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Apoyo a la integración urbana y regional de la zona fronteriza del Eje Vial N° 1 Piura – Guayaquil: una aproximación desde una perspectiva binacional y sostenible  [cached]
Rodolfo Castillo García
Espacio y Desarrollo , 2011,
Abstract: Support for urban and regional integration of the frontier zone of the Axis Road N° 1 Piura – Guayaquil: an aproach from a binational and sustainable perspective The objective of this paper is to show a concrete experience of territorial management of the frontier zone of the Axis Road N° 1 Piura–Guayaquil formed by Zarumilla Province (Perú) and Huaquillas and Arenillas Cantons (Ecuador), from a binational and sustainable perspective, having as regional framework the Region of Tumbes (Perú) and El Oro Province (Ecuador). In this study area there are social inequities, such as scarce educational opportunities, insufficient youngsters’ training and health access. Thus, the university education supply is short, which gives way to youngsters’ emigration to Tumbes, Machala and other cities when they want to get a university education. Health services are also insufficient in terms of infrastructure, equipment, human resources, and quality of the services offered, which justifies a territorial management. El objetivo del presente artículo es presentar una experiencia concreta de ordenamiento territorial de la zona fronteriza del Eje Vial N° 1 Piura – Guayaquil, conformada por la provincia de Zarumilla (Perú) y los cantones de Huaquillas y Arenillas (Ecuador), desde una perspectiva binacional y sostenible; considerando como marco regional a la región Tumbes (Perú), y a la provincia de El Oro (Ecuador). En esta área de estudio se presentan situaciones de inequidad social como escasas oportunidades de educación, de formación de jóvenes y de acceso a la salud. Así, la oferta de oportunidades de educación universitaria es restringida, lo que motiva que los jóvenes con aspiraciones de lograr una formación universitaria se trasladen a las ciudades de Tumbes, Machala y otras para satisfacer sus anhelos. Los servicios de salud se ofrecen de manera insuficiente, en términos de infraestructura, equipamiento, recursos humanos y calidad en la prestación de servicios, lo cual amerita los trabajos de ordenamiento territorial
POTENTIAL OF TSUNAMI GENERATION ALONG THE COLOMBIA/ECUADOR SUBDUCTION MARGIN AND THE DOLORES-GUAYAQUIL MEGA-THRUST  [PDF]
George Pararas-Carayannis
Science of Tsunami Hazards , 2012,
Abstract: The Colombia/Ecuador subduction zone is a region where high seismic stress is presently accumulating. Statistical probability studies and GPS measurements of crustal deformation indicate that the region has an increased potential to generate in the near future a major or great tsunamigenic earthquake similar to the 1979 or 1906. Although most of the major earthquakes along this margin usually generate local tsunamis, the recurrence of a great mega-thrust, inter-plate earthquake, similar in magnitude and rupture to the 1906 event (Mw=8.8, rupture 600 km.), can generate a tsunami with destructive near and far-field impacts. To understand the potential for such destructive tsunami generation in this region, the present study examines and evaluates: a) the controlling inter-plate coupling mechanisms of the tectonic regime of the margin – including lithospheric structure deformation, sea-floor relief and the subduction or accretion of highly folded, hydrated sediments along the seismogenic zone of southern Colombia/North Ecuador; b) the seismo-dynamics and role in tsunami generation as affected by the Carnegie Ridge’s oblique subduction beneath the South American continent; and c) the seismotectonic extensional processes in the vicinity of the Gulf of Guayaquil-Tumbes Basin and how the northwestward movement of the North Andes block away from the South American continent along the Dolores Guayaquil mega-thrust and the resulting strain rotation may cause sudden detachment, décollement and deformation, with the potential for local tsunami generation that may affect the Gulf of Guayaquil and other coastal areas along southern Ecuador.
La talla del material malacológico en Tumbes
Hocquenghem, Anne-Marie,Pe?a Ruiz, Manuel
Bulletin de l'Institut Francais d'études Andines , 1994,
Abstract: LE TRAVAIL DU MATéRIEL MALACOLOGIQUE à TUMBES. Les ateliers de Spondylus princeps et autres coquilles des eaux chaudes du Pacifique et les techniques préhispaniques utilisées pour travailler ce matériel ont été peu étudiés dans les Andes centrales. La description de l atelier de Cabeza de Vaca, Tumbes, et du materiel ramassé en surface permet de présenter quelques informations sur ces thèmes. Los talleres de Spondylus princeps y otras conchas o caracolas de las aguas calientes del Pacífico y las técnicas prehispánicas que se utilizaban para trabajar este material, han sido poco estudiadas en los Andes centrales. La descripción del taller de Cabeza de Vaca, Tumbes, y del material recogido en su superficie permite presentar algunas informaciones sobre estos temas. THE WORK OF SEA SHELL IN TUMBES. Prehispanic workshops of Spondylus princeps and other shells from the Pacific warm waters and the techniques used to work this material have been little studied in Central Andes. The description of Cabeza de Vaca workshop, Tumbes, and of the surface material from the site sheds new light on these topics.
