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Effect of Water Stress on the Growth and Development of Amaranthus spinosus, Leptochloa chinensis, and Rice  [PDF]
Bhagirath S. Chauhan, Seth B. Abugho
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.45122
Abstract:

Drought is the most important abiotic constraint in rainfed rice systems. In these systems, Amaranthus spinosus and Leptochloa chinensis are the dominant weed species, which may reduce the available water to rice by competition and cause water stress in the crop. Two studies were conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the growth response of A. spinosus and rice and L. chinensis and rice to water stress. The water stress treatments were 12.5%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of field capacity and the plants were grown until weed maturity (i.e., 63 days from seeding). Rice plants did not survive at 12.5% and 25% of field capacity, but both weed species survived in all the treatments. Both weed species produced a significant

EVALUATION OF PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AMARANTHUS SPINOSUS LEAVES  [PDF]
Choudhury Antara
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: The present study was carried out to provide physiochemical and phytochemical details about the plant Amaranthus spinosus. The physiochemical result obtained can be used for the identification of powdered drugs. In the phytochemical screening, different types of extracts were prepared to find the presence of secondary metabolites. Phytoconstituents like fixed oils, fats, carbohydrates, glycosides, gum and mucilage, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, proteins, amino acids and saponins showed positive tests in the extracts. Amaranthus spinosus belongs to the family Amaranthaceae. It is commonly known as Spiny amaranth or Pig weed and found throughout the world. In India it is found at roadsides, waste places and fields. The whole plant is used as a laxative. Traditionally it has been used as diuretic, antidiabetic, antipyretic, anti-snake venom, antileprotic, anti-gonorrheal, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic and immunomodulatory. The root paste of the plant is used to cure skin disease. A red pigment obtained from the plant is used for colouring foods and medicines.
Studies on effects of Amaranthus spinosus leaf extract on the haematology of growing pigs
BE Olufemi, IE Assiak, GO Ayoadi, MA Onigemo
African Journal of Biomedical Research , 2003,
Abstract: Ethanol extract of Amaranthus spinosus leaf (EEAL) was administered orally to growing pigs to determine its effects on the haematological characteristics-packed cell volume (PCV) red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, and haemoglobin (HB) concentration. Eighteen growing pigs were randomly allotted to two treatments with each treatment replicated thrice. Pigs in treatment 1 were administered with EEAL. Treatment 2 served as control receiving no treatment. Results showed that there were significant (P<0.05) reduction in the PCV, RBC and Hb of the pigs administered with EEAL seven days post treatment and their weight gains significantly (P<0.05) improved. Amaranthus spinosus, although an active vermifuge should be used in animals with adequate precaution to avoid any probable toxic effects.
Evaluation of gut modulatory and bronchodilator activities of Amaranthus spinosus Linn.  [cached]
Chaudhary Mueen,Imran Imran,Bashir Samra,Mehmood Malik
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-166
Abstract: Background The aqueous-methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus (A. spinosus Linn.,) whole plant, was studied for its laxative, spasmolytic and bronchodilator activities to validate some of its medicinal uses. Methods The crude extract of A. spinosus was studied in-vivo for bronchodilator and laxative activities and in-vitro using isolated tissue preparations which were mounted in tissue baths assembly containing physiological salt solutions, maintained at 37°C and aerated with carbogen, to assess the spasmolytic effect and to find out the possible underlying mechanisms. Results In the in-vivo experiments in mice, the administration of A. spinosus increased fecal output at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg showing laxative activity. It also inhibited carbachol-induced bronchospasm in anesthetized rats at 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg indicative of bronchodilator activity. When tested on isolated gut preparations, the plant extract showed a concentration-dependent (0.01-10.0 mg/ml) spasmogenic effect in spontaneously contracting rabbit jejunum and guinea-pig ileum. The spasmogenic effect was partially blocked in tissues pretreated with atropine (0.1 μM). When tested on K+ (80 mM)-induced sustained contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum, the plant extract caused complete relaxation and also produced a shift in the Ca++ concentration-response curves (CRCs) towards right, similar to diltiazem. In rabbit trachea, the plant extract completely inhibited K+ (80 mM) and carbachol (CCh, 1 μM)-induced contractions at 1 mg/ml but pretreatment of tissue with propranolol (1 μM), caused around 10 fold shift in the inhibitory CRCs of the plant extract constructed against CCh-induced contraction. The plant extract (up to 0.3 mg/ml) also increased both force and rate of spontaneous contractions of isolated guinea-pig atria, followed by relaxation at higher concentration (1.0-5.0 mg/ml). The cardio-stimulant effect was abolished in the presence of propranolol, similar to that of isoprenaline. Activity-directed fractionation revealed that the spasmolytic component(s) was separated in the organic fraction, whereas the spasmogenic component was concentrated in the aqueous fraction. Conclusion These results indicate that A. spinosus possesses laxative activity partially mediated through cholinergic action. The spasmolytic effect was mediated through calcium channel blocking (CCB), while bronchodilator activity through a combination of β-adrenergic and CCB pathways, which may explain the traditional uses of A. spinosus in gut and airways disorders.
Comparative Evaluation of Anti Gastric Ulcer Activity of Root, Stem and Leaves of Amaranthus spinosus Linn. in Rats
Prasanta Kumar Mitra
International Journal of Herbal Medicine , 2013,
Abstract: Anti gastric ulcer activity of root, stem and leaves of Amaranthus spinosus Linn. was studied against ethanol, hydrochloric acid, indomethacin, stress and pyloric ligation induced gastric ulceration in albino rats. Omeprazole was used as standard anti gastric ulcer drug. Significant anti gastric ulcer activity was noted in root, stem and leaves of Amaranthus spinosus Linn. Root of the plant, however, showed highest activity which was comparable to that of omeprazole.
