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Effects nitroprusside, a nitric oxide donor,on carbon and nitrogen metabolism and the activity of the antioxidation system in wheat seedings under salt stress
外源一氧化氮供体硝普钠浸种对盐胁迫下小麦幼苗碳氮代谢及抗氧化系统的影响

Jiang Dong,and,
郑春芳
,姜东,戴廷波,荆奇,曹卫星

生态学报 , 2010,
Abstract: Seeds of two wheat cultivars (Huaimai and Yangmai) were pre-soaked with 0.1 mmol/L SNP (sodium nitroprusside, a nitric oxide donor) to study the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on the activity of the antioxidation system, carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and activities of proteinase in wheat seedlings growing with 120 mmol L-1 NaCl. Exogenous NO significantly reduced the O-?2(superoxide anion) release rate as well as H2O2 content. The activities of SOD (superoxide dismutase) and CAT (catalase)increased, which resulted in a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves of the seedlings growing under salt stress. In addition, exogenous NO increased the contents of chlorophyll, carotenoids, and the total soluble sugars. Compared with the salt stress treatment alone, the NO pre-treatment significantly increased the content of soluble protein and enhanced the activities of both endopeptidase and carboxypeptidase in leaves. Thus, NO effectively contributed to a better balance between carbon and nitrogen metabolism in seedlings growing under salt stress, and this pre-treatment increased growth rates, as increases in plant height, fresh and dry weight were observed. In addition, Huaimai 17 was more responsive to exogenous NO than Yangmai 12 in this study.
Effects of Cu2+ on Wheat Seedlings Exposed to Enhanced Ultraviolet-B Radiation  [PDF]
Liyan Yang, Zhaoqing Wang, Yuqi Hou, Rong Han, Yi Sun
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.520322
Abstract:

To explore the wheat seedling development and physiological responses under copper contamination and enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiation, 10 mg·L-1 CuCl2 solution was irrigated to Triticum aestivum L. cv. Linyuan 2069 one day after germination with or without ultraviolet-B (10.08 kJ m-2·d-1) light exposure, respectively. The results showed that Cu2+ and UV-B caused various adverse effects on wheat seedling development. Cu2+ hindered root development by significantly reducing root number, while UV-B dwarfed seedling height and decreased the leaf length. Chlorophyll content and activity of ATPase in thylakoid membrane of wheat leaves dropped significantly under enhanced UV-B while the activity of ATPase in plasma membrane of seedling root was significantly decreased in Cu2+ group. Relative electric conductivity of leaves significantly increased in both Cu2+ and UV-B groups, so did the biomass. We also observed that combined Cu2+ and UV-B showed more adverse effects on wheat seedlings than either of them alone except for root growth.

Azospirillum lectin – induced changes in the content of nitric oxide in wheat seedling roots  [PDF]
Alen’kina S.A.,Nikitina V.E.
Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry , 2010,
Abstract: The lectin of Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 at 40 μg ml-1 elicited two peaks of induction of nitric oxide synthesis in the roots of wheat seedlings after 3 and 26 h of coincubation. The lectin of A. brasilense Sp7.2.3, a mutant defective in lectin activity, produced the same effect, but the activation of nitric oxide synthesis in the roots was less in the case of 26-h incubation. Exposure to the lectins for 3 h increased citrulline synthesis in the plant cell to the same extent. This finding indicated that the Azospirillum lectins activate nitric oxide production through the NO signal system of plants, thereby acting as inducers of adaptation processes in the roots of wheat seedlings.
Alleviative effects of nitric oxide on the biological damage of Spirulina platensis induced by enhanced ultraviolet-B
一氧化氮对增强的UV_B胁迫下螺旋藻生物损伤的减缓作用

XUE Lin-gui,LI Shi-weng,XU Shi-jian,AN Li-zhe,WANG Xun-ling,
薛林贵
,李师翁,徐世健,安黎哲,王勋陵

