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Precise and accurate neurosurgery:new concept of minimal invasive neurosurgery  [cached]
Bai-nan XU,Xiao-lei CHEN
Medical Journal of Chinese People's Liberation Army , 2011,
Abstract: In the past decade,with the advancement of neuro-navigation and intraoperative imaging,the concept of minimal invasive neurosurgery has greatly altered.Assisted with the multimodal functional neuro-navigation and intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging(iMRI),prominent progress has been made in neurosurgical procedures,especially for cerebral parenchymal lesions.Based on these technological platforms,the newly evolved precise and accurate neurosurgery is the natural extension of minimal invasive neurosurgery.The new concept is to maximize resection of lesion with iMRI,at the same time improve the quality of life and increase the post-operative survival time by demarcation the functional brain structures with multimodal functional brain imaging and neuro-navigation.To promote the further understanding of precise and accurate neurosurgery is of great importance for the improvement of post-operative prognosis and life quality of patients.
Understanding brain, mind and soul: Contributions from neurology and neurosurgery  [cached]
Sunil K Pandya
Mens Sana Monographs , 2011,
Abstract: Treatment of diseases of the brain by drugs or surgery necessitates an understanding of its structure and functions. The philosophical neurosurgeon soon encounters difficulties when localising the abstract concepts of mind and soul within the tangible 1300-gram organ containing 100 billion neurones. Hippocrates had focused attention on the brain as the seat of the mind. The tabula rasa postulated by Aristotle cannot be localised to a particular part of the brain with the confidence that we can localise spoken speech to Broca's area or the movement of limbs to the contralateral motor cortex. Galen's localisation of imagination, reasoning, judgement and memory in the cerebral ventricles collapsed once it was evident that the functional units-neurones-lay in the parenchyma of the brain. Experiences gained from accidental injuries (Phineas Gage) or temporal lobe resection (William Beecher Scoville); studies on how we see and hear and more recent data from functional magnetic resonance studies have made us aware of the extensive network of neurones in the cerebral hemispheres that subserve the functions of the mind. The soul or atman, credited with the ability to enliven the body, was located by ancient anatomists and philosophers in the lungs or heart, in the pineal gland (Descartes), and generally in the brain. When the deeper parts of the brain came within the reach of neurosurgeons, the brainstem proved exceptionally delicate and vulnerable. The concept of brain death after irreversible damage to it has made all of us aware of 'the cocktail of brain soup and spark' in the brainstem so necessary for life. If there be a soul in each of us, surely, it is enshrined here.
Understanding brain, mind and soul: Contributions from neurology and neurosurgery  [cached]
Pandya Sunil
Mens Sana Monographs , 2011,
Abstract: Treatment of diseases of the brain by drugs or surgery necessitates an understanding of its structure and functions. The philosophical neurosurgeon soon encounters difficulties when localising the abstract concepts of mind and soul within the tangible 1300-gram organ containing 100 billion neurones. Hippocrates had focused attention on the brain as the seat of the mind. The tabula rasa postulated by Aristotle cannot be localised to a particular part of the brain with the confidence that we can localise spoken speech to Broca′s area or the movement of limbs to the contralateral motor cortex. Galen′s localisation of imagination, reasoning, judgement and memory in the cerebral ventricles collapsed once it was evident that the functional units-neurones-lay in the parenchyma of the brain. Experiences gained from accidental injuries (Phineas Gage) or temporal lobe resection (William Beecher Scoville); studies on how we see and hear and more recent data from functional magnetic resonance studies have made us aware of the extensive network of neurones in the cerebral hemispheres that subserve the functions of the mind. The soul or atman, credited with the ability to enliven the body, was located by ancient anatomists and philosophers in the lungs or heart, in the pineal gland (Descartes), and generally in the brain. When the deeper parts of the brain came within the reach of neurosurgeons, the brainstem proved exceptionally delicate and vulnerable. The concept of brain death after irreversible damage to it has made all of us aware of ′the cocktail of brain soup and spark′ in the brainstem so necessary for life. If there be a soul in each of us, surely, it is enshrined here.
Seeking tools for image fusion between computed tomography, structural and functional magnetic resonance methods for applications in neurosurgery
Rocha, Liana Guerra Sanches da;Amaro Junior, Edson;
Einstein (S?o Paulo) , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1679-45082012000200007
Abstract: objective: to evaluate tools for the fusion of images generated by tomography and structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging. methods: magnetic resonance and functional magnetic resonance imaging were performed while a volunteer who had previously undergone cranial tomography performed motor and somatosensory tasks in a 3-tesla scanner. image data were analyzed with different programs, and the results were compared. results: we constructed a flow chart of computational processes that allowed measurement of the spatial congruence between the methods. there was no single computational tool that contained the entire set of functions necessary to achieve the goal. conclusion: the fusion of the images from the three methods proved to be feasible with the use of four free-access software programs (osirix, register, mricro and fsl). our results may serve as a basis for building software that will be useful as a virtual tool prior to neurosurgery.
Seeking tools for image fusion between computed tomography, structural and functional magnetic resonance methods for applications in neurosurgery  [PDF]
Liana Guerra Sanches da Rocha,Edson Amaro Junior
Einstein (S?o Paulo) , 2012,
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate tools for the fusion of images generatedby tomography and structural and functional magnetic resonanceimaging. Methods: Magnetic resonance and functional magneticresonance imaging were performed while a volunteer who hadpreviously undergone cranial tomography performed motor andsomatosensory tasks in a 3-Tesla scanner. Image data were analyzedwith different programs, and the results were compared. Results:We constructed a flow chart of computational processes that allowedmeasurement of the spatial congruence between the methods. Therewas no single computational tool that contained the entire set offunctions necessary to achieve the goal. Conclusion: The fusion ofthe images from the three methods proved to be feasible with the useof four free-access software programs (OsiriX, Register, MRIcro andFSL). Our results may serve as a basis for building software that willbe useful as a virtual tool prior to neurosurgery.
