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Interventionist (Explicit and Implicit) versus Non-interventionist (Incidental) Learning of Phrasal Verbs by Iranian EFL Learners
Mohammad Khatib,Minoo Ghannadi
Journal of Language Teaching and Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4304/jltr.2.3.537-546
Abstract: Phrasal verbs are commonly used in spoken English. Due to the problems experienced by Iranian EFL learners in acquiring phrasal verbs, this study investigated the effectiveness of interventionist and non-interventionist approaches to learning (both recognition and production) of phrasal verbs. To this end, 63 Iranian EFL learners in three groups, with equal numbers of participants, participated in the study: a non-interventional control group, an experimental implicit group, and an experimental explicit group. They were homogenized through a TOEFL test and were asked to complete a pre-test to ascertain their unfamiliarity with the target phrasal verbs. Then, they were given 10 different passages followed by comprehension questions. After a 10- session treatment period, the recognition and production of these target phrasal verbs were tested through a post-test. The results of the ANOVA revealed the superiority of interventionist groups over the non-interventionist group in both recognition and production of phrasal verbs. In addition, the interventional explicit group greatly outperformed the interventional implicit group in both recognition and production. This effect of interventionist learning implies the necessity of a more balanced approach involving both implicit and explicit practice and instruction in order to enhance the acquisition of phrasal verbs.
Collisions between Whales and Fast Ferries around Korean Waters  [PDF]
Kyung-Jun Song
Journal of Marine Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/309751
Abstract: Although there is heavy maritime traffic around Korean waters, collisions between whales and fast ferries around Korean waters are nearly unknown. A ship strike that was associated with a minke whale occurred near the southeastern part of Tsushima Island along the sailing route of the fast ferry between Korea and Japan on December 16, 2004. It was associated with a fast ferry that runs at a speed of approximately 46.1?kn (83?km/h) between Korea and Japan. This individual was certainly seriously injured or killed by this ship strike because large amounts of skin of this individual were attached to the surface of the fast ferry, and also large amounts of blood of this individual spread out in that area. However, fortunately, serious damage did not occur to the mariners and passengers of the ferry, although many passengers were knocked down to the floor of the fast ferry when the fast ferry collided with the minke whale. In addition, a total of 4 records of possible collisions between whales and fast ferries have occurred on the fast ferry route between Korea and Japan between 2004 and 2007. This study is the first formal report on collisions between whales and fast ferries around Korean waters. Although the effect of ship strikes on the survival of cetaceans distributed around Korean waters is not very high at present compared with that of other threats, such as entanglement in fishing gear, ship strikes can pose a significant potential threat to endangered cetaceans such as western gray whales. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare prevention measures for ship strikes for the conservation of cetaceans around Korean waters in the future. 1. Introduction Collisions between cetaceans and ships, known as ship strikes, have been continuously reported all around the world [1, 2]. Furthermore, the frequency of ship strikes has tended to increase in recent years because of the increase in maritime traffic and in the speed of various vessels. A comprehensive review of ship strikes with large whales throughout the world has been made for the first time [1]. According to this investigation, a total of 11 species collided with vessels throughout the world. Among these 11 species, several species such as fin whales, right whales, humpback whales, sperm whales, and gray whales frequently collided with vessels. They also noted that ship strikes have occurred with all types of vessels based on the historical records and a computerized stranding database. On the other hand, according to some studies, a total of 292 large whale individuals collided with vessels between
Fetal hydrothorax associated to hydrops: expectant or interventionist management?
