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Governing Carbon Mitigation and Climate Change within Local Councils: A Case Study of Adelaide, South Australia  [cached]
Heather Zeppel
Commonwealth Journal of Local Governance , 2012, DOI: 10.5130/cjlg.v0i10.2690
Abstract: There is growing concern about climate change impacts on local government areas. In Australia, the federal carbon tax (from 1 July 2012) will also increase costs for local councils. This paper evaluates what carbon mitigation (i.e. energy, water, and waste management) actions have been implemented by metropolitan Adelaide councils (n=14) and why (or why not). A survey of environmental officers profiled carbon mitigation actions, emissions auditing, and motives for emissions reduction by Adelaide councils. The main reasons for adopting carbon actions were a climate change plan, climate leadership, and cost savings. Internal council governance of climate change actions was also evaluated. A climate governance framework based on adaptive management, communication, and reflective practice (Nursey-Bray 2010) was applied to assess climate mitigation by Adelaide councils.
Proposals for mitigation of pollutant emissions from aircraft: application to Lisbon airport
Joana André Matias Ribeiro,Rosário Macário,Vasco Reis
Transportes , 2011,
Abstract: Proposals for mitigation of pollutant emissions from aircraft: application to Lisbon airport
Ebolavirus Evolution: Past and Present  [PDF]
Marc-Antoine de La Vega?,Derek Stein?,Gary P Kobinger
PLOS Pathogens , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005221
Abstract: The past year has marked the most devastating Ebola outbreak the world has ever witnessed, with over 28,000 cases and over 11,000 deaths. Ebola virus (EBOV) has now been around for almost 50 years. In this review, we discuss past and present outbreaks of EBOV and how those variants evolved over time. We explore and discuss selective pressures that drive the evolution of different Ebola variants, and how they may modify the efficacy of therapeutic treatments and vaccines currently being developed. Finally, given the unprecedented size and spread of the outbreak, as well as the extended period of replication in human hosts, specific attention is given to the 2014–2015 West African outbreak variant (Makona).
The Past and the Future in the Present  [PDF]
James P. Crutchfield,Christopher J. Ellison
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: We show how the shared information between the past and future---the excess entropy---derives from the components of directional information stored in the present---the predictive and retrodictive causal states. A detailed proof allows us to highlight a number of the subtle problems in estimation and analysis that impede accurate calculation of the excess entropy.
Mizaj; past, present and future  [cached]
Mahmoud Yousefifard,Mohsen Parviz,Mostafa Hosseini,Mohammad Ebadiani
Physiology and Pharmacology , 2013,
Abstract: Temperament (Mizaj), as an individual factor, has great importance in traditional medicine and its use in diagnosis and treatment of diseases, as well as the individual lifestyle is very common. Since medicine moves toward Personalized Medicine, the root of individual differences will find its position in different aspects of medicine in early future. In traditional medicine, temperament is defined as the only cause of individual differences and this scientific principle in the near future will be highly regarded. Recent studies also indicate the important role of temperament in body functions. Association of temperament with autonomic and immune systems, blood groups and various diseases also confirms this role. The present study provides a scheme of the history of temperament science, current status and its future, and tries to map a correct portray of temperament trend from the past to the future.
Diffraction : past, present and future  [PDF]
E. Predazzi
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: Hadronic diffraction has become a hot and fashionable subject in recent years due to the great interest triggered by the HERA and Tevatron data. These data have helped to put the field in a different perspective paving the road to a hopefully more complete understanding than hitherto achieved. The forthcoming data in the next few years from even higher energies (LHC) promise to sustain this interest for a long time. It is, therefore, necessary to provide the younger generations with as complete as possible discussion of the main developments that have marked the growth of high energy diffractive physics in the past and to assess the present state of the art. For this reason, this part will be by far the largest. The analysis of the relationship between conventional diffractive physics and the low-x physics from deep inelastic scattering will allow us also to review the instruments which could help to understand the developments we can expect from the future.
Antioxidants : Past And Present
Dr Vishal Tandon
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2005,
Abstract: The role of oxidative stress is well recognized now in numerous pathological states, where antioxidants can play very important role. Recent studies provide evidences that low levels of antioxidants are associated with increased risk for many pathological states and that increased intake appears to be protective. However, there are conflicting studies also, that question the rationale for antioxidant supplementation in these conditions by suggesting detrimental effects to the health. Suicidal oxidative stress produced by some of the antioxidants under certain circumstances remains the major cause of concern ,as many antioxidants can act as pro-oxidants in certain conditions. Moreover, at present there are number of unanswered questions associated with practical application of antioxidant therapy like appropriate timing of administration, dose & duration of therapy, which still need to be determined. Inspite of these concerns, antioxidant therapy has gained an important status presently in the prevention and treatment of various pathological conditions. However, under the shadow of these concerns, the supplementation of natural dietary antioxidant resources seems to be a safe and effective approach currently.KEY WORDS : Oxidative stress, antioxidants, present, past, status.
