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Energy-Efficient Content-Based Routing in Internet of Things  [PDF]
Samia Allaoua Chelloug
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2015.312002
Abstract: The?convergence of the Internet, sensor networks, and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems has ushered to the concept of Internet of Things (IoT) which is capable of connecting daily things, making them smart through sensing, reasoning, and cooperating with other things. Further, RFID technology enables tracking of an object and assigning it a unique ID. IoT has the potential for a wide range of applications relating to healthcare, environment, transportation, cities… Moreover, the middleware is a basic component in the IoT architecture. It handles heterogeneity issues among IoT devices and provides a common framework for communication. More recently, the interest has focusing on developing publish/subscribe middleware systems for the IoT to allow asynchronous communication between the IoT devices. The scope of our paper is to study routing protocols for publish/subscribe schemes that include content and context-based routing. We propose an Energy-Efficient Content-Based Routing (EECBR) protocol for the IoT that minimizes the energy consumption. The proposed algorithm makes use of a virtual topology that is constructed in a centralized manner and then routes the events from the publishers to the intended interested subscribers in a distributed manner. EECBR has been simulated using Omnet++. The simulation results show that EECBR has a significant performance in term of the energy variance compared to the other schemes.
A Routing Protocol Based on Energy and Link Quality for Internet of Things Applications  [PDF]
Kássio Machado,Denis Rosário,Eduardo Cerqueira,Antonio A. F. Loureiro,Augusto Neto,José Neuman de Souza
Sensors , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/s130201942
Abstract: The Internet of Things (IoT) is attracting considerable attention from the universities, industries, citizens and governments for applications, such as healthcare, environmental monitoring and smart buildings. IoT enables network connectivity between smart devices at all times, everywhere, and about everything. In this context, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) play an important role in increasing the ubiquity of networks with smart devices that are low-cost and easy to deploy. However, sensor nodes are restricted in terms of energy, processing and memory. Additionally, low-power radios are very sensitive to noise, interference and multipath distortions. In this context, this article proposes a routing protocol based on Routing by Energy and Link quality (REL) for IoT applications. To increase reliability and energy-efficiency, REL selects routes on the basis of a proposed end-to-end link quality estimator mechanism, residual energy and hop count. Furthermore, REL proposes an event-driven mechanism to provide load balancing and avoid the premature energy depletion of nodes/networks. Performance evaluations were carried out using simulation and testbed experiments to show the impact and benefits of REL in small and large-scale networks. The results show that REL increases the network lifetime and services availability, as well as the quality of service of IoT applications. It also provides an even distribution of scarce network resources and reduces the packet loss rate, compared with the performance of well-known protocols.
Energy efficient routing in mobile ad-hoc networks for Healthcare Environments  [PDF]
Sohail Abid,Imran Shafi,Shahid Abid
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2013,
Abstract: The modern and innovative medical applications based on wireless network are being developed in the commercial sectors as well as in research. The emerging wireless networks are rapidly becoming a fundamental part of medical solutions due to increasing accessibility for healthcare professionals/patients reducing healthcare costs. Discovering the routes among hosts that are energy efficient without compromise on smooth communication is desirable. This work investigates energy efficiency of some selected proactive and reactive routing protocols in wireless network for healthcare environments. After simulation and analysis we found that DSR is best energy efficient routing protocol among DSR, DSDV and AODV, because DSR has maximum remaining energy.
Energy efficient routing in mobile ad-hoc networks for Healthcare Environments  [PDF]
Sohail Abid,Imran Shafi,Shahid Abid
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: The modern and innovative medical applications based on wireless network are being developed in the commercial sectors as well as in research. The emerging wireless networks are rapidly becoming a fundamental part of medical solutions due to increasing accessibility for healthcare professionals/patients reducing healthcare costs. Discovering the routes among hosts that are energy efficient without compromise on smooth communication is desirable. This work investigates energy efficiency of some selected proactive and reactive routing protocols in wireless network for healthcare environments. After simulation and analysis we found that DSR is best energy efficient routing protocol among DSR, DSDV and AODV, because DSR has maximum remaining energy.
MAC-aware Routing Metrics for the Internet of Things  [PDF]
Piergiuseppe Di Marco,George Athanasiou,Prodromos-Vasileios Mekikis,Carlo Fischione
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Wireless medium access control (MAC) and routing protocols are fundamental building blocks of the Internet of Things (IoT). As new IoT networking standards are being proposed and different existing solutions patched, evaluating the end-to-end performance of the network becomes challenging. Specific solutions designed to be beneficial, when stacked may have detrimental effects on the overall network performance. In this paper, an analysis of MAC and routing protocols for IoT is provided with focus on the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and the IETF RPL standards. It is shown that existing routing metrics do not account for the complex interactions between MAC and routing, and thus novel metrics are proposed. This enables a protocol selection mechanism for selecting the routing option and adapting the MAC parameters, given specific performance constraints. Extensive analytical and experimental results show that the behavior of the MAC protocol can hurt the performance of the routing protocol and vice versa, unless these two are carefully optimized together by the proposed method.