Ortiz-Escobar Alexa Gianina,Meneses-Ruiz Katherine
Revista Ciencias Biomédicas , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Fetal hydrothorax is the accumulation of free fluid in pleural cavity offetus. It is very often associated to hydrops fetalis which is a serious entity with ahigh perinatal mortality, multifactorial etiology and it is characterized by generalizedanasarca, with accumulation of fluid in some serous cavities of the fetus. It is importantto know beforehand if this condition is present in order to establish the most probableorigin and to be prepared to administer optimal reanimation management of the neonateat birth. The care given to a newborn with hydrops fetalis is always a challenge for theneonatologist. We present a report of a case in the city of Cartagena. Case report: We present the case of a pregnant woman, O positive blood type, with importantpreceding surgery, without alterations in previous pregnancy. Her fetus in 31st weekwas diagnosed with bilateral pleural effusion. The especialist performed intrauterineintervention to drain fluid twice without improvement, therefore pregnancy wasinterrupted through cesarean section. The newborn presents signs of respiratory failurerequiring mechanical ventilatory assistance with high parameters. The pleural effusionpersisted, so drainage and insert of thoracic tube was made obtaining an unfavorableevolution with neonatal death. Conclusions: Currently, there′s not a world consensusof the management of fetal hydrothorax associated or not to hydrops; we presenthighlights to guide the decision of an expectant or interventionist management, basedon underlying cause.RESUMEN:El hidrotórax fetal es la acumulación de líquido libre en la cavidad pleural fetal. Seasocia muy frecuentemente al hidrops fetalis entidad de elevada mortalidad perinatal,de etiología multifactorial y caracterizado por anasarca generalizada, con acumulaciónde líquido en algunas cavidades serosas del organismo fetal. Es importante establecercon antelación esta condición, ya que debe conocerse la causa más probable, paraayudar en la mejor reanimación al nacimiento. Se presenta el reporte de un casoen la ciudad de Cartagena. Colombia. Paciente de 35 a os de edad, secundigestantede grupo sanguíneo RH positivo, con antecedente quirúrgico de resección de tumordermoide en pared abdominal, músculos rectos abdominales, con colocación de malla depropileno. Embarazo anterior sin alteraciones. A las treinta y una semana de gestaciónse hace diagnóstico ecográfico de derrame pleural bilateral fetal. Se realiza intervenciónintrauterina para drenar líquido y colocación de dren pleuroamniotico. Por no presentarmejoría se decide nuevamente toracocente
Lightning Strikes and Attribution of Climatic Change  [PDF]
Anthony J. Webster
Statistics , 2015,
Abstract: Using lightning strikes as an example, two possible schemes are discussed for the attribution of changes in event frequency to climate change, and estimating the cost associated with them. The schemes determine the fraction of events that should be attributed to climatic change, and the fraction that should be attributed to natural chance. They both allow for the expected increase in claims and the fluctuations about this expected value. Importantly, the attribution fraction proposed in the second of these schemes is necessarily different to that found in epidemiological studies. This ensures that the statistically expected fraction of attributed claims is correctly equal to the expected increase in claims. The analysis of lightning data highlights two particular difficulties with data-driven, as opposed to modeled, attribution studies. The first is the possibility of unknown "confounding" variables that can influence the strike frequency. This is partly accounted for here by considering the influence of temperature changes within a given month, so as to standardise the data to allow for cyclical climatic influences. The second is the possibility suggested by the data presented here, that climate change may lead to qualitatively different climate patterns, with a different relationship between e.g. strike frequency and temperature.
Basic Problems of the Banking Sector in the TRNC With Partial Emphasis on the Proactive and Reactive Strateg es Applied = KKTC Bankac l k Sekt rünün Temel Sorunlar ve Uygulanan Proaktif ve Reaktif Stretejilerin K smi Olarak Vurgulanmas  [cached]
Okan ?AFAKLI
Dogus University Journal , 2003,
Abstract: The banking crisis of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC), which occurred at the beginning of the year 2000, has resulted in the liquidation of ten banks and ended up with economic losses of approximately 200 trillion TL, almost equivalent to 50% of GNP for 1999. The main reason for such huge losses for the TRNC economy is due to the fact that the commercial banks and the institutions responsible for regulation, monitoring, supervision of the financial sector together with those running the monetary policies did not have an organizational appreciation of proactive strategies. The amendments made to the Banking Law after the crises to reestablish stability within the sector could not go beyond reflecting the concept of reactive strategies and hence, did not include any proactive strategies necessary for eliminating the negative consequences of probable external factors.The main aim of this study is to analyze the basic problems of the banking sector in Northern Cyprus with partial emphasis on the applied proactive and reactive strategies and make recommendations accordingly.This study will include the following consecutive parts:- The concepts of proactive and reactive strategies- The current status and functionality of the TRNC Banking Sector- An analysis of the TRNC banking crisis- Structural problems of the banking sector in the TRNC- Conclusion and Recommendations
Rethinking Interventionist Research: Navigating Oppositional Networks in a Danish Hospital  [cached]
Niels Christian Nickelsen
Journal of Research Practice , 2009,
Abstract: This article reports on a researcher's experience of being invited to improve upon an organisational situation in a hospital in Denmark. Being engaged with different networks of participants in the organisational situation, the researcher found himself wrapped up in various agendas, with different sections of the staff trying to persuade him to support their own respective interests. The article theorises these persuasions as "seductions." Consequently, the task of the researcher involves selecting, prioritising, and working upon his connections with various networks, while each continues to represent a different set of values, expectations, interests, and experiences. Based on this conceptualisation, the article interrogates the notion of interventionist research. Intervention is not limited only to a simple one-way causation where the interventionist does something useful in a studied field; it also involves engagement with multiple networks present in the field, each of which tries to seduce the researcher in order to befriend this potentially powerful collaborator. Using the term "interference," rather than intervention, to represent the researcher's action, the article suggests that the researcher is often not able to control the effect of his or her interference unilaterally. Neither is the researcher able to establish an overarching perspective which can be used to evaluate the final outcome. The article calls for fresh thinking on how a researcher may be engaged usefully in an organisational situation, working within the boundaries defined by the institutional logic, confronting the seductions from multiple sources, and still seeking to maintain a ground that justifies one's identity as a researcher.
