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Instructional Practices in Teaching Literature: Observations of ESL Classrooms in Malaysia  [cached]
Gurnam Kaur Sidhu,Yuen Fook Chan,Sarjit Kaur
English Language Teaching , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/elt.v3n2p54
Abstract: Literature is an expression of life through the medium of language and in the ESL classroom it is often seen as an authentic means of learning the target language. A literature-enriched curriculum not only helps learners improve their reading and writing skills but more importantly helps them internalise grammar and vocabulary. The many benefits of literature saw the implementation of the Contemporary Children’s Literature (CCL) programme in all upper primary ESL classrooms in Malaysia two years ago. Using classrooms observations and interviews as research instruments, this paper critically examines the instructional practices of five Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) teachers teaching Year 4 students in the state of Selangor and evaluates the various challenges faced by them in their ESL classrooms. Preliminary findings on the Contemporary Children’s Literature programme revealed that teachers spent a lot of time on individual comprehension work with little emphasis given to comprehension instruction and higher order thinking skills. The integration of literary elements in the literature classrooms was also minimal and teachers lacked creativity as far as organising learning tasks were concerned. Nevertheless, the CCL programme offers great potential for English language enhancement skills among students. Policy makers and education leaders also need to take cognizance of related concerns, challenges and issues prevalent in Malaysian ESL classrooms.
Dialogue in mathematics classrooms: Beyond question-and- answer methods  [cached]
Karin Brodie
Pythagoras , 2011, DOI: 10.4102/pythagoras.v0i66.75
Abstract: This paper explores different kinds of interaction observed in South African mathematics classrooms in order to unpack the notion of participation in mathematics learning. It argues that conventional question-and-answer methods do not promote the kind of interaction that the new South African curriculum calls for. It presents more appropriate kinds of interactions, where teachers maintain high task demands, respond to genuine learner questions and support conversations among learners. The paper argues that combinations of different kinds of interaction are most likely to support learner participation and mathematical thinking in classrooms.
The Future of Instructional Designing in Medical Education: Letting the Computer do the Work
Pandula Siribaddana
Sri Lanka Journal of Bio-Medical Informatics , 2010, DOI: doi: 10.4038/sljbmi.v1i1.1488
Abstract: Instructional Designing (ID) is an important aspect of any curriculum development process and Medical Education is of no exception. Unless sound Instructional Design practices are met accordingly, it would be impossible to gain high quality learning or to achieve the intended objectives. Many of the Instructional Designers in Medical Education are Subject Matter Experts than Educational Experts. Therefore, Medical curricula in Sri Lanka as well as in the world are facing the lack of application of educational principles and theories to the Instructional Design process of such curricula.In view of this deficiency, a process of automating the Instructional Designing has been tried in several instances with variable successes. Most of these systems are designed based on general Instructional Design theories and for non medical instructional processes. Therefore, the review analyses the existing instructional design theories and how the prototype automation systems have addressed the issues in facilitating the needs of Subject Matter Experts. By discussing these systems in a Medical Educational context, the review was able to make suggestions on how to incorporate automation technology to the Instructional Design process related to Medical Education and elaborate on the advantages that it would bring to the Subject Matter Experts as well as to the curriculum as a whole.
Instructional Quality and Attitudes toward Mathematics: Do Self-Concept and Interest Differ across Students' Patterns of Perceived Instructional Quality in Mathematics Classrooms?  [PDF]
Rebecca Lazarides,Angela Ittel
Child Development Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/813920
Abstract: Using a person-centered research approach, the present study explored individual differences in students' perceptions of instructional quality in secondary school mathematics classes and their relations to students' self-concept and interest in mathematics. Drawing on data collected from 425 high school students from ten schools in Berlin, Germany (male: 53.2%; female: 46.3%), latent class analyses (LCA) revealed four distinct patterns of perceived quality of instruction. Almost half of the sample (46%) had a high likelihood of perceiving an overall low quality in mathematics classes. Those students reported particular low self-concept and interest in mathematics. Compared to male students, female students were significantly more likely to belong to this “challenging pattern.” Consequences for educational practice are discussed and suggest that instruction in mathematics should take into account learners' highly individual ways of perceiving and evaluating their learning environment. 1. Introduction After major international large scale assessments on educational performance such as the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) revealed low to average performance of German students in mathematics and science compared to other participating countries, the enhancement of learning success and later professional careers in the STEM-disciplines (STEM = science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) have been prioritized in educational policy [1, 2]. Attitudinal and affective variables such as mathematics self-concept and interest were shown to be central to students’ achievement in mathematics [3]. Mathematics self-concept, which is broadly defined as a persons’ self-related perceptions in the area of mathematics that are formed through experience with others and one’s own interpretations of their environment [4], is reciprocally related to achievement in mathematics and positively related to course choice in mathematics domains during upper-secondary education [5, 6]. Another key factor for students’ learning is students’ interest in mathematics, which is shown to be related to achievement goals in mathematics classes and mathematics-related career choices [7, 8]. Students who are interested in mathematics enjoy engaging in math, tend to reengage in mathematical contents, and view mathematics as important for their individual development [9]. Both self-concept and interest in mathematics are influenced by educational settings and teaching styles. Research suggests that particular aspects of instructional quality in mathematics classrooms
Does it help teaching? Instructors’ perceptions of a technology enhanced standards-based educational program  [cached]
Hasan ?ak?r, Barbara A. Bichelmeyer, Thomas Duffy, Alan Dennis, JoAnne Bunnage
International Journal of Human Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Recent accountability movements in the education world gave rise to standards-based curriculum, which provides a teaching and learning environment with high quality instructional materials. An example to such learning environment is Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) program. This study investigates high school teachers’ perceptions and experiences of CCNA program in their classrooms. 357 high school teachers in the United States who teach in the CCNA program completed an online survey measuring their perceptions about standards-based curriculum and testing. The results show that teachers generally accept standards-based curriculum and testing as a teaching tool, spend less time on student feedback and would like to see some features of the curriculum applied to other regular high school subjects such as mathematics and science.