微生物学报 , 2006,
Abstract: Continuing depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer by atmospheric pollutants, in particular chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), has resulted in an increasing incidence of solar UV-B (280-320 nm) at the Earth's surface. Enhanced UV-B radiation has been considered as important global environmental problem and results in important effects to mankind and the entire global ecosystem. Nitric oxide (NO) is not only a toxic molecule, one of reactive nitrogen species (RNS), but also an important redox-active signaling molecule. NO is really a double-edged sword, it can be either beneficial and activate defense responses in plants and animals or toxic, together with ROS. Besides those, NO can also act as a signal molecule and play very important roles in life of organisms. To study the effects of NO on the biological specific property of enhanced UV-B stressed Spirulina platensis, the chlorophyll-a, protein contents and biomass were investigated under enhanced UV-B radiation and its combination with different chemical treatment. The changes of chlorophyll-a, protein contents and biomass confirmed that 0.5 mmol/L sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a donor of nitric oxide (NO), could markedly alleviate the biological damage of cyanobacteria-Spirulina platensis 794 caused by enhanced ultraviolet-B. Further results proved that NO significantly increase the content of protein and proline. Meanwhile, the accumulation of reduced glutathione (GSH) in S. platensis cells were raised under normal growth condition. But exogenous NO could decrease the increasing of reduced glutathione (GSH) in enhanced UV-B stressed S. platensis cells. These results suggest that NO has protective effect and can strongly alleviate biological damage caused by UV-B stress in S. platensis 794 cells. For the first time, reported the effect of NO on the regulating ability of biological damage of S. platensis induced by enhanced UV-B. Therefore, further investigations will be necessary to inquire into the interaction and inter-correlation of signal molecules and the mechanism in cyanobacterium under enhanced UV-B stress.
Fe-Chlorophyllin Promotes the Growth of Wheat Roots Associated with Nitric Oxide Generation  [PDF]
Min Tong,Liefeng Zhang,Yifan Wang,Hui Jiang,Yong Ren
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ijms11125246
Abstract: : Effects of Fe-chlorophyllin on the growth of wheat root were investigated in this study. We found that Fe-chlorophyllin can promote root growth. The production of nitric oxide in wheat root was detected using DAF-2DA fluorescent emission. The intensity of fluorescent in the presence of 0.1 mg/L Fe-chlorophyllin was near to that observed with the positive control of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), the nitric oxide donor. IAA oxidase activity decreased with all treatments of Fe-chlorophyllin from 0.01 to 10 mg/L. At the relatively lower Fe-chlorophyllin concentration of 0.1 mg/L, the activity of IAA oxidase displayed a remarkable decrease, being 40.1% lower than the control. Meanwhile, Fe-chlorophyllin treatment could increase the activities of reactive oxygen scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD), as determined using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results indicate that Fe-chlorophyllin contributes to the growth of wheat root associated with nitric oxide generation.
Effects of exogenous nitric oxide on Cucumis sativus seedlings growth and osmoatic adjustment substances contents under NaCl stress
外源一氧化氮对盐胁迫下黄瓜幼苗生长和渗透调节物质含量的影响

FAN Huai-fu,GUO Shi-rong,LI Juan,DU Chang-xia,HUANG Bao-jian,
樊怀福
,郭世荣,李娟,杜长霞,黄保健

生态学杂志 , 2007,
Abstract: The study with water culture showed that under normal conditions,exogenous nitric oxide could promote the growth of Cucumis sativus seedlings,while methylene blue(MB-1),an inhibitor of guanylate cyclases,could inhibit the growth markedly.Under NaCl stress,nitric oxide alleviated the NaCl injury markedly and increased the plant height,stem thickness,dry and fresh biomass,and soluble sugar and soluble protein contents of the seedlings significantly,while MB-1 blocked these effects to some extent.The effects of nitric oxide on C.sativus seedlings growth were more prominent under NaCl stress than under normal conditions,suggesting that the effects could be induced by guanylate cyclases.
Protective effects of nitric oxide on salt stress-induced oxidative damage to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves
Haihua Ruan,Wenbiao Shen,Maobing Ye,Langlai Xu
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2002, DOI: 10.1360/02tb9154
Abstract: The changes of chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, plasma membrane permeability confirmed that 0.1 and 1 mmol/L sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a donor of nitric oxide (NO) in vivo, could markedly alleviate the oxidative damage to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves induced by 150 and 300 mmol/L NaCl treatments, respectively. Further results proved that NO significantly enhanced the activities of Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), both of which separately contributed to the delay of O 2 and H2O2 accumulation in wheat leaves under salt stress. Meanwhile, the accumulation of proline was apparently accelerated. Therefore, these results suggested that NO could strongly protect wheat leaves from oxidative damage caused by salt stress.
Protective effects of nitric oxide on salt stress-induced oxidative damage to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves

RUAN Haihua,SHEN Wenbiao,YE Maobing,XU Langlai,

科学通报(英文版) , 2002,
Abstract: The changes of chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, plasma membrane permeability confirmed that 0.1 and 1 mmol/L sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a donor of nitric oxide (NO) in vivo, could markedly alleviate the oxidative damage to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves induced by 150 and 300 mmol/L NaCl treatments, respectively. Further results proved that NO significantly enhanced the activities of Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), both of which separately contributed to the delay of O 2 and H2O2 accumulation in wheat leaves under salt stress. Meanwhile, the accumulation of proline was apparently accelerated. Therefore, these results suggested that NO could strongly protect wheat leaves from oxidative damage caused by salt stress.
The Role of Photolabile Dermal Nitric Oxide Derivates in Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR)-Induced Cell Death  [PDF]
Christian Opl?nder,Christoph V. Suschek
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijms14010191
Abstract: Human skin is exposed to solar ultraviolet radiation comprising UVB (280–315 nm) and UVA (315–400 nm) on a daily basis. Within the last two decades, the molecular and cellular response to UVA/UVB and the possible effects on human health have been investigated extensively. It is generally accepted that the mutagenic and carcinogenic properties of UVB is due to the direct interaction with DNA. On the other hand, by interaction with non-DNA chromophores as endogenous photosensitizers, UVA induces formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which play a pivotal role as mediators of UVA-induced injuries in human skin. This review gives a short overview about relevant findings concerning the molecular mechanisms underlying UVA/UVB-induced cell death. Furthermore, we will highlight the potential role of cutaneous antioxidants and photolabile nitric oxide derivates (NODs) in skin physiology. UVA-induced decomposition of the NODs, like nitrite, leads not only to non-enzymatic formation of nitric oxide (NO), but also to toxic reactive nitrogen species (RNS), like peroxynitrite. Whereas under antioxidative conditions the generation of protective amounts of NO is favored, under oxidative conditions, less injurious reactive nitrogen species are generated, which may enhance UVA-induced cell death.
Exogenous, but not Endogenous Nitric Oxide Inhibits Adhesion Molecule Expression in Human Endothelial Cells  [PDF]
David J. R. Fulton
Frontiers in Physiology , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2012.00003
Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO) has many beneficial actions on the vascular wall including suppression of inflammation. The mechanism(s) by which NO antagonizes cytokine signaling are poorly understood, but are thought to involve inhibition of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor, NF-κB. NO represses nuclear translocation of NF-κB via the S-nitrosylation of its subunits which decreases the expression of target genes including adhesion molecules. In previous studies, we have shown that the intracellular location of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) can influence the amount of NO produced and that NO levels are paramount in regulating the S-nitrosylation of target proteins. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the significance of subcellular eNOS to NF-κB signaling induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). We found that in HAECs stimulated with TNFα, L-NAME did not influence the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) or vascular cell adhesion molecular 1 (VCAM-1). In eNOS “knock down” HAECs reconstituted with either plasma membrane or Golgi restricted forms of eNOS, there was no significant effect on the activation of the NF-κB pathway over different times and concentrations of TNFα. Similarly, the endogenous production of NO did not influence the phosphorylation of IκBα. In contrast, higher concentrations of NO derived from the use of the exogenous NO donor, DETA NONOate, effectively suppressed the expression of ICAM-1/VCAM-1 in response to TNFα and induced greater S-nitrosylation of IKKβ and p65. Collectively these results suggest that neither endogenous eNOS nor eNOS location is an important influence on inflammatory signaling via the NF-κB pathway and that higher NO concentrations are required to suppress NF-κB in HAECs.
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