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Characterization of cytotoxicity of airborne particulates from urban areas of Lahore
Badar Ghauri,M Mansha,Christian Khalil,
Badar Ghauri
,M. Mansh,Christian Khalil

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2012,
Abstract: A number of species (organic and inorganic) in airborne particulates cause the toxicity to living being. The potential of in vitro test methods were explored for toxicity assessment of trace toxic elements (inorganic species) present in ambient air on human being (lungs). A year long sampling of airborne particles (PM2.5) was carried (April 2008 to March 2009) in Lahore, Pakistan. A total of thirty nine samples were collected on 47 mm Zefluor Teflon filter membranes and each was analysed to characterize for the elements: Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Pb, Mn, Hg using ICP-MS in water extract and total acid digestate. The samples cytotoxicity was also established using lung derived cells and MTS colorimetric assays. This generated dose response curves and IC50 values for the elemental mixtures identified on the Teflon filter membrane. The results indicated that even at low concentrations airborne elemental mixtures displayed an additive toxic effect.
A Study of Suspended Participate Matter in Lahore (Pakistan)

K Hussain,Ruby Riffat,A Shaukat,M Ashraf Siddiqui,

大气科学进展 , 1990,
Abstract: The results obtained from an investigation of suspended particulate matter in the metropolitan city of Lahore (Pakistan) are reported and analysed in this paper. X-ray diffraction studies of the airborne matter collected from va-rious urban and suburban sites show that non-clay minerals such as quartz, calcite and albite are contained in most of the samples in almost comparable amounts. Chemical analysis of some samples was carried out for complementing the x-ray diffraction data. The amount of quartz in the samples of dusty areas was found to be an order of magnitude more than in the samples of relatively cleaner areas. As the dust particles of these compounds are poor substrate for promoting nucleation of ice in the atmospheric clouds, they are liable to stay steadily in the atmosphere as pollutants.A comparison of the results of the airborne particulates and the soil samples collected from various sites show that the sources of quartz, calcite and albite in the airborne matter are both local and remote.
The Neighborhood Scale Variability of Airborne Particulates  [PDF]
William A. Harrison, David Lary, Brian Nathan, Alec G. Moore
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.65045
Abstract: Airborne particulates play a central role in both the earth’s radiation balance and as a trigger for a wide range of health impacts. Air quality monitors are placed in networks across many cities glob-ally. Typically these provide at best a few recording locations per city. However, large spatial var-iability occurs on the neighborhood scale. This study sets out to comprehensively characterize a full size distribution from 0.25 - 32 μm of airborne particulates on a fine spatial scale (meters). The data are gathered on a near daily basis over the month of May, 2014 in a 100 km2 area encompassing parts of Richardson, and Garland, TX. Wind direction was determined to be the dominant factor in classifying the data. The highest mean PM2.5 concentration was 14.1 ± 5.7 μg·m-3 corresponding to periods when the wind was out of the south. The lowest PM2.5 concentrations were observed after several consecutive days of rainfall. The rainfall was found to not only “cleanse” the air, leaving a mean PM2.5 concentration as low as 3.0 ± 0.5 μg·m-3, but also leave the region with a more uniform PM2.5 concentration. Variograms were used to determine an appropriate spatial scale for future sensor placement to provide measurements on a neighborhood scale and found that the spatial scales varied, depending on the synoptic weather pattern, from 0.8 km to 5.2 km, with a typical length scale of 1.6 km.
H. Asilian, M. Nasseri Nejad, S. B. Mortazavi, M. J. Jafari, A. Khavanin, A. R. Dehdashti
Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering , 2008,
Abstract: Dust consists of tiny solid particles carried by air currents. These particles are formed by many different processes. One of these processes is polymerization of inert plastic such as Polyvinyl Chloride production plant. According to the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series requirements, section 4.4.6, occupational health and safety risks must be defined and controlled where needed. This field study was conducted to evaluate the occupational exposure of packaging operators to airborne polyvinyl chloride dust in order to health risk assessment and recommend feasible controlling methods. The mass concentration of polyvinyl chloride particulate was measured in two fractions according to the particle size that expressed as total and respirable particulates. The Air Sampling Methods, Methods for the Determination of Hazardous Substances 14/3, of Health and Safety Executive were used as a standard sampling protocol. The average mass concentrations for respirable and total particulates were measured 3.54±0.3 mg/m3 and 11.89±0.8 mg/m3 respectively. Also health risks of studied condition were estimated as significant level, category one, therefore the risk must be reduced below the standard level. According to the work requirements to reduce the emission rate and mitigate the health risk exposure, a local exhaust ventilation system design was recommended for bag-filters of hopper tank.
Development of analytical methods for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in airborne particulates
Development of analytical methods for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in airborne particulates: A review

