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Examining instruction, achievement, and equity with NAEP mathematics data.
Sarah Theule Lubienski
Education Policy Analysis Archives , 2006,
Abstract: The purpose of this article is two-fold. First, it reports on a study of the distribution of reform-oriented instructional practices among Black, White and Hispanic students, and the relationship between those practices and student achievement. The study identified many similarities in instruction across student groups, but there were some differences, such as Black and Hispanic students being assessed with multiple-choice tests significantly more often than were White students. Using hierarchical linear modeling, this study identified several significant positive—and no negative—relationships between reform-oriented practices and 4th-grade student achievement. Specifically, teacher emphasis on non-number mathematics strands, collaborative problem solving, and teacher knowledge of the NCTM Standards were positive predictors of achievement. An analysis of interaction effects indicated that the relationships between various instructional practices and achievement were roughly similar for White, Black and Hispanic students. The second purpose of this article is to make comparisons with another study that used the same NAEP data, but drew very different conclusions about the potential for particular instructional practices to alleviate inequities. A study published in EPAA by Wenglinsky (2004) concluded that school personnel can eliminate race-related gaps within their schools by changing their instructional practices. Similarities and differences between these two studies are discussed to illuminate how a researcher's framing, methods, and interpretations can heavily influence a study's conclusions. Ultimately, this article argues that the primary conclusion of Wenglinsky's study is unwarranted. Keywords: equity, hierarchical linear modeling; mathematics achievement; mathematics instruction; NAEP.
Exploring Teaching Performance and Students’ Learning Effects by Two Elementary Indigenous Teachers Implementing Culture-Based Mathematics Instruction  [PDF]
Wei-Min Hsu, Chih-Lung Lin, Huey-Lien Kao
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.410095
Abstract: This study aims to probe into the teaching performance and the effects of implementation of culture-based mathematics instruction by two indigenous teachers. By case study, this study treats two Paiwan elementary school teachers as the subjects and collects data by the design of teaching plans, instructional observations, video recordings, and mathematical cognitive tests. The researcher thus explores their culture-based curriculum design, instructional implementation, and the effect on Grade 5 and Grade 6 Paiwan students’ learning performance of mathematics. The findings demonstrate that prior to implementation of culturebased mathematics instruction, mathematics learning performance of the students of the two teachers was behind those of other counties, cities, and schools. The two teachers adopt three types of instructional design, namely, Paiwan culture and festivals, stories and traditional art, and practice mathematics questions upon cultural situations by teacher demonstration, individual problem-solving, and group discussion. After the teachers practice 23 and 31 units of culture-based mathematics instruction, the researcher finds that the gap of learning performance between Paiwan students and those in other cities, counties, and schools is reduced, which demonstrates that culture-based mathematics instruction can enhance Paiwan students’ learning performance of mathematics.
A Case Study of Elementary Teachers’ Use of Instruction Time in Mathematics  [PDF]
Wei-Min Hsu, Huan-Hsieh Kuo
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.717242
Abstract: This study probed into elementary school teachers’ use of instruction time in mathematics on the basis of a case study. Recording a teacher with 20 years’ teaching experience in his classroom and having interviews with him for six months, this study aims to understand the teacher’s use of mathematics instruction time and the influencing factors on this case. According to the results, the teacher in this case tends to divide his teaching activities into review and preview, new content development, interactions and discussions, and exercises and applications. In each class, he would carry out these activities. As the teaching of a module advanced, less instruction time is spent on new content development and more on interactions, discussions, exercises and applications. In terms of the factors influential on the instruction time use, the teacher in this case takes into account mainly the students’ learning initiatives in mathematics and their learning motives, and rarely considers other factors.
On ideology, causal inference and the reification of statistical methods: Reflections on "Examining instruction, achievement and equity with NAEP mathematics data."  [cached]
Harold Wenglinsky
Education Policy Analysis Archives , 2006,
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to comment on the prior article entitled "Examining Instruction, Achievement and Equity with NAEP mathematics data," by Sarah Theule Lubienski. That article claims that a prior article by the author suffered from three weaknesses: (1) An attempt to justify No Child Left Behind (NCLB); (2) drawing causal inferences from cross-sectional data; (3) and various statistical quibbles. The author responds to the first claim, by indicating that any mention of NCLB was intended purely to make the article relevant to a policy journal; to the second claim, by noting his own reservations about using cross-sectional data to draw causal inferences; and to the third claim by noting potential issues of quantitative methodology in the Lubienski article. He concludes that studies that use advanced statistical methods are often so opaque as to be difficult to compare, and suggests some advantages to the quantitative transparency that comes from the findings of randomly controlled field trials.
