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Paid Work & Decision Making Power of Married Women Cross Sectional Survey of Muzaffarabad Azad State of Jammu & Kashmir  [PDF]
Sheeba Arooj, Wafa Hussain, Amber Arooj, Asif Iqbal, Saqib Hameed, Atif Abbasi
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.33022

Background: Current research focuses primarily on women’s autonomy in decision making while little attention is paid to their freedom of expression. Socioeconomic & socio demographic factors affect women’s autonomy in decision making. In the developing countries, particularly in Pakistan, although women are making significant financial contributions but they are still under collective decisions of husband and other family members while sometimes they are blindly relying on husband’s decision. Objective of study was to find out association of women’s autonomy in decision making & socioeconomic factors. Method: Cross sectional survey was conducted in Muzaffarabad Azad Kashmir on married working women (N = 500). The data consist of women’s three decisions: birth control decision, financial decision and freedom of expression. A number of socio-demographic variables were used in chi-square analysis to examine the association of these variables with the said decisions. Results: Age, residence, education, professional differences, job nature, monthly income of married women are positively associated with autonomy in decision making. 59% women of above 30 years age exercise independence in birth control decisions (p value 0.02). Urban women

Distribution of Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschus chrysogaster) in Neelum Valley, District Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Baseer ud Din Qureshi,Muhammad Siddique Awan,Aleem Ahmed Khan,Naheem Iftikhar Dar
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: To study the present and past distribution of Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) Survey in Neelum valley, District Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir was conducted from April to November 2002, Findings show that Musk deer is distributed throughout the Neelum valley. Poaching, deforestation and trans human grazing resulted in scattering of population of the musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) into separate pockets. Population of the musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) recorded from the area is 120 animals. Investigation indicates Musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) resides at low altitude as compared to other areas reported from Pakistan. Seasonal migration of musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) was also noted as a result of Trans-human grazing in summer in summer. To conserve the dwindling population of musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) from Neelum Valley there must be expansion of Salkhla game reserve up to palri and Gail along with the law enforcement and awareness campaign.
Ethnobotanical Uses of Plants of Lawat District Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir  [PDF]
Muhammad Ejaz-Ul-Islam Dar
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: An ethnobotanical exploration was carried out in Lawat ad its allied areas District Muzaffarabad. The checklist consisted of 52 species out of which 3 species are of 2 gymnospermic families while 49 species are of 35 angiospermic families. The plants were used medicinally and other purposes. The investigation indicated that the medicinal plants were used singly or used with mixtures by local inhabitants. The area under investigation due to unplanned exploitation had resulted in loss of medicinally important plant species. It was concluded that afforestation programme followed by proper protection is need of time.
Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and its Relation to Diet and Physical Work in Azad Jammu and Kashmir
Fayaz Ahmad Danish,Alam Khan,Muhammad Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2002,
Abstract: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its relation to diet and physical work was studied in three selected districts namely Muzaffarabad, Bagh and Poonch of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. A city, a town and a village were selected from each selected district, and hundred households (families) from each city, town and village were randomly selected for the study. A total 900 households were selected for interview. A responsible individual of 40 years or older of each household was interviewed and information about diabetes, occupation and diet were recorded in the questionnaire. The mean prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 0.95% in the selected region of the state. The prevalence of the disease was higher in cities than towns and villages. The disease was slightly higher in males than females. The milk and meat consumption of the residents of the area was lower than the recommended amount. The exercise level/physical work status of majority of the residents was almost equal to heavy exercise level. The data suggest that at present, the prevalence of diabetes is not of great concern in Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The prevalence of the disease is linked with diet and exercise level/physical work. The residents have marginal deficiency of food intake
Description of Three Genera (Thripidae:Thysanoptera) from Azad Jammu and Kashmir (Pakistan)  [PDF]
Muhammad Umar,Waseem Akram,Baboo Ali,Muhammad Tariq
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: Thripidae with three genera including Scirtothrips, Megaleurothrips Taeniothrips with their species reported from Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The keys are provided for separation of genera. The collected specimens have been identified and described in detail with keys and characters for identification along with illustration.
Studies on Mycorrhizal Association in Some Medicinal Plants of Azad Jammu and Kashmir
M. Sadiq Gorsi
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: Seventy six medicinal plants were investigated for vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) association in a survey of the Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza was found to be of universal occurrence in all plants located at different habitats. Great variations were found in the VAM infection percentage and the extent of hyphal infection. Plants at vegetative stage exhibited more VAM infection percentage compared to those at flowering and fruiting stages. Herbaceous plants showed more infections in comparison with the shrubby and woody plants. The extent of root colonization by VA endohphytes varied with the soil type and plant species. Endophytes other than VA were also recorded.
