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Exercise-induced improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to exercise are impaired in overweight/obese postmenopausal women
Ciolac, Emmanuel Gomes;Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andréa;
Clinics , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1807-59322011000400011
Abstract: objective: the purpose of this study was to compare the heart rate response to exercise and the exercise-induced improvements in muscle strength, cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response between normal-weight and overweight/obese postmenopausal women. methods: sedentary women (n = 155) were divided into normal-weight (n = 79; bmi <25 kg/m2; 58.3 + 8.6 years) and overweight/obese (n = 76; bmi >25 kg/m2; 58.3 + 8.6 years) groups, and have their 1-repetition maximum strength (adjusted for body mass), cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to a graded exercise test compared before and after 12 months of a three times-per-week exercise-training program. results: overweight/obese women displayed decreased upper and lower extremity muscle strengths, decreased cardiorespiratory fitness, and lower peak and reserve heart rates compared to normal-weight women. after follow-up, both groups improved their upper (32.9% and 41.5% in normal-weight and overweight/obese women, respectively) and lower extremity(49.5% and 47.8% in normal-weight and overweight/obese women, respectively) muscle strength. however, only normal-weight women improved their cardiorespiratory fitness (6.6%) and recovery heart rate (5 bpm). resting, reserve and peak heart rates did not change in either group. conclusions: overweight/obese women displayed impaired heart rate response to exercise. both groups improved muscle strength, but only normal-weight women improved cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to exercise. these results suggest that exercise-induced improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to exercise may be impaired in overweight/obese postmenopausal women.
Kung Fu Training Improves Physical Fitness Measures in Overweight/Obese Adolescents: The “Martial Fitness” Study  [PDF]
Tracey W. Tsang,Michael R. Kohn,Chin Moi Chow,Maria Antoinette Fiatarone Singh
Journal of Obesity , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/672751
Abstract: Aim. To examine the efficacy of a six-month Kung Fu (KF) program on physical fitness in overweight/obese adolescents. Methods. Subjects were randomly assigned to the KF or sham exercise (Tai Chi, TC) control group. Physical measurements in cardiovascular fitness and muscle fitness occurred at baseline and after 6 months of training thrice weekly. Results. Twenty subjects were recruited. One subject was lost to follow-up, although overall compliance to the training sessions was %. At follow-up, the cohort improved in absolute upper ( 73026310 ) and lower ( ) body strength, and upper body muscle endurance ( ), without group differences. KF training resulted in significantly greater improvements in submaximal cardiovascular fitness ( ), lower body muscle endurance ( ; significant 95% CI: 0.37–2.49), and upper body muscle velocity ( ) relative to TC training. Conclusions. This short-term KF program improved submaximal cardiovascular fitness, lower body muscle endurance, and muscle velocity, in overweight/obese adolescents with very low baseline fitness. 1. Introduction Apart from being associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, people who are obese are also more susceptible to impairments in muscle strength, cardiovascular fitness, and physical performance [1–6]. Impaired physical function and low cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with poorer general health [1], and increased metabolic risk [7, 8], and may lead to pain and discomfort, as well as reduced mobility [9]. In more recent years, the physical function of obese adults has worsened compared to a decade ago [10], which has grave implications for today’s youth, in which obesity prevalence is steadily increasing [11]. Even by high school age (mean age: 16 years), relationships between overweight/obese status and increased functional limitation [1] and poorer cardiorespiratory fitness [12] have been established in adolescents. Additionally, there is now evidence to show that poorer muscle strength is linked to higher levels of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, not only in adults [13], but also in adolescents [14], further justifying the need to investigate physical fitness outcomes in the overweight/obese adolescent population. Aerobic exercise and/or resistance training programs have been shown to improve cardiorespiratory fitness [15–18] and muscle strength [19–22] in overweight/obese adolescents in many controlled trials. It is thus clear that high intensity aerobic or resistance programs are beneficial to physical fitness in overweight and obese