Phytochemical Screening, Pharmacognostic Evaluation and Biological Activity of Amaranthus spinosus L  [PDF]
Dharma Prasad Khanal,B Raut,K S Dangol
Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences , 2015, DOI: 10.3126/jmmihs.v1i4.11999
Abstract: Herbal medicines possess a great demand in both developed and developing countries as a source of primary health care owing to their attributes having wide biological and medicinal activities, high safety margins and lesser costs. People living in rural areas of Nepal depend largely in the herbal medicines for the treatment. The present study concerns with the study of pharmacognostic characteristics, phytochemical constituents and the biological activity of Amaranthus spinosus L. The hexane, chloroform, ethanolic and aqueous extract of its aerial parts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis and detected saponin, carbohydrate, tannin, protein, glycoside, flavonoid and phenol as phytoconstituents. The transverse section of the stem and leaves showed characteristic vascular bundle tissues. All the extracts were used for testing the antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp lethality. No extract showed the antimicrobial activity and ethanolic extract showed LC50 value of 31.62 ppm. Hexane, chloroform and water extracts were less toxic with LC50 values 236.88 ppm,194.98 ppm and 320.71 ppm respectively. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jmmihs.v1i4.11999 Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences Vol. 1, Issue 4, 2015 Page: 29-34
Intoxica??o natural por Amaranthus spinosus (Amaranthaceae) em ovinos no Sudeste do Brasil
Peixoto, Paulo Vargas;Brust, Luis Armando Calv?o;Brito, Marilene de Farias;Fran?a, Ticiana do Nascimento;Cunha, Bernardo Rosa Melo da;Andrade, Gisele Braziliano de;
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-736X2003000400007
Abstract: an outbreak of acute poisoning caused by amaranthus spinosus is described in ewes of southern brazil. the clinical signs were characterized by uremic halitosis, loss of ruminal motility, dispnoea and abortion. grossly in the kidneys there were pale red spots, white streaks extending from cortex to medulla, and congestion. histologically there was a severe acute tubular nephrosis, dispersed foci of coagulative necrosis in the liver, areas of coagulative necrosis in the myocardium and acute incipient interstitial pneumonia as well as secondary bronchopneumonia. myocardial coagulative necrosis observed in seven sheep was attributed to hyperkalemia secondary to renal insufficiency. no references to spontaneous a. spinosus poisoning in sheep was found in the literature. attempt to reproduce the poisoning by administration of the plant to sheep was insuccessful, probably because a. spinosus used was not from fertilized areas.
Research: ALTERATIONS IN HEMATOCELLULAR COMPONENTS OF ALBINO RATS DUE TO METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF Amaranthus spinosus  [PDF]
Ankita Srivastava*,Kusum Singh,Tariq Gul,Vinita Ahirwar
Pharmacie Globale : International Journal of Comprehensive Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: In today’s scenario people rely on herbal medicines for health care, because the other treatment options available are more expensive and are often associated with serious side effects. Therefore, there should be scientific documentation of information on the safety/toxic risk potentials of plants. Present study is therefore designed to study the hematocellular indices i.e. Red blood cell count (RBC), White blood cell count ( WBC) and Hemoglobin (Hb), following oral administration of methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus at a dose of 250mg/kg body weight in albino rats. The study was carried out by single and daily administration of dose for 5, 7 & 14 days. Results revealed that the RBC and WBC count as well as Hb% was significantly altered due to administration of methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus.
Amaranthus spinosus Leaf Meal as Potential Dietary Protein Source in the Practical Diets for Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Fingerlings
M.A. Adewolu,A.A. Adamson
International Journal of Zoological Research , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potentials of Amaranthus spinosus leaf meal as dietary protein source for Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. An 8 week feeding trial was conducted in plastic aquaria tanks of 50 L capacity. Amaranthus spinosus leaf meal was included in the practical diets at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% designated as diets 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. Diet 1 without A. spinosus serves as the control. All diets were made isonitrogenous (36% CP) and isocaloric. Fingerlings of initial mean weight of 5.000.37 g were fed on allotted diet at 3% b.wt. day-1 for 56 days. Specific Growth Rate (SGR) was highest with a value of 1.950.69 in diet 1 while it was lowest in diet 5 with a value of 0.200.24, SGR values in diet 1 (control) and diet 2 were similar and significantly (p<0.05) better than the other dietary treatments. Fish fed diets 3, 4 and 5 showed significantly reduced growth performance and feed utilization compared to those fed with diets 1 and 2. FCR was lowest in fish fed diet 1 with a value of 1.720.56 and highest in fish fed with diet 5, however, FCR values of diets 1 and 2 were not significantly (p>0.05) different from each other but were significantly (p<0.05) different from other diets. This study indicates that up to 5% A. spinosus leaf meal could be included in the practical diet of Clarias gariepinus without affecting growth and feed utilization.
Anatomical and Histological Study of Stem, Root and Leaf of the Medicinal Plant Amaranthus spinosus Linn.  [PDF]
Manik Baral*
Journal of PharmaSciTech , 2013,
Abstract: The transverse section of stem, root and leaf of Amaranthus spinosus Linn. was done with the help of sharp blade and double staining. The anatomy of stem and roots showed cellular differentiation. Both the stem and root showed secondary growth. In stem, the vascular bundle pattern is conjoint, collateral and endarch type; whereas root showed conjoint, collateral and exarch type of vascular bundle. Leaf anatomy showed kranz mesophyll. Endodermal wall is covered with casperian strips. The stomata (S) occurred on both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. The stomata were found to be anomocytic type. Powdered drug, treated with different chemicals and its extracts with different solvent showed colour changes when illuminated with UV light.
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