Guayaquil au temps du choléra
Collin Delavaud, Anne
Bulletin de l'Institut Francais d'études Andines , 1996,
Abstract: L épidémie de choléra survenue en 1991 en équateur a frappé certaines villes et régions plus que d autres sur la C te. Guayaquil, la première ville du pays par le nombre de ses habitants (1 600 000 habitants), a connu le record de cas. L analyse de la répartition des malades hospitalisés dans la ville montre que les quartiers pauvres, récents et, de surcro t, batis sur les eaux polluées du delta ne sont pas les plus frappés alors que la zone centrale taudifiée a concentré un nombre de cas élevé. Les pratiques sociales sont-elles davantage responsables de cette situation que les facteurs pourtant très contraignants ici de l environnement ? GUAYAQUIL EN LOS TIEMPOS DEL CóLERA. La epidemia del cólera, ocurrida en 1991 en Ecuador, ha golpeado mucho más algunas ciudades y regiones de la Costa. Guayaquil, la primera ciudad del país con 1 600 000 habitantes, ha conocido un número de casos record. El análisis de la distribución de los enfermos hospitalizados en la ciudad revela que los barrios pobres, recientes y además construidos sobre las aguas contaminadas del delta no son los más afectados por esta epidemia en relación con la parte central tugurizada. Las prácticas sociales tal vez tienen más responsabilidad en esta situación que las condiciones particularmente difíciles del medio ambiente. GUAYAQUIL DURING THE CHOLERA. The cholera epidemic, which occured in 1991, impacted some cities and regions of the coast much more than others. Guayaquil, inhabitants Ecuador's largest city with a population of some 1, 6000 000 inhabitants, experienced a record number of cases. An analysis of the sick hospitalized in this city reveals that the poor urban sections, which were built recently and moreover were constructed upon the contaminated waters of the delta, were not the most affected by this epidemic, particularly when compared to the congested central part of the city. This suggests that social practices were more responsible for this situation than especially difficult environmental conditions.
Spatiotemporal buildup of the Kondo screening cloud  [PDF]
M. Medvedyeva,A. Hoffmann,S. Kehrein
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.094306
Abstract: We investigate how the Kondo screening cloud builds up as a function of space and time. Starting from an impurity spin decoupled from the conduction band, the Kondo coupling is switched on at time t=0. We work at the Toulouse point where one can obtain exact analytical results for the ensuing spin dynamics at both zero and nonzero temperature T. For t>0 the Kondo screening cloud starts building up in the wake of the impurity spin being transported to infinity. In this buildup process the impurity spin--conduction band spin susceptibility shows a sharp light cone due to causality, while the corresponding correlation function has a tail outside the light cone. At T=0 this tail has a power law decay as a function of distance from the impurity, which we interpret as due to initial entanglement in the Fermi sea.
The effect of stimulus context on the buildup to stream segregation  [PDF]
Jonathan Sussman-Fort,Elyse Sussman
Frontiers in Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2014.00093
Abstract: Stream segregation is the process by which the auditory system disentangles the mixture of sound inputs into discrete sources that cohere across time. The length of time required for this to occur is termed the ‘buildup’ period. In the current study, we used the buildup period as an index of how quickly sounds are segregated into constituent parts. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that stimulus context impacts the timing of the buildup and, therefore, affects when stream segregation is detected. To measure the timing of the buildup we recorded the Mismatch Negativity component (MMN) of event-related brain potentials (ERPs), during passive listening, to determine when the streams were neurophysiologically segregated. In each condition, a pattern of repeating low (L) and high (H) tones (L-L-H) was presented in trains of stimuli separated by silence, with the H tones forming a simple intensity oddball paradigm and the L tones serving as distractors. To determine the timing of the buildup, probe tones occurred in two positions of the trains, early (within the buildup period) and late (past the buildup period). The context was manipulated by presenting roving versus non-roving frequencies across trains in two conditions. MMNs were elicited by intensity probe tones in the Non-Roving condition (early and late positions) and the Roving condition (late position only) indicating that neurophysiologic segregation occurred faster in the Non-Roving condition. This suggests a shorter buildup period when frequency was repeated from train to train. Overall, our results demonstrate that the dynamics of the environment influence the way in which the auditory system extracts regularities from the input. The results support the hypothesis that the buildup to segregation is highly dependent upon stimulus context and that the auditory system works to maintain a consistent representation of the environment when no new information suggests that reanalyzing the scene is necessary.