Kung Fu Training Improves Physical Fitness Measures in Overweight/Obese Adolescents: The “Martial Fitness” Study  [PDF]
Tracey W. Tsang,Michael R. Kohn,Chin Moi Chow,Maria Antoinette Fiatarone Singh
Journal of Obesity , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/672751
Abstract: Aim. To examine the efficacy of a six-month Kung Fu (KF) program on physical fitness in overweight/obese adolescents. Methods. Subjects were randomly assigned to the KF or sham exercise (Tai Chi, TC) control group. Physical measurements in cardiovascular fitness and muscle fitness occurred at baseline and after 6 months of training thrice weekly. Results. Twenty subjects were recruited. One subject was lost to follow-up, although overall compliance to the training sessions was 46.7±27.8%. At follow-up, the cohort improved in absolute upper (=.002) and lower (=.04) body strength, and upper body muscle endurance (=.02), without group differences. KF training resulted in significantly greater improvements in submaximal cardiovascular fitness (=.03), lower body muscle endurance (=.28; significant 95% CI: 0.37–2.49), and upper body muscle velocity (=.03) relative to TC training. Conclusions. This short-term KF program improved submaximal cardiovascular fitness, lower body muscle endurance, and muscle velocity, in overweight/obese adolescents with very low baseline fitness.
The effects of an 8-week multicomponent inpatient treatment program on body composition and anaerobic fitness in overweight and obese children and adolescents
Karner-Rezek K, Knechtle B, Fenzl M, Schlegel C, Konrad M, Rosemann T
International Journal of General Medicine , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S40187
Abstract: ts of an 8-week multicomponent inpatient treatment program on body composition and anaerobic fitness in overweight and obese children and adolescents Original Research (355) Total Article Views Authors: Karner-Rezek K, Knechtle B, Fenzl M, Schlegel C, Konrad M, Rosemann T Published Date March 2013 Volume 2013:6 Pages 159 - 166 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S40187 Received: 11 November 2012 Accepted: 03 January 2013 Published: 15 March 2013 Klaus Karner-Rezek,1 Beat Knechtle,2,3 Matthias Fenzl,4 Christian Schlegel,4 Manuela Konrad,5 Thomas Rosemann2 1Private University of the Principality of Liechtenstein, Triesen, Principality of Liechtenstein, 2Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 3Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 4Swiss Olympic Medical Center, Medizinisches Zentrum Bad Ragaz, Switzerland; 5University of Applied Sciences JOANNEUM, Bad Gleichenberg, Austria Background: High intensity exercise is considered as an effective means for reducing body fat. The aims of the present study were to investigate (1) whether body mass would be lost and body composition would change and (2) whether variables of anaerobic fitness prior to the intervention period would be related to loss of body mass and changes in body composition in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 28 children and adolescents (19 boys, 9 girls) attended an 8-week multicomponent inpatient program. Caloric intake was based on the subject's weight and a daily energy deficit of ~500 kcal was targeted. At the beginning and at the end of the program, variables of anaerobic fitness were assessed using Wingate tests. Body composition was measured before and after the program using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: Body mass decreased by 11.4% ± 1.6% in boys and by 11.0% ± 2.8% in girls (P < 0.001). Fat mass decreased by 23.8% ± 6.1% in boys and by 21.5% ± 5.2% in girls (P < 0.001). The decrease in fat mass was associated with the decrease in body mass in boys (r = 0.54, P = 0.017) but not in girls (P > 0.05). The decrease in body mass and the decrease in fat mass were neither associated with overall energy expenditure nor with the energy deficit in both genders (P > 0.05). Mean power in W/kg increased in the Wingate tests by 95.4% ± 109.1% in boys and by 100.0% ± 119.9% in girls (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Adjustments of the chronically positive imbalance of energy intake and energy expenditure of obese children and adolescents living in obesogenic environments should be addressed in a multisectoral approach. Future research in multicomponent childhood and adolescent weight loss programs should be directed towards a better understanding of the underlying complex dynamics in energy homeostasis which promote weight loss and changes in body composition due to high intensity exercise interventions.
