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Preventive Effects of Citrus unshiu Peel Extracts on Bone and Lipid Metabolism in OVX Rats  [PDF]
Dong Wook Lim,Youngseok Lee,Yun Tai Kim
Molecules , 2014, DOI: 10.3390/molecules19010783
Abstract: Dried Citrus unshiu peel has been widely used for various medicinal purposes in Oriental Medicine. This study evaluated the metabolic effects of dried C. unshiu peel in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The OVX rats were divided into five groups treated with distilled water, 17β-estradiol (E2 10 μg/kg, once daily, i.p.) and dried C. unshiu peel extracts (DCPE 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg, once daily, p.o.) for eight weeks. The treatments with high-dose DCPE significantly decreased the bone mineral density (BMD) loss in the femur, which was reflected by the decrease in alkaline phosphatase (ALP), telopeptides of collagen type I (CTx) and osteocalcin (OC) serum levels. It also inhibited the increase in lipoprotein levels compared to the OVX-control group without elevating the serum levels of estradiol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). Furthermore, DCPE exhibits a hepatoprotective effect in OVX-induced hepatic steatosis, indicated by reduced hepatic lipid contents. Taken together, our findings suggest that DCPE has the potential to improve both lipid and bone metabolism without influencing hormones such as estrogen in OVX rats.
Preliminary Evaluation for Comparative Antioxidant Activity in the Water and Ethanol Extracts of Dried Citrus Fruit (Citrus unshiu) Peel Using Chemical and Biochemical in Vitro Assays  [PDF]
Joo-Shin Kim
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.42025

Comparative antioxidant activities of the water and ethanol extracts obtained from dried citrus fruit (Citrus unshiu) peel were determined using chemical and biochemical in vitro assays. Chemical assays were used for evaluation of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and reducing power of both extracts and their total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents and antioxidant activities were investigated. Biochemical assays were performed to evaluate the inhibition activities of AAPH-induced rat RBC hemolysis and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation using rat brain tissue cells. Linear correlation between the antioxidant activities of both extracts were determined by chemical assays, and total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents was observed in concentration-dependent mode. Both extracts showed >95% DPPH radical scavenging and >85% hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and higher reducing capacity at the same level of 3200 ppm. In the inhibition activity of AAPH-induced hemolysis, water extracts showed a strong activity in concentration-dependent mode up to 1600 ppm with no statistical difference found between 1600 and 3200 ppm (P > 0.05). In the inhibition activity of Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation, ethanol extracts showed the higher inhibition percentage of lipid peroxidation than those of water extracts at the same concentration with no significant difference (P > 0.05) found in the range of 800 to 3200 ppm. The extracts of dried Citrus unshiu peel may be considered as potential antioxidant ingredients of functional food depending on the conditions at which reactive oxygen species are implicated.

Preparation and Characterization of Pectin Hydroxamates from Citrus Unshiu Peels.  [cached]
In Young Bae,Hyun Jae Rha,Suyong Lee,Hyeon Gyu Lee
Journal of Excipients and Food Chemicals , 2011,
Abstract: Pectin was extracted from unshiu orange (Citrus unshiu) peels and was subjected to chemical modification using hydroxamic acid. The structural and physical properties of the resulting derivatives were investigated as a function of hydroxamic acid content (4.68-9.58%). The extracted unshiu orange pectin showed 66.8% degree of esterification, 787.5 mg/g galacturonic acid, and 92 mg/g neutral sugars, which were composed of arabinose (53%), galactose (35%), glucose (5%), rhamnose (5%), and fructose (2%). Compared to the nativepectin, the FT-IR spectra of the hydroxamic acid derivatives showed two new absorption bands at 1,646 cm-1 (C=O) and 1,568 cm-1 (N-H). Specifically, the pectin derivatives with more hydroxamic acids were shown to have enhanced water solubility, upto two-fold higher than that of the native pectin. Thus, the introduction of hydroxamic acid into the pectin structure appears to be a useful tool for improving the solubility of pectin.
Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste
K. Ashok kumar,M. Narayani,A. Subanthini,M. Jayakumar
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water) prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon) were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel extract of Citrus limon. The peel extract of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon can be considered to be as equally potent as the antibiotics, such as metacillin and penicillin. MICs were tested at concentrations ranging from 50-6.25 mg/ml as wells as their MBCs. The phytochemical analysis of the citrus peel extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, tannins and alkaloids
Inhibitory Effect of Citrus Peel Essential Oils on the Microbial Growth of Bread  [PDF]
Salim -ur-Rehman,Sarfraz Hussain,Haq Nawaz,Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2007,
Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the effect of citrus peel essential oils on the microbial growth and sensory characteristics of bread. Citrus peel essential oils extracted by cold expression from malta (Citrus sinensis) and mossumbi (Citrus sinensis) were applied in different forms (treatments) separately. The essential oils significantly affected sensory characteristics such as symmetry of form, character of crust, colour of crumb, colour of crust, taste, texture, aroma and grain of bread. They also inhibited and delayed the microbial growth in the bread. Maximum inhibitory effect was achieved against molds and bacteria by spraying the malta peel essential oil on bread.