Improved Routing Protocol for Health Care Communications  [PDF]
Jayanthi K. Murthy, V. Sambasiva Rao
Open Journal of Applied Biosensor (OJAB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojab.2013.22006
Abstract: Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) technology has significantly increased the potential of remote healthcare monitoring systems. The devices used for WBAN have limited energy resources. For most devices it is impossible to recharge or change the batteries. Since the data mostly consists of medical information, high reliability and low delay is required. The main objective of this simulation study is to evaluate the performance of routing protocol on static IEEE 802.15.4 to determine the most suitable routing protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks. Here, investigations on the various routing protocol suggest cluster topology and AODV as the probable candidate. About 16% improvement in the energy consumption was observed when modifications were made considering the energy and mobility, thus achieving high residual battery capacity and eliminating the need for recharging the batteries.
Implementation of DYMO routing protocol  [PDF]
Anuj K. Gupta,Harsh Sadawarti,Anil K. Verma
Computer Science , 2013, DOI: 10.5121/ijitmc.2013.1205
Abstract: Mobile ad hoc networks communicate without any fixed infrastructure or ant centralized domain. All the nodes are free to move randomly within the network and share information dynamically. To achieve an efficient routing various protocols have been developed so far which vary in their nature and have their own salient properties. In this paper, we have discussed one of the latest protocols i.e. Dynamic Manet on demand (DYMO) routing Protocol, implemented and analysed its performance with other similar protocols against different parameters. Finally a comparison has been presented between all of them.
Prevention Of WormholeAttacks In Geographic Routing Protocol
E.Poornima,,C.Shoba Bindhu
International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering , 2011,
Abstract: As mobile ad hoc network applications are deployed, security emerges as a central requirement..Position aided routing protocols can offer a significant performance increase over traditional ad hoc routing protocols. Boundary State Routing (BSR) is a geographic routing protocol which routes the data using the location of the nodes. Geographic routing protocols are known to be particularly susceptible to attacks.. In this paper we present the possible attacks on BSR protocol. One of the most popular and serious attacks in ad hoc networks is wormhole attack in which two or more colluding attackers record packets at one location, and tunnel them to another location for a replay at that remote location. A wormhole attack is very powerful, and preventing the attack has proven to be very difficult. In this paper, we devise efficient methods to detect and avoid wormhole attacks in the BSR protocol. The first method namely Reverse Routing Scheme (RRS) attempts to detect the intrusion action .The second technique namely Authentication of Nodes Scheme (ANS) uses cryptographic concepts to detect and prevent wormhole attacks. It not only detects the fake route but also adopts preventive measures against action wormhole nodes from reappearing during routing. The proposed system is designed in Boundary state routing (BSR)protocol and analysis and simulations are performed in network simulator (NS-2).
Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for MANET
S.Gopinath
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2012,
Abstract: In recent years, many energy-efficient routing protocols have been proposed. However, very little efforts have been taken in studying the energy consumption of individual node, overhead and route maintaining issues. While not considering the design of energy efficient routing protocol, it may perform very worst than the normal routing protocol. Here, we have proposed On Demand Based Energy Efficient Routing Protocol (ODBEERP). The main aim of proposed protocol is to discover the minimum power-limitation route. The power limitation of a route is decided by the node which has the minimum energy in that route. So compared with the minimum node energy in any other route, the minimum node energy in the minimum power-limitation route has more energy. We have also proposed a more accurate analysis to track the energy consumptions due to various factors, and improve the performance during path discovery and in mobility scenarios. The proposed protocol is evaluated with object oriented discrete event simulator environment. Simulation results shows that the ODBEERP achieves good throughput, less delay, high packet delivery ratio and good energy efficiency than the existing protocol PEER.
Integrated Routing Protocol for Opportunistic Networks
Anshul Verma,Dr. Anurag Srivastava
International Journal of Advanced Computer Sciences and Applications , 2011,
Abstract: In opportunistic networks the existence of a simultaneous path is not assumed to transmit a message between a sender and a receiver. Information about the context in which the users communicate is a key piece of knowledge to design efficient routing protocols in opportunistic networks. But this kind of information is not always available. When users are very isolated, context information cannot be distributed, and cannot be used for taking efficient routing decisions. In such cases, context oblivious based schemes are only way to enable communication between users. As soon as users become more social, context data spreads in the network, and context based routing becomes an efficient solution. In this paper we design an integrated routing protocol that is able to use context data as soon as it becomes available and falls back to dissemination-based routing when context information is not available. Then, we provide a comparison between Epidemic and PROPHET, these are representative of context oblivious and context aware routing protocols. Our results show that integrated routing protocol is able to provide better result in term of message delivery probability and message delay in both cases when context information about users is available or not.
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