Understanding Beth, the Particulate Mass Functional  [PDF]
Wayne R. Lundberg
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: A geometric relationship between loop quantum gravity and partitioned (triangulated) string theory is discussed. Combinatorial analysis reveals that three spatial and three curvature dimensions, intrinsic to the partitioned string, are necessary to replicate Standard Model particles and interactions. This analysis has established that particulate mass is determined by a functional relationship involving these six extra dimensions. The combinatorial analysis involves non-commutative 3D-matrix algebra which forms the mathematical underpinnings of Dirac notation. The functional relationship (symbolized by Beth) requires exponential, Randall-Sundrum, scaling to compute mass. Through the proper interpretation of complex gravity a cyclic cosmological model is developed. This formulation of cyclic cosmology inherently involves observed dark energy. Thus, a comprehensive theory is constructed from geometric fundamentals which models both massive, oscillating neutrinos and the current epoch of mini-inflation.
Understanding and reducing errors in density functional calculations  [PDF]
Min-Cheol Kim,Eunji Sim,Kieron Burke
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.073003
Abstract: We decompose the energy error of any variational DFT calculation into a contribution due to the approximate functional and that due to the approximate density. Typically, the functional error dominates, but in many interesting situations, the density-driven error dominates. Examples range from calculations of electron affinities to preferred geometries of ions and radicals in solution. In these abnormal cases, the DFT error can be greatly reduced by using a more accurate density. A small orbital gap often indicates a substantial density-driven error.
Contribution to understanding the mathematical structure of quantum mechanics  [PDF]
L. Skala,V. Kapsa
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1134/S0030400X07090135
Abstract: Probabilistic description of results of measurements and its consequences for understanding quantum mechanics are discussed. It is shown that the basic mathematical structure of quantum mechanics like the probability amplitudes, Born rule, commutation and uncertainty relations, probability density current, momentum operator, rules for including the scalar and vector potentials and antiparticles can be obtained from the probabilistic description of results of measurement of the space coordinates and time. Equations of motion of quantum mechanics, the Klein-Gordon equation, Schrodinger equation and Dirac equation are obtained from the requirement of the relativistic invariance of the space-time Fisher information. The limit case of the delta-like probability densities leads to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of classical mechanics. Many particle systems and the postulates of quantum mechanics are also discussed.
A contribution to understanding the turbidity behaviour in an Amazon floodplain
E. Alcantara, E. Novo, J. Stech, J. Lorenzzetti, C. Barbosa, A. Assireu,A. Souza
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2010,
Abstract: Observations of turbidity provide quantitative information about water quality. However, the number of available in situ measurements for water quality determination is usually limited in time and space. Here, we present an analysis of the temporal and spatial variability of the turbidity of an Amazon floodplain lake using two approaches: (1) wavelet analysis of a turbidity time series measured by an automatic monitoring system, which should be improved/simplified, and (2) turbidity samples measured in different locations and then interpolated using an ordinary Kriging algorithm. The spatial and temporal variability of turbidity are clearly related to the Amazon River flood pulses in the floodplain. When the water level in the floodplain is rising or receding, the exchange between the Amazon River and the floodplain is the major driving force in turbidity variability. At high-water levels, turbidity variability is controlled by Lake Bathymetry. When the water level is low, wind action and Lake Morphometry are the main causes of turbidity variability. The combined use of temporal and spatial data shows a good potential for better understanding of the turbidity behaviour in a complex aquatic system such as the Amazon floodplain.
Contribution of historical and literary works to the understanding of political phenomena  [PDF]
Stanov?i? Vojislav
Zbornik Matice Srpske za Drustvene Nauke , 2005, DOI: 10.2298/zmsdn0519093s
Abstract: The paper presents a series of arguments which indicate that significant historiographic works describing and analyzing bygone political phenomena as well the literary works which picturesquely depict political situations and human destinies - with their specific approaches and methods - contribute to the better insight and understanding of the phenomena in the political life which philosophy and social sciences express by notions. Social and political life have their bright and dark sides. It is less arguable that political sciences - in the study of phenomena included in their topic -find great help in history, if it is - as Leopold von Ranke advised - oriented only to "show what really happened". Historical studies, specially the ones of the socalled great historians, present to us the images of the situation in a certain period or event with all significant details and contribute to the understanding of that phenomenon, helping to clarify its essence. Thus for example, Appian's Roman Civil Wars or Tacitus' descriptions in The Annals of the suffering of the innocent victims in the power struggle during civil wars and during the ferocious persecution of Christians -innocent, but accused of all possible crimes. What astonishes the reader is the grea similarity between the phenomena, processes, actions happening two millennia ago and in the 20th century. Philosopher and political thinkers (like Aristotle), but also some historians (like Thucydides) offer explanations why some patterns repeat and why they would "keep repeating". In Khalil Inalcik's work, we find detailed descriptions of brutal mutual killings among the sons of the majority of the Turkish sultans in the power struggle after their fathers' death. Generalizing on the basis of the material provided by history, we reach an entire string of general notions in political and social sciences. Great thinkers and writers, from the oldest Eastern and the greatest antique philosophers till the ones from the 20th century, used found inspiration and drew ideas and incentives or material from the sources with which they supplemented their theoretical categories, notions and explanations, including the images of political life. These sources are represented in the great literary works. Contradictory opinions about the character and significance of ail and literature are found in Plato's and Aristotle's writings. Aristotle, who analyzed this problem, presented arguments why literary insights - precisely because of the character of insights they offer - deserve to stand in the same pedestal with philosophy.
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