Muthiah PL
International Journal of Phytopharmacy , 2012, DOI: 10.7439/ijpp.v2i1.293
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Aim: The present study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activities of the leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon belonging to the family Rutaceae. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities of the hydroethanolic extracts have been evaluated by using different in vitro assays and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), ascorbic acid, curcumin, quercetin, etc. In addition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in these extracts were determined as pyrocatechol and quercetin equivalents respectively. Among the extracts assayed, 4 extracts (leaf and peel extracts of C.aurantium , peel and fruit extracts of C.limetta) had effective H donor ability, reducing power ability, metal chelating activity, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant activity depends upon concentration and increased with increasing amount of the extracts. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities may be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds present in the extracts. Result: The results obtained in the present study indicate that the leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon serve as the potential source of natural antioxidants. Keywords: Antioxidant; Citrus aurantium; Citrus limetta; Citrus limon; free radical; Rutaceae.
Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Extract from Buntan (Citrus grandis Osbeck) Fruit Peel  [PDF]
Matook Saif Mokbel,Fumio Hashinaga
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: Antimicrobial substances were extracted from buntan (Citrus grandis Osbeck) fruit peel (flavedo and albedo) using various solvent such as n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), butanol and methanol. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was evaluated using the disc diffusion method, growth inhibition (%) with fungi growth and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Antimicrobial substance of EtOAc extracts of flavedo and albedo were fractionated using silica gel column chromatography (CC). Further purification to the albedo active fraction resulted in two active compounds, β-sitosterol (1) and oleic acid (2). Antibacterial activities of the compounds against Gram-negative and positive bacteria by using MIC and was 270-350 ppm in β-sitosterol and 150-350 ppm in oleic acid. Their extracts could well be useful to prevent oxidation in fruit juices and essential oils of food products as well as for health supplements.
In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of leaves, fruits and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon  [cached]
Muthiah PL
International Journal of Phytopharmacy , 2012, DOI: 10.7439/ijpp.v2i3.434
Abstract: Aim of the study: To evaluate the in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the extract of leaves, fruits and peel of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon. Materials and Methods: Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was assayed spectrophotometrically under aerobic conditions and the degree of enzyme inhibition was determined by measuring the increase in absorbance at 295nm associated with uric acid formation. Results: Among the extracts tested, the C.limetta peel extract exhibited highest potency of xanthine oxidase inhibition (IC50 40.16 ±0.88 g/ml). This was followed by C.aurantium peel (IC50 51.50 ±2.05 g/ml), C.limon peel (IC50 64.90 ±1.24 g/ml), C.aurantium leaf (IC5073.50 ±1.26 g/ml), C.limetta leaf (IC50 74.83 ±2.42 g/ml), C.limon leaf (IC50 76.83 ±2.02 g/ml), C.limetta fruit (IC50 95.16 ±0.60 g/ml) extracts compared with the IC50 value of standard allopurinol was 6.6 g/ml. Conclusion: Recent findings show that the occurrence of gout is increasing worldwide, possibly due to the changes in dietary habits like intake of food rich in nucleic acids, such as meat, sea foods, etc. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors such as allopurinol is the drug of choice, however it has been observed more side effects. An alternative to allopurinol is the use of medicinal plants, We thus began our program to look for xanthine oxidase inhibitors of phytochemical origin. In conclusion, the study suggests that the leaves and peel extracts of Citrus aurantium, Citrus limetta and Citrus limon possess xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity that might be helpful in preventing or slowing the progress of gout and related disorders.
Arumugam Abirami, Gunasekaran Nagarani and Perumal Siddhuraju*
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2013,
Abstract: Since plants are used as therapeutic agents, the present study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activities of methonolic extracts of different components of Citrus hystrix and Citrus maxima (Red and White) fruit. Studies on the antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts of leaf, peel, and pulp of Citrus hystrix and Citrus maxima (Red and White) fruit was conducted using agar disc diffusion method. The microorganisms used include Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 3160), Salmonella typhi (MTCC 3215), Escherichia coli (MTCC 40), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 424), Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC 3384). The maximum activity was observed against all organisms except Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged between 12.5mg/mL and 200mg/mL depending on microorganism and various extract. Citrus hystrix and Citrus maxima (Red and White) fruit were observed to have antibacterial activity and can be used for medicinal purposes.
Study Antimicrobial Activity of Lemon (Citrus lemon L.) Peel Extract  [cached]
Maruti J. Dhanavade,Chidamber B. Jalkute,Jai S. Ghosh,Kailash D. Sonawane
British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology , 2011,
Abstract: The main objective of the study is extraction, identification of antimicrobial compounds and demonstration of antimicrobial activity of lemon (Citrus lemon L.) peel against bacteria. As microorganism are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and future prophylactic potential of the lemon peel. Biologically active compounds present in the medicinal plants have always been of great interest to scientists. The peel of citrus fruits is a rich source of flavanones and many polymethoxylated flavones, which are very rare in other plants. These compounds, not only play an important physiological and ecological role, but are also of commercial interest because of their multitude of applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The citrus peel oils show strong antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity has been checked in terms of MIC by using different solvents against microorganisms like Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 2036 for which MIC was 1:20 in presence of methanol, for Salmonella typhimurium NCIM 5021 the observed MIC was 1:20 in presence of acetone. In case of Micrococcus aureus NCIM 5021 the observed MIC was 1:20 when ethanol was used as solvent. The compounds like coumarin and tetrazene were identified by GC/MS of lemon peel extract.
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