Abstract:
We consider the astrophysical and cosmological implications of the existence of a minimum density and mass due to the presence of the cosmological constant. If there is a minimum length in nature, then there is an absolute minimum mass corresponding to a hypothetical particle with radius of the order of the Planck length. On the other hand, quantum mechanical considerations suggest a different minimum mass. These particles associated with the dark energy can be interpreted as the ``quanta'' of the cosmological constant. We study the possibility that these particles can form stable stellar-type configurations through gravitational condensation, and their Jeans and Chandrasekhar masses are estimated. From the requirement of the energetic stability of the minimum density configuration on a macroscopic scale one obtains a mass of the order of 10^55 g, of the same order of magnitude as the mass of the universe. This mass can also be interpreted as the Jeans mass of the dark energy fluid. Furthermore we present a representation of the cosmological constant and of the total mass of the universe in terms of `classical' fundamental constants.

Abstract:
We study in this paper the possible influence of the dark energy on the detection of the dark matter particles. In models of dark energy described by a dynamical scalar field such as the Quintessence, its interaction with the dark matter will cause the dark matter particles such as the neutralino vary as a function of space and time. Given a specific model of the Quintessence and its interaction in this paper we calculate numerically the corrections to the neutralino masses and the induced spectrum of the neutrinos from the annihilation of the neutralinos pairs in the core of the Sun. This study gives rise to a possibility of probing for dark energy in the experiments of detecting the dark matter particles.

Abstract:
Two of the most fundamental properties of the dark matter particle, the mass and the lifetime, are only weakly constrained by the astronomical and cosmological evidence of dark matter. We derive in this paper lower limits on the lifetime of dark matter particles with masses in the range 10 TeV-10^15 TeV from the non-observation of ultrahigh energy neutrinos in the AMANDA, IceCube, Auger and ANITA experiments. For dark matter particles which produce neutrinos in a two body or a three body decay, we find that the dark matter lifetime must be longer than O(10^26-10^28) s for masses between 10 TeV and the Grand Unification scale. Finally, we also calculate, for concrete particle physics scenarios, the limits on the strength of the interactions that induce the dark matter decay.

Abstract:
Chameleon dark energy is a matter-coupled scalar field which hides its fifth forces locally by becoming massive. We estimate torsion pendulum constraints on the residual fifth forces due to models with gravitation-strength couplings. Experiments such as Eot-Wash are on the verge of ruling out "quantum-stable" chameleon models, in which quantum corrections to the chameleon field and mass remain small. We also consider photon-coupled chameleons, which can be tested by afterglow experiments such as CHASE.

Abstract:
We study the determination of the symmetry that stabilizes a dark matter (DM) candidate produced at colliders. Our question is motivated per se, and by several alternative symmetries that appear in models that provide a DM particle. To this end, we devise a strategy to determine whether a heavy mother particle decays into one visible massless particle and one or two DM particles. The counting of DM particles in these decays is relevant to distinguish the minimal choice of Z_2, from a Z_3, stabilization symmetry, under which the heavy particle and the DM are charged and the visible particle is not. Our method is novel in that it chiefly uses the peak of the energy spectrum of the visible particle and only secondarily uses the M_T2 endpoint of events in which the heavy mother particles are pair-produced. We present new theoretical results concerning the energy distribution of the decay products of a three-body decay, which are crucial for our method. To demonstrate the feasibility of our method in investigating the stabilization symmetry, we apply it in distinguishing the decay of a bottom quark partner into a b quark and one or two DM particles. The method can be applied generally to distinguish two- and three-body decays, irrespective of DM.

Abstract:
The motion of massive test particles in dark matter is studied. It is shown that if the energy density of the dark matter making up a galactic halo has a large $r$ behavior of $1/r^2$, then contrary to intuition the motion of these test particles are not govern by Newtonian gravity, but rather by the equations of geodesic motion from Einstein's theory of general relativity. Moreover, the rotational velocity curves of orbiting massive test particles in this energy density do not approach a constant value at large $r$ but will instead always increase with the radius of the orbit $r_c$.

Abstract:
We investigate several varying-mass dark-matter particle models in the framework of phantom cosmology. We examine whether there exist late-time cosmological solutions, corresponding to an accelerating universe and possessing dark energy and dark matter densities of the same order. Imposing exponential or power-law potentials and exponential or power-law mass dependence, we conclude that the coincidence problem cannot be solved or even alleviated. Thus, if dark energy is attributed to the phantom paradigm, varying-mass dark matter models cannot fulfill the basic requirement that led to their construction.

Abstract:
We uncover the general mechanism producing the dark energy(DE).This is only based on well known quantum physics and cosmology. We show that the observed DE originates from the cosmological quantum vacuum of light particles which provides a continuous energy distribution able to reproduce the data. Bosons give positive contributions to the DE while fermions yield negative contri- butions. As usual in field theory, ultraviolet divergences are subtracted from the physical quantities. The subtractions respect the symmetries of the theory and we normalize the physical quantities to be zero for the Minkowski vacuum. The resulting finite contributions to the energy density and the pressure from the quantum vacuum grow as log a(t) where a(t) is the scale factor, while the particle contributions dilute as 1/a^3(t), as it must be for massive particles. The DE equation of state P=w(z)H turns to be w(z)<-1 with w(z) asymptotically reaching the value -1 from below.A scalar particle can produce the observed DE through its quantum cosmological vacuum provided:(i)its mass is of the order of 10^{-3}eV=1 meV,(ii) it is very weakly coupled and (iii) it is stable on the time scale of the age of the universe.The axion vacuum thus appears as a natural candidate. The neutrino vacuum (especially the lightest mass eigenstate) can give negative contributions to the DE. We find that w(z=0) is slightly below -1 by an amount ranging from -1.5 10^{-3}to -8 10^{-3} while the axion mass results between 4 and 5 meV.We find that the universe will expand in the future faster than the de Sitter universe, as an exponential in the square of the cosmic time. DE arises from the quantum vacua of light particles in FRW cosmological space time in an analogous way to the Casimir effect in Minkowski spacetime with non trivial boundaries.

Abstract:
We uncover the general mechanism producing the dark energy(DE).This is only based on well known quantum physics and cosmology. We show that the observed DE originates from the cosmological quantum vacuum of light particles which provides a continuous energy distribution able to reproduce the data. Bosons give positive contributions to the DE while fermions yield negative contri- butions. As usual in field theory, ultraviolet divergences are subtracted from the physical quantities. The subtractions respect the symmetries of the theory and we normalize the physical quantities to be zero for the Minkowski vacuum. The resulting finite contributions to the energy density and the pressure from the quantum vacuum grow as log a(t) where a(t) is the scale factor, while the particle contributions dilute as 1/a^3(t), as it must be for massive particles. The DE equation of state P=w(z)H turns to be w(z)<-1 with w(z) asymptotically reaching the value -1 from below.A scalar particle can produce the observed DE through its quantum cosmological vacuum provided:(i)its mass is of the order of 10^{-3}eV=1 meV,(ii) it is very weakly coupled and (iii) it is stable on the time scale of the age of the universe.The axion vacuum thus appears as a natural candidate. The neutrino vacuum (especially the lightest mass eigenstate) can give negative contributions to the DE. We find that w(z=0) is slightly below -1 by an amount ranging from -1.5 10^{-3}to -8 10^{-3} while the axion mass results between 4 and 5 meV.We find that the universe will expand in the future faster than the de Sitter universe, as an exponential in the square of the cosmic time. DE arises from the quantum vacua of light particles in FRW cosmological space time in an analogous way to the Casimir effect in Minkowski spacetime with non trivial boundaries.