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Application of resistant starch in bread: processing, proximate composition and sensory quality of functional bread products from wheat flour and African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) flour  [PDF]
Abdoulaye Sankhon, Issoufou Amadou, Wei-Rong Yao
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.45B023

Application of resistant starch prepared from parkia flour was produced by replacement of wheat flour with 0, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30% and 40% Parkia flour. Processing, proximate composition, digestibility of resistant starch in bread and sensory quality were evaluated. Resistant starch was significantly (p < 0.05) increased as Parkia flour level increase in all breads. The resistant starch prepared from Parkia flour was 47.21%. However, wheat bread was 1.47% and Parkia bread 18.52% to 22.28% baked of (200℃ at 45 min) with 2.16% wheat bread and 31.74% to 35.05% Parkia bread baked of (130℃ at 90 min). Supplementation of wheat flour with Parkia flour 0 - 40% increased the crude protein content significantly (p < 0.05) from (7.89% - 15.68%), ash from (0.91% - 2.54%) and crude fiber (1.41% - 4.97%). Color of the bread treatments was remarkably affected by addition of different levels of Parkia flour. Therefore, Parkia flour could be added to wheat flour up to 15% without any observed detrimental effect on bread sensory properties. Sensory evaluation results indicated that bread with 5% to15% Parkia flour were rated the most acceptable and there was no significant difference in terms of acceptability compared to the control. This could be used to improve the nutritional quality of bread especially in developing countries were malnutrition is prevalent.

Influence of Process Conditions on Digestibility of African Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa) Starch  [PDF]
Abdoulaye Sankhon,Wei-Rong Yao,Issoufou Amadou,Heya Wang
American Journal of Food Technology , 2012,
Abstract: This study describes the isolation, digestibility and effect of process conditions on the Parkia biglobosa (African locust bean) starch digestibility. Parkia starch fractions are: Total Starch (TS), Rapidly Digestible Starch (RDS), Slowly Digestible Starch (SDS) and Resistant Starch (RS). The results indicate that processing conditions can be changed to effectively control the relative content of SDS and RS in Parkia starch products. Amylose is the molecular basis of RS while amylopectin is the main constituent of SDS and plays a key role in the structure and digestibility of SDS. This methodology may enable process modifications to influence the functional digestibility properties of prepared Parkia starch products.
Bacteriology and Qualitative Study of African Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa)  [PDF]
Olajide Adedayo Ajayi
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.211010

This study helps to determine the microbiological quality of local fermented food condiment, African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) obtained from Ondo State, Nigeria. Bacterial species en- countered during the study ranged from 20 × 103 cfu/g to 200 × 103 cfu/g for total bacterial count, 3 × 103 cfu/g to 120 × 103 cfu/g for coliform count and 1 × 103 cfu/g to 60 × 103 cfu/g for the Lac- tobacillus spp. in MRS agar. Some physical sensory study shows that odour became more pleasant when fermentation process take place for longer days and became slimy when fermentation continued at the day four. Adverse changes in this product such as the colour commences after 96 hours. Common bacterial species that persistently populate the samples includes Bacillus spp., Lueconostoc spp. and Staphylococcus spp. The Lueconostoc spp. only survives till the second day of fermentation as distinct from others which are still found after the seventh (7) day. This study helps in the investigation of microbiological hazards associated with fermented locust beans in order to safeguard the production of this food condiment meant for human consumption.