LIU Li-bin,LIU Yan,LIN Jin-ming,TANG Ning,HAYAKAWA Kazuichi,MAEDA Tsuneaki,
LIU Li-bin
,LIU Yan,LIN Jin-ming,TANG Ning,HAYAKAWA Kazuichi,MAEDA Tsuneaki

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2007,
Abstract: In the present work,the different sample collection, pretreatment and analytical methods for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in airborne particulates is systematacially reviewed, and the applications of these pretreatment and analytical methods for PAHs are compared in detail. Some comments on the future expectation are also presented.
Microbiological Quality of Bottled Water Available in Lahore City  [cached]
Journal of Pakistan Medical Students , 2013,
Abstract: (CMH Lahore Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan)(Original Article; p110-112)

Lin Guozhen,Mao Shisen,Wang Qingguang,

环境科学学报 , 1983,
Abstract: X-ray powder diffraction analysis of fractions of airborne particulates has been carried out by density gradient separation method with sequential extraction of acetone-methylene iodide mixtures. 17 compounds were identified from the airborne particulates in Beijing area and analytical results for the fractions were used to characterize the chemical states for some of the constituents of particulates.
Gamma-analysis of airborne particulates sampled in Youzhno-Sakhalinsk town at March - April 2011  [PDF]
E. G. Tertyshnik,V. P. Martynenko,F. A. Andreev,G. B. Artemyev
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: The experience of discovery of the radioactive products which have released into atmosphere of Sakhalin region from Fukushima Daiichi accident is presented. Sampling of airborne particulates and atmosphere fallout was carried out by means of the air ventilation set and horizontal gauze planchs, respectively. The HPGe detector was used for gamma analyses of the airborne samples. Since 23 March we confidently measured 131I in the airborne samples, after 03.04.2011 we also registered a rise of activity 137Cs and 134Cs. 132Te and 132I were discovered in ashen sample of the planch, which had exposed in Youzhno-Kurilk from 14 to 17 March. The effect of the pairs production when in the samples 208Tl presence, which emits gamma-quanta of 2615 keV, causes a rise in apparatus spectra of the peak corresponding to energy 1593 keV, which could be in error ascribed to 140La. It had been experimentally shown that the systematic reduction of 134Cs content in measuring samples due to effect of gamma - gamma coincidence did not exceed 7 % (for the detector and geometry of the measurement used).

Dong Shuping,Jin Zuliang,Li Yuqin,Zhu Naikai,Xu Xiaobai,

环境科学学报 , 1989,
Abstract: A procedure for simultaneous determination of PAH and NO2-PAH, including extraction, preseparation, reduction and analysis with HPLC, was developed. By using this procedure coupled with Ames assay, it was found that there are not only mutagenic PAH but also direct mutagenic NO2-PAH in airborne particulates from different sampling sites in Beijing. The concentrations of PAH and NO2-PAH are higher in the winter than in the summer and the pollution is more serious in commercial and residential areas than in the other areas.
Comparative Study of Levels of Trace Metals in Airborne Particulates in Some Cities of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria  [cached]
U. A. Uno,B. O. Ekpo,V. E. Etuk,H. S. Etuk
Environment and Pollution , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ep.v2n1p110
Abstract: This study measured and compared the levels of trace elements (Pb, Hg, Cr, Ni, V, Cu, Cd, Mn, Fe, Zn, Co, and As) in airborne Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) (PM10) collected between July–September, 2005 and January–March, 2006 at four major cities (Calabar, Eket, Aba and Port Harcourt) in the Niger delta region of Nigeria. The SPM concentrations varied from 27.72±11.33 ?g/m3 in Calabar to 75.50±25.60 ?g/m3 in Aba. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) results show that the air basin at all sites contain concentrations of elements (Pb, Hg, Cr, Ni, V, Cu, Cd, Mn, Co and As) < 15 ?g/m3. Higher concentration of Fe (41.26±9.84 μg/m3) was recorded at Calabar and of Zn (39.76±6.15 μg/m3) and (22.91±6.26 μg/m3) at Aba and Port Harcourt respectively. Paired independent t-test at p ? 0.05 (df = 34, n = 36) confirmed significant seasonal variations in the concentrations of the metals with greater concentrations during the dry season. Enrichment factor (EF) analysis was adopted to identify the sources and their contributions to particulate matter. Our results revealed that the background atmosphere in the studied cities was highly affected by anthropogenic pollution, in the order PH > Aba > Eket > Calabar, and demonstrated that high heavy metal concentrations occurred but with significant EF values during the dry season. The present study provides base line information about the region. The results are useful for effective environmental pollution monitoring in the in the Niger Delta air basin.
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