of collection, processing and storage compared to other biomarkers. Fasting whole blood has been reported to be a suitable biomarker, with performance comparable to that of fasting plasma [4].Measurement of trans fatty acids intake is of interest due to adverse health implications [5-7]. A suitable biomarker for trans fatty acid which is relatively less invasive and easy to transport would be useful in epidemiological studies where a central laboratory is responsible for analysis from blood collected from far off areas. Blood samples collected in the field needs to be stored at very low temperatures and transported in dry ice for measurement of fatty acids. A method that circumvents the need for blood processing, storage and sh
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