An Assessment into Physical and Proximate Analysis of Processed Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa) Preserved with Common Salt  [PDF]
I.T. Ademola,R.A. Baiyewu,E.A. Adekunle,M.B. Omidiran
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2011,
Abstract: This study was aimed at assessing the effect of salt on the nutritive value and proximate composition of processed Locust bean seeds (Parkia biglobosa) which were preserved with salt. In this work, salted and unsalted processed locust bean were subjected to organoleptic and proximate analyses at one week interval of for four consecutive weeks. There was 7.98% reduction in the moisture content of the salted samples after 4 weeks (against 4.86% increase in the unsalted). This shows that salting decreased the moisture content, thus discouraging microbial growth and food spoilage. The carbohydrate content of the salted and unsalted samples decreased alike by 51.51%. The results obtained showed that the salting is a good method of preserving locust bean; as the method retained its physical characteristics.
Comparative Evaluation of Nutritional Composition of African Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa) Fruits from Two Locations
OJ Olujobi
Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The most logical approach towards the improvement and efficient use of indigenous fruits to supply nutritional requirement for human diet is through the investigation of their nutritional values. This study was carried out to investigate the nutritional value of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) fruit collected from two different agro-ecological zones. The fruit was separated into outer yellow pulp and inner seed and were analyzed for proximate, vitamins and mineral contents. The result obtained from the study shows that locust bean pulp from rain forest vegetation had the highest value for crude protein (15.34%), crude fibre (19.45%) total ash (4.50%) and dry matter (91.1%). Locust bean pulp from derived savannah vegetation had the highest values in all the vitamin variables except vitamin E (18.07 ìg/100g) and a–carotene (11.34 ìg/100g). The result of mineral composition shows that locust bean pulp in the rain forest had the highest value in all the variables except Iron (29.85 mg/kg). Locust bean fruit collected from rain forest had the highest proximate and mineral value, while fruit collected from derived savannah had the highest proportion of vitamins. The study has shown that location significantly affects the nutritional composition of locust beans fruit.
Processing Effects on the Nutritional and Anti-Nutritional Contents of African Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa Benth.) Seed
Christiana N. Esenwah,Marcel J. Ikenebomeh
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2008,
Abstract: African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa Benth.) seeds with thin layers of pulp material were processed by soaking in water for 12 h, washing to depulp the seeds and boiling in water for 8 h to dehull the seeds. The dehulled seeds were boiled again for 30 min to produce the processed substrate which were fermented for 72 h. Mechanically dehulled bean seeds were obtained from depulped bean seeds with a pair of pliers. Proximate compositions of the samples were determined for crude protein, ether extract, ash and total carbohydrate content. The presence and levels of trypsin inhibitors, tannin and phytic acid were determined. Fermentation gave rise to significant increase in crude protein content. The ether extract was significantly increased by soaking and boiling, this was further increased by fermentation at 72 h. The ash content decreased significantly by soaking and boiling. Also the total carbohydrate content decreased significantly by soaking and boiling, this was further decreased by fermentation at 72 h. In all the anti-nutritional factors evaluated, soaking and boiling significantly reduced the levels of anti-nutritional factors, fermentation at 72 h led to further reduction in the levels of anti-nutritional factors. The reduction in content of trypsin inhibitors activity at 72 h fermentation was greater than the other anti-nutritional factors with a total reduction level of 89.0%.
Influence of dietary supplementation on biotransformation of locust beans (Parkia biglobosa) to condiment
B Daramola, OA Fasominu, OJ Oje, OO Makanju
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: Influence of four types of dietary supplements namely; cooked onion extract (COE), Iru water extract (IWE), glucose solution (GLS) and asparagine solution (ASS) on biotransformation of locust beans to condiment was studied. Assessment of biotransformation markers: free amino acids, free total sugar and total titratable acidity showed that supplementation enhanced biotransformation comparatively to sample without supplement (COS). Biotransformation was most enhanced at Day 2 in COE and IWE in comparison to GLS, ASS and COS. Assessment of selected dietary elements revealed that some elements (P, Fe and Mg) decreased during biotraformation. The change may be associated with the necessity of the dietary elements for accomplishment of biotransformation. Analysis of sensory scores (P=0.05) indicated that supplementation (COE, IWE) conferred no adverse influence on organoleptic characteristics of the condiment.
Effect of Dietary Intake of Fermented Seeds of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth (African Locust Bean) on Hypertension in Bogou and Goumou-kope Areas of Togo
K Ognatan, K Adi, C Lamboni, J-M Damorou, KA Aklikokou, M Gbeassor, J-C Guilland
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2011,
Abstract: Purpose: To identify the possible effect of the consumption of fermented seeds of Parkia biglobosa (Jack) Benth, Mimosaceae (African locust bean) by humans on the prevention of hypertension. Methods: Two types of populations in Togo were identified and compared: one type was in a region (Bogou) where the condiment (Parkia biglobosa seeds) is highly consumed and the other people do not eat it at all (Goumou-kope). Anthropometrical, clinical and biochemical analyses were investigated in both target groups. Results: Significantly decreased blood pressure and heart beat were detected in the group of people living in Bogou’s region when compared to the non-consumption group of Goumou-kope (p < 0.001). Magnesium level was significantly increased in the Bogou group compared to that in the second group (p < 0.0001). Lower levels of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (91± 36 vs. 110 ± 44 mg/dL, p = 0.01), triglycerides (111 ± 6 vs. 129 ± 6 mg/dL, p = 0.028), and higher levels of high density lipoproteincholesterol (63 ± 2 vs. 48 ± 3 mg/dL, p < 0.001) were observed in subjects who regularly consummed P. biglobosa fermented seeds. Furthermore, plasma glucose concentration was significantly lower in Bogou group than in Goumou-kope (68 ± 16 vs. 76 ± 15 mg/dL (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate that fermented seeds of Parkia biglobosa exert an anti-hypertension effect.
Effects of sulphuric acid, mechanical scarification and wet heat treatments on germination of seeds of African locust bean tree, Parkia biglobosa
BL Aliero
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2004,
Abstract: Effects of different treatment methods on the germination of seeds of Parkia biglobosa (mimosaceae) were carried out. Prior treatment of seeds with sulphuric acid, wet heat and mechanical scarification were found to induce germination of the dormant seeds. These methods could be applied to raise seedlings of the plant for field propagation. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.3(3) 2004: 179-181
Identification of subdominant lactic acid bacteria in dawadawa (a soup condiment) and their evolution during laboratory-scale fermentation of Parkia biglobosa (African locust beans)
PO Uaboi-Egbenni, PN Okolie, AO Sobande, O Alao, O Teniola, PO Bessong
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: The successive colonization of fermenting African locust beans (Parkia biglobosa) by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was investigated for seven days. The LAB isolated were Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus raffinolactus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Leuconostoc sp, Pediococcus halophilus, Pediococcus sp, Lactobacillus sp, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus brevis. The first dominant species were P. pentosaceus, which was more in abundance, L. raffinolactus, L. mesenteroides and another Leuconostoc sp. At the end of fermentation, a stable community comprising of P. halophilus, P. pentasaceus and L. brevis was formed. The dominant genera in this study were Lactobacillus and Pediococcus. The proximate analysis of the fermenting and fermented mash showed an increase in moisture content from 55.1 to 65.2%, pH from 6.25 to a stable alkaline value of 8.4. The reducing sugar however, decreased from 0.96 to 0.58 mg. The amino acid content increased from an initial value of 8.13 to 35.55 mg for the laboratory-scale product, whereas the value of the control was 13.4 mg. The total viable count increased from an initial value of log102.6 to log105.8 and then fell to a final value of log104.1. The enterococci count increased initially but eventually fell to zero. The total yeast count increased initially from log105.3 to log106.6 and thereafter fell to zero. The market sample had a value of log101.5. No coliforms were found in the course of fermentation as well as in the final product of the laboratory-scale experiment and the market sample.
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