Semiconductor solar cell (PV cell) has been widely used for generating solar electricity. However, the high cost and severe pollution limits its application. Recently the discovery of graphene may open a door to fabricate a novel solar cell with lower cost and more environmentally friendly. Our proposed solar cell device consists of a graphene strip and two semiconductor strips with different energy gaps attached to the two edges of the graphene strip on a flat plane. This structure is a two-dimensional quantum well. The energy bands of graphene can be described by a two-dimensional Dirac equation centered on hexagonal corners (Dirac points) of the honeycomb lattice Brillouin zone. The 2D Dirac equation has been solved numerically in this paper. The results indicate that the graphene quantum well possesses very dense quantum energy states which imply that quantum well of this type can absorb sun light with more different frequencies. If we use graphene quantum well to fabricate the photo voltaic cell, the efficiency of converting solar energy to electricity will be enhanced.

Abstract:
We propose a novel method to probe electronic excitations in graphene by monitoring the fluorescence quenching of a semiconductor quantum dot (or a dye molecule) due to the resonance energy transfer to the graphene sheet. We show how the dispersion relation of plasmons in graphene (as well as of other electronic excitations) can be accurately extracted by controlling the backgate voltage and the distance between quantum dot and graphene.

Abstract:
An analytical theory of the nonlinear electromagnetic response of a two-dimensional (2D) electron system in the second order in the electric field amplitude is developed. The second-order polarizability and the intensity of the second harmonic signal are calculated within the self-consistent-field approach both for semiconductor 2D electron systems and for graphene. The second harmonic generation in graphene is shown to be about two orders of magnitude stronger than in GaAs quantum wells at typical experimental parameters. Under the conditions of the 2D plasmon resonance the second harmonic radiation intensity is further increased by several orders of magnitude.

Abstract:
When an electron is confined to a triangular atomic thick layer of graphene [1-5] with zig-zag edges, its energy spectrum collapses to a shell of degenerate states at the Fermi level (Dirac point) [6-9]. The degeneracy is proportional to the edge size and can be made macroscopic. This opens up the possibility to design a strongly correlated electronic system as a function of fractional filling of the zero-energy shell, in analogy to the fractional quantum Hall effect in a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas[10], but without the need for a high magnetic field. In this work we show that electronic correlations, beyond the Hubbard model[6,7] and mean-field density functional theory (DFT) [7,8] play a crucial role in determining the nature of the ground state and the excitation spectrum of triangular graphene quantum dots as a function of dot size and filling fraction of the shell of zero-energy states. The interactions are treated by a combination of DFT, tight-binding, Hartree-Fock and configuration interaction methods (TB-HF-CI) and include all scattering and exchange terms within second nearest neighbors as well as interaction with metallic gate. We show that a half filled charge neutral shell leads to full spin polarization of the island but this magnetic moment is completely destroyed by the addition of a single electron, in analogy to the effect of skyrmions on the quantum Hall ferromagnet [11-14] and spin depolarization in electrostatically defined semiconductor quantum dots[15-18]. The depolarization of the ground state is predicted to result in blocking of current through a graphene quantum dot due to spin blockade (SB) [18].

Abstract:
Stimulated by recent advances in isolating graphene, we discovered that quantum dot can be trapped in Z-shaped graphene nanoribbon junciton. The topological structure of the junction can confine electronic states completely. By varying junction length, we can alter the spatial confinement and the number of discrete levels within the junction. In addition, quantum dot can be realized regardless of substrate induced static disorder or irregular edges of the junction. This device can be used to easily design quantum dot devices. This platform can also be used to design zero-dimensional functional nanoscale electronic devices using graphene ribbons.

Abstract:
Two-dimensional layered materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), are promising materials for future electronics owing to their unique electronic properties. With the presence of a band gap, atomically thin gate defined quantum dots (QDs) can be achieved on TMDCs. Here, standard semiconductor fabrication techniques are used to demonstrate quantum confined structures on WSe2 with tunnel barriers defined by electric fields, thereby eliminating the edge states induced by etching steps, which commonly appear in gapless graphene QDs. Over 40 consecutive Coulomb diamonds with a charging energy of approximately 2 meV were observed, showing the formation of a QD, which is consistent with the simulations. The size of the QD could be tuned over a factor of 2 by changing the voltages applied to the top gates. These results shed light on quantum nano-devices on TMDCs for further researches.

Abstract:
We have developed a theoretical method to study scattering processes of an incident electron through an N-electron quantum dot (QD) embedded in a two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor. The generalized Lippmann-Schwinger equations including the electron-electron exchange interaction in this system are solved for the continuum electron by using the method of continued fractions (MCF) combined with 2D partial-wave expansion technique. The method is applied to a one-electron QD case. Cross-sections are obtained for both the singlet and triplet couplings between the incident electron and the QD electron during the scattering. The total elastic cross-sections as well as the spin-flip scattering cross-sections resulting from the exchange potential are presented. Furthermore, inelastic scattering processes are also studied using a multichannel formalism of the MCF.

Abstract:
We describe our recent experimental results on the fabrication of quantum-dot devices in a graphene-based two-dimensional system. Graphene samples were prepared by micromechanical cleavage of graphite crystals on a SiO2/Si substrate. We performed micro-Raman spectroscopy measurements to determine the number of layers of graphene flakes during the device fabrication process. By applying a nanofabrication process to the identified graphene flakes, we prepared a double-quantum-dot device structure comprising two lateral quantum dots coupled in series. Measurements of low-temperature electrical transport show the device to be a series-coupled double-dot system with varied interdot tunnel coupling, the strength of which changes continuously and non-monotonically as a function of gate voltage.

Abstract:
Graphene nanoribbon quantum dot qubits have been proposed as promising candidates for quantum computing applications to overcome the spin-decoherence problems associated with typical semiconductor (e.g. GaAs) quantum dot qubits. We perform theoretical studies of the electronic structures of graphene nanoribbon quantum dots by solving the Dirac equation with appropriate boundary conditions. We then evaluate the exchange splitting based on an unrestricted Hartree-Fock method for the Dirac particles. The electronic wave function and long-range exchange coupling due to the Klein tunneling and the Coulomb interaction are calculated for various gate configurations. It is found that the exchange coupling between qubits can be significantly enhanced by the Klein tunneling effect. The implications of our results for practical qubit construction and operation are discussed.

Abstract:
Energy transfer from photoexcited zero-dimensional systems to metallic systems plays a prominent role in modern day materials science. A situation of particular interest concerns the interaction between a photoexcited dipole and an atomically thin metal. The recent discovery of graphene layers permits investigation of this phenomenon. Here we report a study of fluorescence from individual CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals in contact with single- and few-layer graphene sheets. The rate of energy transfer is determined from the strong quenching of the nanocrystal fluorescence. For single-layer graphene, we find a rate of ~ 4ns-1, in agreement with a model based on the dipole approximation and a tight-binding description of graphene. This rate increases significantly with the number of graphene layers, before approaching the bulk limit. Our study quantifies energy transfer to and fluorescence quenching by graphene, critical properties for novel applications in photovoltaic devices and as a molecular ruler.