The effects of an 8-week multicomponent inpatient treatment program on body composition and anaerobic fitness in overweight and obese children and adolescents  [cached]
Karner-Rezek K,Knechtle B,Fenzl M,Schlegel C
International Journal of General Medicine , 2013,
Abstract: Klaus Karner-Rezek,1 Beat Knechtle,2,3 Matthias Fenzl,4 Christian Schlegel,4 Manuela Konrad,5 Thomas Rosemann2 1Private University of the Principality of Liechtenstein, Triesen, Principality of Liechtenstein, 2Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 3Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 4Swiss Olympic Medical Center, Medizinisches Zentrum Bad Ragaz, Switzerland; 5University of Applied Sciences JOANNEUM, Bad Gleichenberg, Austria Background: High intensity exercise is considered as an effective means for reducing body fat. The aims of the present study were to investigate (1) whether body mass would be lost and body composition would change and (2) whether variables of anaerobic fitness prior to the intervention period would be related to loss of body mass and changes in body composition in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 28 children and adolescents (19 boys, 9 girls) attended an 8-week multicomponent inpatient program. Caloric intake was based on the subject's weight and a daily energy deficit of ~500 kcal was targeted. At the beginning and at the end of the program, variables of anaerobic fitness were assessed using Wingate tests. Body composition was measured before and after the program using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: Body mass decreased by 11.4% ± 1.6% in boys and by 11.0% ± 2.8% in girls (P < 0.001). Fat mass decreased by 23.8% ± 6.1% in boys and by 21.5% ± 5.2% in girls (P < 0.001). The decrease in fat mass was associated with the decrease in body mass in boys (r = 0.54, P = 0.017) but not in girls (P > 0.05). The decrease in body mass and the decrease in fat mass were neither associated with overall energy expenditure nor with the energy deficit in both genders (P > 0.05). Mean power in W/kg increased in the Wingate tests by 95.4% ± 109.1% in boys and by 100.0% ± 119.9% in girls (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Adjustments of the chronically positive imbalance of energy intake and energy expenditure of obese children and adolescents living in obesogenic environments should be addressed in a multisectoral approach. Future research in multicomponent childhood and adolescent weight loss programs should be directed towards a better understanding of the underlying complex dynamics in energy homeostasis which promote weight loss and changes in body composition due to high intensity exercise interventions. Keywords: obesity, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, Wingate test, training, diet
Combined Impact of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Visceral Adiposity on Metabolic Syndrome in Overweight and Obese Adults in Korea  [PDF]
Sue Kim, Ji-Young Kim, Duk-Chul Lee, Hye-Sun Lee, Ji-Won Lee, Justin Y. Jeon
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085742
Abstract: Background Obesity, especially visceral obesity, is known to be an important correlate for cardiovascular disease and increased mortality. On the other hand, high cardiorespiratory fitness is suggested to be an effective contributor for reducing this risk. This study was conducted to determine the combined impact of cardiorespiratory fitness and visceral adiposity, otherwise known as fitness and fatness, on metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese adults. Methods A total of 232 overweight and obese individuals were grouped into four subtypes according to their fitness level. This was measured by recovery heart rate from a step test in addition to visceral adiposity defined as the visceral adipose tissue area to subcutaneous adipose tissue area ratio (VAT/SAT ratio). Associations of fitness and visceral fatness were analyzed in comparison with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Results The high visceral fat and low fitness group had the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome [Odds Ratio (OR) 5.02; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.85–13.61] compared with the reference group, which was the low visceral adiposity and high fitness group, after adjustments for confounding factors. Viscerally lean but unfit subjects were associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than more viscerally obese but fit subjects (OR 3.42; 95% CI 1.27–9.19, and OR 2.70; 95% CI 1.01–7.25, respectively). Conclusions Our study shows that visceral obesity and fitness levels are cumulatively associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in healthy overweight and obese adults. This suggests that cardiorespiratory fitness is a significant modifier in the relation of visceral adiposity to adverse metabolic outcomes in overweight and obese individuals.
