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Intrinsic Vulnerability Assessment of a Confined Carbonatic Aquifer: the Brindisi Plain Case (Southern Italy)
N. Lopez, D. Sciannamblo, M. Spizzico, V. SpizzicoR. Tinelli
The Open Environmental Engineering Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.2174/1874829500801010009]
Abstract: Apulia, in the absence of surface water, is one of the Italian regions which satisfy their water requirements by drawing large quantities (over 40%) of its water from underground resources. The large amounts drawn from these resources in the last few years due to increasing human activity on the territory has determined a general and inevitable reduction of the quality of the underground water resources although they circulate in hydrogeological and geostructural environments characterised by a low intrinsic vulnerability. This is particularly true in the Brindisi Plain: a large portion of territory between the Serre Salentine and the Adriatic Sea. The area examined is characterised by the existence of two distinct hydrogeological environments one overlying the other; in the underlying one, made up of Mesozoic carbonate deposits, there is a groundwater body of significant size which satisfies about 30% of the requirements; in the one overlying this, made up of Quaternary calcarenite-sandy deposits, there is a groundwater body of reasonable local importance. For each aquifer, the study evaluated the intrinsic vulnerability using a parametric model, SINTACS, standardised for Italy and modified by the authors in order to adapt it to the particular characteristics of the examined zone. The information obtained in this way was then compared with the quality of the waters circulating in these aquifers. The investigations showed the generally good quality of the waters circulating in the carbonate aquifer and the presence of pollution by nitrates in the vicinity of some wells. By analysing the maps drawn up and from the information collected in situ, it was possible to ascertain that widespread forms of underground water pollution can be blamed on the poor execution of drilled wells and on the lack of suitable management criteria of the groundwater bodies.
Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and spring discharges in the Campania region (Southern Italy)
P. De Vita,V. Allocca,F. Manna,S. Fabbrocino
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/hessd-8-11233-2011
Abstract: Climate change is one of the issues most debated by the scientific community with a special focus to the combined effects of anthropogenic modifications of the atmosphere and the natural climatic cycles. Various scenarios have been formulated in order to forecast the global atmospheric circulation and consequently the variability of the global distribution of air temperature and rainfall. The effects of climate change have been analysed with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods, remaining mainly limited to the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle. Consequently the impact of the climate change on the recharge of regional aquifers and on the groundwater circulation is still a challenging topic especially in those areas whose aqueduct systems depend basically on springs or wells, such as the Campania region (Southern Italy). In order to analyse the long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater circulation, we analysed decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (Southern Italy), coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, in the period from 1921 to 2010, choosing 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations among those with the most continuous functioning as well as arranged in a homogeneous spatial distribution. Moreover, for the same period, we gathered the time series of the winter NAO index (December to March mean) and of the discharges of the Sanità spring, belonging to an extended carbonate aquifer (Cervialto Mount) located in the central-eastern area of the Campania region, as well as of two other shorter time series of spring discharges. The hydrogeological features of this aquifer, its relevance due to the feeding of an important regional aqueduct system, as well as the unique availability of a long-lasting time series of spring discharges, allowed us to consider it as an ideal test site, representative of the other carbonate aquifers in the Campania region. The time series of regional normalised indexes of mean annual precipitation, mean annual air temperature and mean annual effective precipitation, as well as the time series of the normalised annual discharge index were calculated. Different methods were applied to analyse the time series: long-term trend analysis, through smoothing numerical techniques, cross-correlation and Fourier analysis. The investigation of the normalised indexes has highlighted long-term complex periodicities, strongly c
Contribution of Radiocarbon Dating to the Chronology of Eneolithic in Campania (Italy)
I. Passariello, P. Talamo, A. D'Onofrio, P. Barta, C. Lubritto, F. Terrasi
Geochronometria , 2010, DOI: 10.2478/v10003-010-0008-2
Abstract: The paper presents new and important 14C data from eight Eneolithic sites in Campania measured at the Centre for Isotopic Research of Cultural and Environmental Heritage (CIRCE) AMS laboratory in Caserta (Italy). Twenty-four 14C determinations on bone and charcoal are used here for chronological reconstruction of human habitation and dating of some volcanic eruptions affecting the settlement activity. Our research has shed new light on absolute chronology of the whole Campanian Eneolithic, a period of profound cultural transformations triggered by introduction and use of metals, in particular copper.
Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and karst spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy)
P. De Vita, V. Allocca, F. Manna,S. Fabbrocino
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2012,
Abstract: Thus far, studies on climate change have focused mainly on the variability of the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle, investigating the impact of this variability on the environment, especially with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods. Conversely, the impacts of climate change on the recharge of aquifers and on the variability of groundwater flow have been less investigated, especially in Mediterranean karst areas whose water supply systems depend heavily upon groundwater exploitation. In this paper, long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater recharge were analysed by examining decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy), coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, from 1921 to 2010, using 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations with the most continuous functioning. The time series of the winter NAO index and of the discharges of 3 karst springs, selected from those feeding the major aqueducts systems, were collected for the same period. Regional normalised indexes of the precipitation, air temperature and karst spring discharges were calculated, and different methods were applied to analyse the related time series, including long-term trend analysis using smoothing numerical techniques, cross-correlation and Fourier analysis. The investigation of the normalised indexes highlighted the existence of long-term complex periodicities, from 2 to more than 30 yr, with differences in average values of up to approximately ±30% for precipitation and karst spring discharges, which were both strongly correlated with the winter NAO index. Although the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) had already been demonstrated in the long-term precipitation and streamflow patterns of different European countries and Mediterranean areas, the results of this study allow for the establishment of a link between a large-scale atmospheric cycle and the groundwater recharge of carbonate karst aquifers. Consequently, the winter NAO index could also be considered as a proxy to forecast the decadal variability of groundwater flow in Mediterranean karst areas.
Characterization, conservation and sustainability of endangered animal breeds in Campania (Southern Italy)  [PDF]
Vincenzo Peretti, Francesca Ciotola, Leopoldo Iannuzzi
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.55A001
Abstract: Conservation of such animal genetic resources and sustainable development of their products seems to be one of the most important steps to be taken to save endangered animal breeds from the widespread use of cosmopolitan and more productive breeds. Indeed, the protection and conservation of biodiversity of animal breeds adapted to particular environmental conditions is essential to prevent irreversible erosion of genes and gene combinations. A special project to characterize and conserve eight endangered breeds of various animal species raised in Campania (southern-Italy) is reported in this paper along detailed descriptions of all breeds. Some strategies for their characterization and conservation are reported and discussed.
Presence of Illicit Drugs in the Sarno River (Campania Region, Italy)  [PDF]
Massimo Maddaloni, Sara Castiglioni, Ettore Zuccato, Flaminia Gay, Anna Capaldo, Vincenza Laforgia, Salvatore Valiante, Maria De Falco, Marco Guida
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.57085
Abstract:

The presence of illicit drugs and their metabolites in surface waters has to be considered a new type of hazard, still unknown, for both the human health and the aquatic ecosystem, due to the potent pharmacological activities of all the illicit drugs. Our research was aimed at evaluating the presence of illicit drugs in the Sarno River (Campania region, Italy), crossing a densely populated area, the basin of the Sarno River, one of the largest and most important economic areas in Campania region, famous for the presence of zones with high landscape-environmental value. The drugs selected for this study were the most used in Campania region. The presence of illicit drugs in surface water was analyzed by a selective multi-residue assay based on liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry. The analysis showed the presence of all the illicit drugs investigated: cocaine and its main metabolites (benzoylecgonine, nor-benzoylecgonine), morphine, THC-COOH and codeine; cocaine was the most abundant illicit drug. The presence of illicit drugs and their metabolites in the Sarno River suggests new potential risk for the basin’s inhabitants, using water in the food chain, via field irrigation and animal feed, and for the health of the aquatic fauna.

Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection in the world, Europe, Italy and Campania: an overview  [cached]
Giorgio Liguori,Francesca Gallé,Paolo Marinelli
Italian Journal of Public Health , 2004, DOI: 10.2427/6141
Abstract: HCV infection is today the viral epidemic disease second only to AIDS. It is estimated that 3% of the world population is infected by hepatitis C and chronic related diseases, with markedly different prevalences between different geographical areas and different categories in the same area. The Authors analyse the epidemiological data available to trace the situation worldwide, in Europe, in Italy and in Campania, currently and in the last few years. Also researched was the role that the risk factors related to the different transmission routes play in the spread of the infection. Despite the decrease in the incidence reported in recent years, the numerous cases linked to drug abuse, to infections occurring while in health care and after unsafe sexual intercourse reveal the need for further information to be spread on HCV infection and on its modes of transmission.
Otter (Lutra lutra) presence in Lattari mountains (Campania Region, Southern Italy)
Roberto Fasano,Guglielmo Maglio
Hystrix : the Italian Journal of Mammalogy , 1995, DOI: 10.4404/hystrix-7.1-2-4076
Abstract: A new area of presence of the otter (Lutra lutra) was found in Campania region (Southern Italy). It included the "Valle delle Ferriere" and "Vècite" canyons close to Amalfi town (Salerno province). A total of 24 sprainting sites was recorded. Riassunto Presenza della lontra (Lutra lutra) nei monti Lattari (Campania) - Si descrive un'area di presenza della lontra (Lutra lutra) in Campania mai segnalata prima, comprendente la "Valle delle Ferriere" attraversata dal torrente Ceraso e la valle denominata "Vècite" (Amalfi, Provincia di Salerno). In totale sono stati trovati 24 siti di marcamento.
Groundwater Resources Potential in the Coastal Plain Sands Aquifers, Lagos, Nigeria  [cached]
E.O. Longe
Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The hydraulic properties of the aquifers located in the coastal plain sands, Lagos, Nigeria had been investigated. A review of both the theoretical and practical applications of pumping tests in groundwater resource evaluation for coastal plain sands aquifer was carried out. The main activities involved collation of information related to well logs, step-drawdown and constant rate pumping tests from existing database on borehole drilling in seven wells to an average depth of 100 m. Graphical methods based on Rorabaugh’s Hantush-Bierschenk’s analyses were used to determine the components of drawdown due to well and aquifer losses from the step-drawdown pumping tests. Conventional analytical methods based on non-equilibrium equation were used to assess the local hydraulic regime of the groundwater system using constant rate pumping tests data. Data from 11 controlled pumping tests in Shomolu area of Lagos metropolis were analyzed. The transmissivity values of the multi-layered aquifer system range between 345.6 and 2,332 m2/day while the storage coefficient values range between 2.8x10-4 and 4.5x10-4. Both results indicate confined aquifers of artesian conditions. The step-drawdown pumping tests results indicate that well losses constituted a significant component of drawdown in the pumped wells, a phenomenon due to poor well design, well development; and non-Darcian flow in the multi-layered aquifer. The pumping test results allowed for theoretical and practical prediction of aquifer and well yields in the study area.
New Frontiers of Online Communication of Small and Medium Museums in Campania Region, Italy  [PDF]
Giuseppe Vito, Alessandra Sorrentini, Davide Di Palma, Vincenzo Raiola, Maria Tabouras
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2017.79075
Abstract: Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the marketing relationship between small and medium museums in Campania Region and their current and potential audience. In this regard, the effectiveness of online communication proposed by these museums in relation to consumers is analyzed. A comparison is made with online communication effectiveness of large museums in order to analyse the main differences and to identify the related managerial implications. Method: The research method is based on the study of multiple cases, used in its descriptive mode. Out of 21 museums in Campania having a website administrated by the museums themselves, we selected 10 small and medium ones. Subsequently was conducted a content analysis on the aspects of the communication of Facebook pages and web sites of the 10 selected museums. Finally, 10 museums were compared with 4 large museum consortiums. Findings: The analysis has demonstrated that the communication through the Web 2.0 tools is more suited for establishing dialogic relations with the current and potential museum audiences. It has also shown that from the perspective of advanced interactivity, due to their management creativity and flexibility the communicative content of the museums under study is generally more effective than in case of larger museums having more human resources and capital at their disposal. Research limits: The main limitation of the research is that it does not detect if a performant interactive online communication is able to stimulate demand cultural. It should be noted that this objective was not the purpose of research of this paper. Originality of the study: The paper is an original and innovative work since in the literature there is
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