Designing Research-Based Professional Development for Elementary School Science and Mathematics  [PDF]
Brian L. Gerber,Edmund A. Marek,Ellice P. Martin
Education Research International , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/908014
Abstract: A partnership including 11 school districts, a university, service agency, and private nonprofit education organization formed a collaborative partnership to improve teaching and learning in elementary school science and mathematics. The partnership designed research-based professional development for 150 teachers of grades 3–5. The professional development resulted in statistically significant increases for those elementary school teachers on math and science competency tests over a two-year period. The professional development was the vehicle for providing teachers with professional development so that they could (a) increase their content background in science and mathematics and (b) apply newly learned inquiry practices in their math and science instruction.
Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation , 2010,
Abstract: The goal of the research was to compare the level of mathematic language acquisition between students of lower grades in special elementary schools for children who are hearing impaired and students of a mainstream elementary school. A total of 239 children attending mainstream and special schools in the territory of Serbia were included in the research. Instruction of mathematics in schools for students who are hearing impaired has a different character as it contains elements of native language instruction. Obtained results show a significant difference in some fields. A conclusion stating that the level of language acquisition is in direct correlation with the level of acquisition of mathematics language imposes itself. What that means is that hearing impaired children have not only to comprehend mathematics relations, but also to learn mathematics terms in a completely different way as compared to children who are hearing.
Sibel YE??LDERE,Hatice AKKO?
Ondokuz May?s University Journal of Education , 2010,
Abstract: The concept of “patterns” is now a part of the curriculum for grade 1 through grade 8 as a result of the recent reform in the elementary mathematics curriculum in Turkey. Since it is a newly-introduced concept in the curriculum, pre-service teachers do not have learning experiences of “patterns”. This brings the following question into consideration: Do pre-service teachers have adequate knowledge to teach “number patterns”? This study investigates six pre-service elementary teachers’ use of strategies to teach number patterns during micro-teaching lessons. Shulman’s (1986) notion of “pedagogical content knowledge” (PCK) and Magnusson et al.’s (1999) notion of “topic-specific strategies” component of PCK are used as the theoretical framework. The obtained data has indicated four categories of strategies: ‘examining the relationship between consecutive numbers’, ‘preparing tables of values, ‘constructing models’, ‘trial and error’. It has also been found out that pre-service teachers have had difficulties in finding the rules of “patterns” reported in the literature.
Designing and Implementing Meaningful Field-Based Experiences for Mathematics Methods Courses: A Framework and Program Description
Amy Roth McDuffie,Valarie L. Akerson,Judith A. Morrison
Mathematics Educator , 2003,
Abstract: Performance-based approaches to learning and assessment are consistent with goals for standards-based instruction and show promise as a vehicle for teacher change. Performance assessment involves students participating in an extended, worthwhile mathematical task while teachers facilitate and assess their learning. We designed and implemented a project in an elementary mathematics methods course in which preservice teachers developed performance assessment tasks and then administered these tasks in K-8 classrooms. We present our guiding framework for this project, the project design, and the teaching and learning experiences for project leaders and preservice teachers. Recommendations and reflections are included for others intending to implement similar projects.
Using Pedometers in Elementary Mathematics and Science Methods Courses  [cached]
Ye Sun,Jim Rye,Sarah Selmer
Journal of Mathematics Research , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/jmr.v2n4p70
Abstract: This study broadens the knowledge base about how to use pedometers to further pre-service teachers’ (PT) understanding of measurement: a key concept in science and mathematics education at the elementary level. Two groups of elementary PT—one enrolled in a science methods and the other enrolled in a mathematics methods course at a major university in the MidAtlantic region of United States— completed instruction on how to use pedometers as a technology tool to teach mathematics and science. Lesson plans developed by the PT were collected, and a 40-item instrument to measure attitudes about pedometers, mathematics and science was administered at the end of each course. Data, measurement, and number were the most common mathematics standards targeted by PT lesson plans. No statistically significant differences were found between PT enrolled in science and mathematics methods courses on their perceptions of technology and pedometers as a technology tool. However, PT in the science methods course rated more highly (F = 4.90, p = .03) science-mathematics integration. Future research should examine more extensively a coordinated pedometer experience where the same cohort of PT pose questions and collect data in science methods, then analyze/represent that data in math methods.
Applying Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development to Mathematics Instruction
Bobby Ojose
Mathematics Educator , 2008,
Abstract: This paper is based on a presentation given at National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) in 2005 in Anaheim, California. It explicates the developmental stages of the child as posited by Piaget. The author then ties each of the stages to developmentally appropriate mathematics instruction. The implications in terms of not imposing unfamiliar ideas on the child and importance of peer interaction are highlighted.
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