Impact of Different Training Modalities on Anthropometric and Metabolic Characteristics in Overweight/Obese Subjects: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis  [PDF]
Lukas Schwingshackl, Sofia Dias, Barbara Strasser, Georg Hoffmann
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082853
Abstract: Background The aim of this systematic review of randomized controlled trials was to compare the effects of aerobic training (AET), resistance training (RT), and combined aerobic and resistance training (CT) on anthropometric parameters, blood lipids, and cardiorespiratory fitness in overweight and obese subjects. Methods Electronic searches for randomized controlled trials were performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Trial Register. Inclusion criteria were: Body Mass Index: ≥25 kg/m2, 19+ years of age, supervised exercise training, and a minimum intervention period of 8 weeks. Anthropometric outcomes, blood lipids, and cardiorespiratory fitness parameters were included. Pooled effects were calculated by inverse-variance random effect pairwise meta-analyses and Bayesian random effects network meta-analyses. Findings 15 trials enrolling 741 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Compared to RT, AET resulted in a significantly more pronounced reduction of body weight [mean differences (MD): -1.15 kg, p = 0.04], waist circumference [MD: -1.10 cm, p = 0.004], and fat mass [MD: -1.15 kg, p = 0.001] respectively. RT was more effective than AET in improving lean body mass [MD: 1.26 kg, p<0.00001]. When comparing CT with RT, MD in change of body weight [MD: -2.03 kg, p<0.0001], waist circumference [MD: -1.57 cm, p = 0.0002], and fat mass [MD: -1.88 kg, p<0.00001] were all in favor of CT. Results from the network meta-analyses confirmed these findings. Conclusion Evidence from both pairwise and network meta-analyses suggests that CT is the most efficacious means to reduce anthropometric outcomes and should be recommended in the prevention and treatment of overweight, and obesity whenever possible.
Circulating Adipokines in Healthy versus Unhealthy Overweight and Obese Subjects  [PDF]
Assim A. Alfadda
International Journal of Endocrinology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/170434
Abstract: It is now well established that not all obese subjects are at increased risk of cardiometabolic complications; such patients are termed the metabolically healthy obese. Despite their higher-than-normal body fat mass, they are still insulin sensitive, with a favorable inflammatory and lipid profile and no signs of hypertension. It remains unclear which factors determine an individual's metabolic health. Adipose tissue is known to secrete multiple bioactive substances, called adipokines, that can contribute to the development of obesity-associated complications. The goal of this study was to determine whether the circulating adipokine profiles differs between metabolically healthy and metabolically unhealthy overweight and obese subjects, thereby obtaining data that could help to explain the link between obesity and its related cardiometabolic complications. We defined metabolic health in terms of several metabolic and inflammatory risk factors. The serum adiponectin levels were higher in the healthy group and showed a positive correlation with HDL cholesterol levels in the unhealthy group. There were no differences between the two groups in the levels of serum leptin, chemerin and orosomucoid. Accordingly, adiponectin might play a role in protecting against obesity-associated cardiometabolic derangements. More studies are needed to clarify the role of different chemerin isoforms in this system. 1. Introduction The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide, accompanied by a high incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) [1]. Although there is convincing evidence that obesity is accompanied by unfavorable metabolic profiles, such as impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, or low-grade systemic inflammation, this may not always be the case. Some obese individuals do not possess this constellation of metabolic abnormalities and have been termed the metabolically healthy (MH) obese [2, 3]. Several studies have shown that MH obese participants are not at an increased risk of developing CVD compared with healthy, normal-weight participants [4–7]; certainly, they are at lower risk than metabolically unhealthy obese participants [8]. However, these results are in contrast to the data from several studies reporting that excess weight, as determined by body mass index (BMI), was associated with the incidence of CVD, even after adjusting for traditional metabolic risk factors [9, 10]. Hence, it is likely that there is a direct effect of excess weight on the risk of CVD as a result of complex biological