Proactive solutions to academic dishonesty  [PDF]
Susan B. Thornock
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2013.38075
Abstract:

One of the significant individualities of web-enhanced education is the lack of face-to-face interaction between the student and the educator. A consideration in web-enhanced education which has the probability for ethical concern related to the physical disconnection of instructor and learner is the increased potential for academic dishonesty. This can present a dilemma for nurse educators involved in teaching a difficult curriculum, while it can be motivated to improve the quality and student outcomes related to safe patient-centered care. The most blatant consideration in this setting is plagiarism. This article reviews the various facets of this ethical issue and suggests proactive solutions for faculty and administration to deter academic dishonesty.

The Politics of Coexistence: South Korea and Sino-US Policies on the Korean Peninsula
Liselotte Odgaard
Kasarinlan : Philippine Journal of Third World Studies , 2003,
Abstract: The article argues that South Korea is promoting an interim order based on coexistence on the Korean peninsula. South Korea, Japan and the US have cooperated on proactive measures to ensure the denuclearization of the Korean peninsula. Seoul and Beijing differ on the question of a permanent settlement, but they agree on the interim preventive measures of refraining from threats of using force, recognizing the legitimacy of the North Korean regime, and recommending that multilateral dialogue is pursued outside the UN framework. South Korea and China have established an informal division of labour, allowing South Korea to put pressure on the US to accept these measures, while China calls for Pyongyang to refrain from provocations that risk producing violent conflict and accept a six-party dialogue. The article concludes that the US-DPRK nuclear standoff on the Korean peninsula reflects a general tendency in Asia-Pacific security for the US to prefer force as a means of order creation in contrast to China that gravitates towards instruments of diplomacy.
Proactive Management of the Equine Athlete  [PDF]
Chris W. Rogers,Charlotte F. Bolwell,Erica K. Gee
Animals , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ani2040640
Abstract: Across many equestrian disciplines the median competition career of a horse is relatively short. One of the major reasons for short career length is musculoskeletal injury and a consistent variable is the trainer effect. There are significant opportunities within equestrian sport for a holistic approach to horse health to attenuate musculoskeletal injury. Proactive integration of care by health professionals could provide a mechanism to attenuate injury risk and the trainer effect. However, the limited data available on current exercise regimens for sport horses restricts interpretation of how management and exercise volume could be modified to reduce injury risk. Early exercise in the juvenile horse ( i.e., pre weaning) has a positive effect on stimulating the musculoskeletal system and primes the horse for an athletic career. The early introduction to sport competition has also been identified to have a positive effect on career length. These data indicate that management systems reflecting the cursorial evolution of the horse may aid in attenuating loss from sport due to musculoskeletal injury.
Proactive Management of the Equine Athlete  [PDF]
Chris W. Rogers,Charlotte F. Bolwell,Erica K. Gee
Animals , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ani2040640
Abstract: Across many equestrian disciplines the median competition career of a horse is relatively short. One of the major reasons for short career length is musculoskeletal injury and a consistent variable is the trainer effect. There are significant opportunities within equestrian sport for a holistic approach to horse health to attenuate musculoskeletal injury. Proactive integration of care by health professionals could provide a mechanism to attenuate injury risk and the trainer effect. However, the limited data available on current exercise regimens for sport horses restricts interpretation of how management and exercise volume could be modified to reduce injury risk. Early exercise in the juvenile horse (i.e., pre weaning) has a positive effect on stimulating the musculoskeletal system and primes the horse for an athletic career. The early introduction to sport competition has also been identified to have a positive effect on career length. These data indicate that management systems reflecting the cursorial evolution of the horse may aid in attenuating loss from sport due to musculoskeletal injury.
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