Intermetallics: past, present and future  [cached]
Morris, D. G.,Mu?oz-Morris, M. A.
Revista de Metalurgia , 2005,
Abstract: Intermetallics have seen extensive world-wide attention over the past decades. For the most part these studies have examined multi-phase aluminide based alloys, because of their high stiffness, combined with reasonable strength and ductility, good structural stability and oxidation resistance, and attempted to improve current Ni-base superalloys, Ti-base alloys, or Fe-base stainless steels for structural aerospace applications. The current status of development and application of such materials is briefly reviewed. Future developments are taking intermetallics from the realm of "improved high-temperature but low-ductility metallic alloys" into the realm of "improved aggressive-environment, high-toughness ceramic-like alloys". Such evolution will be outlined. Durante los últimos décadas ha habido un desarrollo de los intermetálicos, sobre todo por aplicaciones estructurales a alta temperatura en aplicaciones aeroespaciales, donde, por su rigidez alta, en combinación con una resistencia mecánica y ductilidad razonable, su buena estabilidad estructural y resistencia a la oxidación, han sido vistos como versiones avanzadas y mejoradas de las aleaciones metálicas como, por ejemplo, las superaleaciones a base de nitrógeno y las aleaciones de titanio. Se discute el desarrollo importante durante las últimas décadas, y también los nuevos desarrollos probables durante los próximos a os. Se podrían ver los intermetálicos como versiones mejoradas de los cerámicos.
Past, Present and Future of Lymphangiography
Aliakbar Ameri,Jalal Jalalshokouhi
Iranian Journal of Radiology , 2010,
Abstract: History: Hippocrates was the first person who mentioned lymphatic system at 5th century BC. About 1563 Eustachi "an anatomy professor" discribed the thoracic duct in horses as "vena-alba thoracis" Rud beck (1630-1702) discovered vessels in the liver containing clear fluid which emptied to the thoracic duct and they have valves. Thomas Barthtolin said these vessels are present everywhere in the body not only within the liver and he named them "lymphatic vessels". "nToday: Taking x-ray of visualized lymphatic, lymph nodes, lymph ducts, lymph vessels and lymph capillaries using patent blue and lipiodol ultra-fluid is called lymphography. "nThis procedure was used for tumor staging such as testicular tumors, sarcoma and lymphoma. Also lymphography is used for post traumatic lymphatic obstruction, "chilothorax lymphocele" post surgical or congenital abnormalities such as agenesis or other causes of lymph-edema of the feet and hands. Nowadays staging is possible with US, CT and MRI so these days lymphography is used for lymph-edema only. "nMicro-magnetic resonance lymphangiography with GD-labeled dendrimer nanoparticle is used to identify intra lymphatic and extra lymphatic origins with pulse T1W 3D fast spoiled GRE T2/T1W 3D fast imaging employing steady state "3D-FIESTA-C.""nLecture notes for new lymphangiography are: "nInterstitial MR lymphangiography for the detection of sentinel lymph node. "nTo assess the morphology of the lymphatic system pre-and postoperatively in patients undergoing mi-crosurgical reconstructions of the lymphatic vessels."nValidation study of MR-lymphangiography using SPIO, a new lymphotropic super-para-magnetic nanoparitcle contrast in bladder cancer, GU cancer and prostate cancer by interventional method."nComplementary for MR-lymphangiography is CT and PET-CT "C-choline PET" in prostate cancer more accurate than MR."nHigh-resolution MR-lymphangiography in patients with primary and secondary lymphoma. Using GD as standard lymphangiography. "nImages from our conventional lymphangiography in past and images from new modalities and water imaging techniques are available to show.
Global anthropogenic methane emissions 2005–2030: technical mitigation potentials and costs
L. H?glund-Isaksson
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/acp-12-9079-2012
Abstract: This paper presents estimates of current and future global anthropogenic methane emissions, their technical mitigation potential and associated costs for the period 2005 to 2030. The analysis uses the GAINS model framework to estimate emissions, mitigation potentials and costs for all major sources of anthropogenic methane for 83 countries/regions, which are aggregated to produce global estimates. Global emissions are estimated at 323 Mt methane in 2005, with an expected increase to 414 Mt methane in 2030. The technical mitigation potential is estimated at 195 Mt methane in 2030, whereof about 80 percent is found attainable at a marginal cost less than 20 Euro t 1 CO2eq when using a social planner cost perspective. With a private investor cost perspective, the corresponding fraction is only 30 percent. Major uncertainty sources in emission estimates are identified and discussed.
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