Exercise-Induced Biological and Psychological Changes in Overweight and Obese Individuals: A Review of Recent Evidence  [PDF]
Petros C. Dinas,Aleksandra S. Markati,Andres E. Carrillo
ISRN Physiology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/964627
Abstract: On a global scale, the most recent evidence indicates that over 400 million adults are obese while ~20 million children and 1.6 billion adults are overweight. The World Health Organization reveals that, by the year 2015, ~2.3 billion adults will be overweight and more than 700 million will be obese. In this review paper we summarized the current evidence to elucidate the impact of exercise training on biological and psychological health indices in overweight and obese individuals. Endocrine function indices that are discussed herein include leptin, adiponectin, growth hormone, and ghrelin levels. Psychological factors include anxiety and depression, body image, and motivation for exercise. Overall, exercise promotes physical and psychological health in overweight and obese individuals particularly because exercise-induced adaptations occur across a multitude of systems within the active human. The impact of exercise on specific biological and psychological health indices contributes to overall health in overweight and obese individuals. 1. Introduction Increased adiposity and physical inactivity have been identified as harmful health indices [1]. It has been widely acknowledged that obesity leads to health problems such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension [2, 3]. On a global scale, the most recent evidence indicated that over 400 million adults are obese while ~20 million children and 1.6 billion adults are overweight [2]. An unpleasant estimation by the World Health Organization revealed that by the year 2015 ~2.3 billion adults will be overweight and more than 700 million will be obese [2]. Thus, it is necessary to establish practical/cost effective strategies as well as update and renew current health initiatives, such as physical activity participation, that will lessen the risk of weight gain and disease in overweight and obese populations. It is well known that physical activity contributes, at least in part, to a healthy quality of life [4]. Indeed, compelling evidence supports that cardiorespiratory fitness (an objective measure of habitual physical activity) is an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality [5]. Specifically, recent evidence indicates that individuals with the highest level of physical activity had a greater total life expectancy compared to individuals with low physical activity participation [6, 7]. Conversely, physical inactivity has been linked to a plethora of health conditions such as type 2 diabetes [2] and has been identified as a greater risk for morbidity and
Fitness level of overweight/obese women after 8 weeks of aerobic exercise or mixed metabolism
Carlos Alexandre Fett,Waléria Christiane Rezende Fett,Julio Sérgio Marchini
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humano , 2009,
Abstract: Aerobic exercise or mixed metabolism is used for the treatment of obesity, but it is unclear which approach has a greater impact. Thus, two groups of overweight or obese women were submitted to either a circuit weight training (CWT, n=14) or jogging program (JOG, n=12), performed 1 hour x 3 days/week in the first month and 1 hour x 4 days/week in the second months. The exercises were adjusted based on heart rate and the Borg scale, and both groups consumed a low-calorie diet. The participants were evaluated regarding anthropometric data, resting energy expenditure, nitrogen balance, and performance in different physical tests. Weight and percent body fat were reduced and lean body mass (LBM) was increased in the two groups (p < 0.05). Arm muscle circumference was significantly increased only in the CWT group and leg muscle circumference remained unchanged in either group. The CWT group showed improved results in six physical tests and the JOG group in three (p < 0.05). In both groups, the kcal/kg ratio was unchanged, kcal/LBM was decreased, kcal/fat mass was significantly increased, and the nitrogen balance continued to be positive. Similar body composition and metabolism variables were observed in the two groups. However, the CWT group showed a better physical performance, indicating a reduction of health risk factors
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