Non-book instructional materials usage in Ghanaian primary schools
NAA Opoku-Asare
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2004,
Abstract: This study adopted the qualitative research approach to identify, describe and explain the underlying issues pertaining to how Ghanaian primary school teachers use non-book instructional materials to achieve the curriculum objectives outlined in the lessons they teach and whether this is significantly affected by the nature and date of teacher training. The paper defines the type of materials teachers use; the frequency, pattern, mode and extent of use; and, their impact on pupil learning. The study involved observation of classroom activities and nearly 100 lessons in 11 subjects in 50 classrooms in six primary schools within the Kumasi metropolis. Blackboards, flash cards, real objects, charts and rulers emerged as the most regularly used teaching materials in all the schools. The blackboard was found to be the most frequently and significantly used teaching resource in all subjects and class levels. The most significant and variety of materials are utilised in Mathematics. The study reveals that classroom use of instructional materials is significantly related to the period in which a teacher was trained, the class level at which they function, the subject they teach and, the age level and maturation of their pupils. Journal of Science and Technology Vol.24(2) 2004: 106-115
A User-Centered Design Approach to Develop a Web-Based Instructional Resource System for Homeland Education  [cached]
Chaoyun Liang,Wen-Shou Chou,Yu-Ling Hsu,Chien-Chien Yang
Knowledge Management & E-Learning : an International Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Under the national educational policy of Nine-Year Integrated Curriculum, elementary and junior high school teachers are expected to design their own instructional materials, and to teach their courses which could be linked to students’ daily lives. The policy also allocates funding to create a variety of web-based instructional resource systems in order to assist these teachers in preparing their classes. Upon the basis of a user-centered design approach, this study is aimed at constructing a set of suggestions of planning, designing, and developing a web-based instructional resource system for the homeland education. This research team takes Nei-Li area in Taiwan as an example to develop such a system, and constructs a user-centered design model. The study results indicate that, unlike the traditional instructional design approach, the proposed model takes into account the user’s needs, the capability of the project team, the resource availability for implementation, the national educational reform policy, the development of information technology industry, and the socio-cultural context of a community at the initial phase. In addition, the development process is divided into two courses, one for contents design while the other for system construction, both of which are implemented at the same time.
The design, development and evaluation of a self-instructional module for nursing practice standards  [PDF]
June Anonson, Mary Ellen Walker
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2013.38073

The purpose of this research was to improve nursing professionals’ understanding of the important link to safe, competent, and ethical practices that Nursing Practice Standards (NPS) serve. This research on NPS may improve the scope and comprehensiveness by which the Standards are integrated with clinical, educational, administrative, and research-based nursing practices. This research was unique in that it includes nurses in developing NPS. The method by which this study was done involved sixteen practicing nurses and seven instructional design experts from Alberta, Canada participating in designing, developing, and evaluating a NPS module. Nursing practice standards are a vital aspect of performing safe, efficient and effective patient care. The manner in which Nursing Standard Practices are presented and taught will directly influence a nurse’s ability to understand the value of NPS and successfully incorporate NPS into practice.

Chatroom: "Conversations"?
Jara C.,Claudio Andrés;
Literatura y lingüística , 2003, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-58112003001400012
Abstract: the purpose of this article is to explore an emerging discourse, that of internet chatroom conversation. it tries to schematize the conversational relationships of the speakers in a text based medium and apply a pragmatic point of view based on cooperative principles within conversations
A First Attempt to Bring Computational Biology into Advanced High School Biology Classrooms  [PDF]
Suzanne Renick Gallagher,William Coon,Kristin Donley,Abby Scott,Debra S. Goldberg
PLOS Computational Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002244
Abstract: Computer science has become ubiquitous in many areas of biological research, yet most high school and even college students are unaware of this. As a result, many college biology majors graduate without adequate computational skills for contemporary fields of biology. The absence of a computational element in secondary school biology classrooms is of growing concern to the computational biology community and biology teachers who would like to acquaint their students with updated approaches in the discipline. We present a first attempt to correct this absence by introducing a computational biology element to teach genetic evolution into advanced biology classes in two local high schools. Our primary goal was to show students how computation is used in biology and why a basic understanding of computation is necessary for research in many fields of biology. This curriculum is intended to be taught by a computational biologist who has worked with a high school advanced biology teacher to adapt the unit for his/her classroom, but a motivated high school teacher comfortable with mathematics and computing may be able to teach this alone. In this paper, we present our curriculum, which takes into consideration the constraints of the required curriculum, and discuss our experiences teaching it. We describe the successes and challenges we encountered while bringing this unit to high school students, discuss how we addressed these challenges, and make suggestions for future versions of this curriculum.We believe that our curriculum can be a valuable seed for further development of computational activities aimed at high school biology students. Further, our experiences may be of value to others teaching computational biology at this level. Our curriculum can be obtained at http://ecsite.cs.colorado.edu/?page_id=1?49#biology or by contacting the authors.
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