Dynamics of polarization buildup by spin filtering
Buttimore, N. H.;O'Brien, D. S.
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007, DOI: 10.1140/epja/i2007-10531-2
Abstract: There has been much recent research into polarizing an antiproton beam, instigated by the recent proposal from the PAX (Polarized Antiproton eXperiment) project at GSI Darmstadt. It plans to polarize an antiproton beam by repeated interaction with a polarized internal target in a storage ring. The method of polarization by spin filtering requires many of the beam particles to remain within the ring after scattering off the polarized internal target via electromagnetic and hadronic interactions. We present and solve sets of differential equations which describe the buildup of polarization by spin filtering in many different scenarios of interest to projects planning to produce high intensity polarized beams. These scenarios are: 1) spin filtering of a fully stored beam, 2) spin filtering while the beam is being accumulated, i.e. unpolarized particles are continuously being fed into the beam, 3) the particle input rate is equal to the rate at which particles are being lost due to scattering beyond ring acceptance angle, the beam intensity remaining constant, 4) increasing the initial polarization of a stored beam by spin filtering, 5) the input of particles into the beam is stopped after a certain amount of time, but spin filtering continues. The rate of depolarization of a stored polarized beam on passing through an electron cooler is also shown to be negligible.
Cestodos de quirópteros del Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, Tumbes, Perú Cestodes of bats from the National Park Cerros de Amotape, Tumbes, Peru  [cached]
Marina Vargas,Rosa Martínez,Manuel Tantaleán
Revista Peruana de Biología , 2011,
Abstract: En septiembre 2006, en el Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, departamento de Tumbes, Perú; 39 individuos de murciélagos, pertenecientes a 16 especies fueron capturados. El análisis parasitológico determino que solo dos individuos de las especies Phyllostomus hastatus (Phyllostomidae) y Noctilio leporinus (Noctilionidae) estaban parasitados. Los cestodos fueron colectados del intestino delgado e identificados como Atriotaenia hastati Vaucher, 1982 (Anoplocephalidae) y Vampirolepis sp. (Hymenolepididae). Atriotaenia hastati es un nuevo registro para el Perú y Vampirolepis sp. es registrado por primera vez en Tumbes y en un nuevo huésped, Noctilio leporinus. In September 2006, at Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape, department of Tumbes, Peru, 39 individuals of bats belonging to 16 species were captured. Parasitological analysis determined that only two individuals of the species Phyllostomus hastatus (Phyllostomidae) and Noctilio leporinus (Noctilionidae) were parasitized. The cestodes were collected from the small intestine and identified as Atriotaenia hastati Vaucher, 1982 (Anoplocephalidae) and Vampirolepis sp. (Hymenolepididae). Atriotaenia hastati is a new record for Peru and Vampirolepis sp. is registered for the first time in Tumbes and a new host, Noctilio leporinus.
Dynamical analysis of the buildup process near resonance  [PDF]
Jorge Villavicencio,Roberto Romo
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1063/1.126982
Abstract: The time evolution of the buildup process inside a double-barrier system for off-resonance incidence energies is studied by considering the analytic solution of the time dependent Schr\"{o}dinger equation with cutoff plane wave initial conditions. We show that the buildup process exhibits invariances under arbitrary changes on the system parameters, which can be successfully described by a simple and easy-to-use one-level formula. We find that the buildup of the off-resonant probability density is characterized by an oscillatory pattern modulated by the resonant case which governs the duration of the transient regime. This is evidence that off-resonant and resonant tunneling are two correlated processes, whose transient regime is characterized by the same transient time constant of two lifetimes.
Delimitation of the Coastal Transition Zone in the Gulf of Guayaquil, Ecuador
W. Pozo,M. M. Jordán,T. Sanfeliu
Journal of Geography and Geology , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jgg.v4n3p81
Abstract: The article presents a methodology for the delimitation of the coastal transition zone (CTZ) and the identification of zones with distinct soil properties in the Gulf of Guayaquil (GG), Ecuador. The Gulf was chosen as study area for its urban, economic and ecological potential, more in particular for its rich marine and agricultural resources, and biodiversity. Soil physical and chemical methods, such as soil salinity indices, physical and chemical parameters, coupled with multivariate analysis enabled the delimitation of the CTZ and the grouping of the studied soil transets in three clusters with distinct properties, located in the GG from the limit of the mangrove swamp. Whereas the average conductance in the swamp area is around 27.17 mS cm-1, inland to the isoline called the coastal transit zone soil salinity on average is 4 mS cm-1. The coastal transition zone has an average width of 4.2 km, which can be characterized by three clusters. Clusters 1 and 2 show similarities in their physical and chemical soil parameters, clearly different from the soil properties of cluster 3. The characteristics of each cluster is related to its location within the study area.
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