Diversity of Butterflies from District Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir  [PDF]
M. Rafique Khan,M. Nasim,M. Rahim Khan,M.A. Rafi
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: The adult butterflies were collected from nine localities of district Muzaffarabad through out the summer season of (April to October) 2001. A total of 28 species belonging to 7 families were collected. Diversity was calculated by using Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Shannon`s equitability, Margalef`s index, Simpson`s index and RI index. The calculated values showed that the lowest diversity was obtained from Kohala and highest diversity was obtained from Shaeed Gali and Gari Dopatta.
Acta Geographica Debrecina. Landscape and Environment Series , 2012,
Abstract: The effect of altitude on species diversity and its components was recorded in Ganga Chotti and Bedori Hills District Bagh Azad Jammu and Kashmir during 1999-2000. There were 30 plant communities merged in to four plant associations on the basis of cluster analysis. The highest average species diversity was 2.70 at the base (Alt1700 m) in woodland temperate association. Then the diversity declined. At the top (Altitude 3000 m) species diversity was 1.71, while in monsoondiversity was 2.48 at the base and 1.72 at the top. Average species richness was highest at the base (4.06) then decreased with the increase in altitude. Equitability increases from 1700-3350 m (0.71-1.07) while at the top it decreases (0.77). Species maturity in winter and monsoon was highest at the base and lowest at the top (3000 m).
Response of Maize (Zea mays L.) to NP Fertilization under Agro-climatic Conditions of Rawalakot Azad Jammu and Kashmir  [PDF]
Iftikhar Saeed,M. Kaleem Abbasi,Mushtaque Kazmi
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: Maize (Zea mays L.) yield in rainfed areas is generally low due to scanty rainfall and continuous depletion of nutrients from the soil. In Rawalakot, soils are generally deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus, therefore addition of N and P through fertilizers become inevitable for obtaining maximum yield. A field experiment was conducted to explore the response of maize to NP fertilization in terms of growth and yield. In the plots where N alone or NP together were applied, all the growth parameters i.e. height of the plant, number of leaves per plant, leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight increased significantly relative to control plots without fertilizer. The dry matter yield in control was 2933-kg ha 1, which, increased to 11667 kg ha 1 when 120 kg N and 90 kg of P2O5 were applied. The difference between N alone or NP together was statistically non-significant. Yield components increased significantly when N alone or NP together was applied. The grain yield was increased from 1350 kg ha 1 in the control to 4200-4583-kg ha 1 in the treatments where either N or NP together was applied. A maximum of 4583 kg of grain ha 1 was obtained in the treatment where 120 kg N and 90 kg P2O5 ha 1 was applied. In the present investigation, a 4 to 5 fold increase in the yield of maize by the application of N and P proves that N & P fertilization substantially enhanced the per acre yield of maize under agro-climatic conditions of Rawalakot Azad Jammu &Kashmir.
Distribution Range and Population Status of Common Leopard (Panthera Pardus) in and Around Machiara National Park, Azad Jammu and Kashmir  [PDF]
Muhammad KABIR,Muhammad Siddique AWAN,Maqsood ANWAR
International Journal of Conservation Science , 2013,
Abstract: The present study was conducted to estimate the status of common leopard (Panthera pardus) in and around Machiara National Park (MNP) Azad Jammu and Kashmir between May 2007 and July 2008. Fifteen fixed transects were monitored on regular basis. Indirect signs of leopard such as pugmarks and scats were recorded along the transects in addition to people and livestock which were counted as an index of disturbance and mean encounter rate for leopard scats, footprints, livestock and people was calculated. Mean encounter rate for leopard pugmarks was 1.6, for scats 2.11, for livestock 25.03, and for people 22.48. Linear measurements of front and hind pugmarks and strides were classified which indicated that at least six to nine (06-09) individuals are present in the study area (13,532 ha). Questionnaire survey revealed that Leopards were sighted by the locals at 23 locations during the study period including; in the morning (35%), evening (29%), night (21%) and daytime (15%). Maximum sightings were recorded between 4765ft to 9634ft elevation presenting moist temperate zone with Pinus wallichiana as a dominant tree species. As a result of increasing biotic pressures, the leopard has become rare with growing threat of further degradation and fragmentation of its habitat. It may cause the species to depend more on the domestic livestock available in and around the area giving way to the problem of human-leopard conflict. The information generated from the study will be helpful for the conservation and management of this critically endangered species.
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