Abstract:
Viewing gravitational energy-momentum $p_G^\mu$ as equal by observation, but different in essence from inertial energy-momentum $p_I^\mu$ naturally leads to the gauge theory of volume-preserving diffeormorphisms of an inner Minkowski space ${\bf M}^{\sl 4}$. To extract its physical content the full gauge group is reduced to its Poincar\'e subgroup. The respective Poincar\'e gauge fields, field strengths and Poincar\'e-covariant field equations are obtained and point-particle source currents are derived. The resulting set of non-linear field equations coupled to point matter is solved in first order resulting in Lienard-Wiechert-like potentials for the Poincar\'e fields. After numerical identification of gravitational and inertial energy-momentum Newton's inverse square law for gravity in the static non-relativistic limit is recovered. The Weak Equivalence Principle in this approximation is proven to be valid and spacetime geometry in the presence of Poincar\'e fields is shown to be curved. Finally, the gravitational radiation of an accelerated point particle is calulated.

Abstract:
The Lagrangian formulation of field theory does not provide any universal energy-momentum conservation law in order to analize that in gravitation theory. In Lagrangian field theory, we get different identities involving different stress energy-momentum tensors which however are not conserved, otherwise in the covariant multimomentum Hamiltonian formalism. In the framework of this formalism, we have the fundamental identity whose restriction to a constraint space can be treated the energy-momentum transformation law. This identity remains true also for gravity. Thus, the tools are at hand to investigate the energy-momentum conservation laws in gravitation theory. The key point consists in the feature of a metric gravitational field whose canonical momenta on the constraint space are equal to zero.

Abstract:
A history of the problem of mathematical and physical definition for the energy-momentum of the gravity field is reviewed. As it was noted 90 years ago by Hilbert (1917), Einstein (1918), Schrodinger (1918) and Bauer (1918) within Geometrical Gravity approach (General Relativity) there is no tensor characteristics of the energy-momentum for the gravity field. Landau & Lifshitz (1971) called this quantity pseudo-tensor of energy-momentum and noted that Einstein's equations does not express the energy conservation for matter plus gravity field. This has crucial consequences for gravity physics and cosmology, such as negative energy density for static gravity field and violation of energy conservation in expanding space. However there is alternative Field Gravity approach for description of gravitation as a symmetric tensor field in Minkowski space, which is similar to description of all other physical interactions and based on well-defined positive, localizable energy-momentum of the gravity field. This relativistic quantum Field Gravity approach was partially developed by Firz & Pauli (1939), Birkhoff (1944), Thirring (1961), Kalman (1961), Feynman (1963) and others. Here it is shown that existence of well-defined positive energy-momentum of the gravity field leads to radical changes in gravity physics and cosmology, including such new possibilities as two-component nature of gravity - attraction (spin 2) and repulsion (spin 0), absence of black holes and singularities, scalar gravitational radiation caused by spherically symmetric gravitational collapse.

Abstract:
In gravitation theory with a background metric, a gravitational field is described by a (1,1)-tensor field. The energy-momentum conservation law imposes a gauge condition on this field.

Abstract:
We treat energy-momentum conservation laws as particular gauge conservation laws when generators of gauge transformations are horizontal vector fields on fibre bundles. In particular, the generators of general covariant transformations are the canonical horizontal prolongations of vector fields on a world manifold. This is the case of the energy-momentum conservation laws in gravitation theories. We find that, in main gravitational models, the corresponding energy-momentum flows reduce to the generalized Komar superpotential. We show that the superpotential form of a conserved flow is the common property of gauge conservation laws if generators of gauge transformations depend on derivatives of gauge parameters. At the same time, dependence of conserved flows on gauge parameters make gauge conservation laws form-invariant under gauge transformations.

Abstract:
A new treatment of the gravitational energy on the basis of 4-index gravitational equations is reviewed. The gravitational energy for the Schwarzschild field is considered.

Abstract:
The various methods to derive Einstein conservation laws and the relevant definitions of energy-momentum tensor density for gravitational fields are studied in greater detail. It is shown that these methods are all equivalent. The study on the identical and different characteristics between Lorentz and Levi-Civita conservation laws and Einstein conservation laws is thoroughly explored. Whether gravitational waves carry the energy-momentum is discussed and some new interpretations for the energy exchanges in the gravitational systems are given. The viewpoint that PSR1913 does not verify the gravitational radiation is confirmed.

Abstract:
Building on the first variational formula of the calculus of variations, one can derive the energy-momentum conservation laws from the condition of the Lie derivative of gravitation Lagrangians along vector fields corresponding to generators of general covariant transformations to be equal to zero. The goal is to construct these vector fields. In gauge gravitation theory, the difficulty arises because of fermion fields. General covariant transformations fail to preserve the Dirac spin structure $S_h$ on a world manifold $X$ which is associated with a certain tetrad field $h$. We introduce the universal Dirac spin structure $S\to\Sigma\to X$ such that, given a tetrad field $h:X\to \Sigma$, the restriction of $S$ to $h(X)$ is isomorphic to $S_h$. The canonical lift of vector fields on $X$ onto $S$ is constructed. We discover the corresponding stress-energy-momentum conservation law. The gravitational model in the presence of a background spin structure also is examined.

Viewing gravitational energy momentum as equal by observation, but different in essence from inertial energy-momentum requires two different symmetries to account for their independent conservations—spacetime and inner translation invariance. Gauging the latter a generalization of non-Abelian gauge theories of compact Lie groups is developed resulting in the gauge theory of the non-compact group of volume-preserving diffeomorphisms of an inner Minkowski space M^{4}. As usual the gauging requires the introduction of a covariant derivative, a gauge field and a field strength operator. An invariant and minimal gauge field Lagrangian is derived. The classical field dynamics and the conservation laws for the new gauge theory are developed. Finally, the theory’s Hamiltonian in the axial gauge is expressed by two times six unconstrained independent canonical variables obeying the usual Poisson brackets and the positivity of the Hamiltonian is related to a condition on the support of the gauge fields.

Abstract:
We establish a general relation between the canonical energy-momentum tensor of Lagrangian dynamics and the tensor that acts as the source of the gravitational field in Einstein's equations, and we show that there is a discrepancy between these tensors when there are direct nonminimal couplings between matter and the Riemann tensor. Despite this discrepancy, we give a general proof of the exact equality of the gravitational and inertial masses for any arbitrary system of matter and gravitational fields, even in the presence of nonminimal second-derivative couplings and-or linear or nonlinear second-derivative terms of any kind in the Lagrangian. The gravitational mass is defined by the asymptotic Newtonian potential at large distance from the system, and the inertial mass is defined by the volume integral of the energy density determined from the canonical energy-momentum tensor. In the Brans-Dicke scalar field theory, we establish that the nonminimal coupling and long range of the scalar field leads to an inequality between the gravitational and inertial masses, and we derive an exact formula for this inequality and confirm that it is approximately proportional to the gravitational self-energy (the Nordvedt effect), but with a constant of proportionality different from what is claimed in the published literature in calculations based on the PPN scheme. Similar inequalities of gravitational and inertial masses are expected to occur in other scalar and vector theories.