Abstract:
A quantum-like description of human decision process is developed, and a heuristic argument supporting the theory as sound phenomenology is given. It is shown to be capable of quantitatively explaining the conjunction fallacy in the same footing as the violation of sure-thing principle.

Abstract:
In the present article we consider the conjunction fallacy, a well known cognitive heuristic experimentally tested in cognitive science, which occurs for intuitive judgments in situations of bounded rationality. We show that the quantum formalism can be used to describe in a very simple way this fallacy in terms of interference effect. We evidence that the quantum formalism leads quite naturally to violations of Bayes' rule when considering the estimated probability of the conjunction of two events. By defining the concept of maximal conjunction error, we find a good agreement with experimental results. Thus we suggest that in cognitive science the formalism of quantum mechanics can be used to describe a \textit{quantum regime}, the bounded-rationality regime, where the cognitive heuristics are valid.

Abstract:
In the present article we consider the conjunction fallacy, a well known cognitive heuristic experimentally tested in cognitive science, which occurs for intuitive judgments in situations of bounded rationality. We show that the quantum formalism can be used to describe in a very simple way this fallacy in terms of interference effect. We evidence that the quantum formalism leads quite naturally to violations of Bayes' rule when considering the probability of the conjunction of two events. Thus we suggest that in cognitive science the formalism of quantum mechanics can be used to describe a \textit{quantum regime}, the bounded-rationality regime, where the cognitive heuristics are valid.

Abstract:
The Partition Ensemble Fallacy was recently applied to claim no quantum coherence exists in coherent states produced by lasers. We show that this claim relies on an untestable belief of a particular prior distribution of absolute phase. One's choice for the prior distribution for an unobservable quantity is a matter of `religion'. We call this principle the Partition Ensemble Fallacy Fallacy. Further, we show an alternative approach to construct a relative-quantity Hilbert subspace where unobservability of certain quantities is guaranteed by global conservation laws. This approach is applied to coherent states and constructs an approximate relative-phase Hilbert subspace.

Abstract:
In math.NT/0307308 we defined the irrationality base of an irrational number and, assuming a stronger hypothesis than the irrationality of Euler's constant, gave a conditional upper bound on its irrationality base. Here we develop the general theory of the irrationality exponent and base, giving formulas and bounds for them using continued fractions and the Fibonacci sequence. A theorem of Jarnik on Diophantine approximation yields numbers with prescribed irrationality measure. By another method we explicitly construct series with prescribed irrationality base. Many examples are given.

Abstract:
As rewards of reading two great papers of Hermite from 1873, we trace the historical origin of the integral Niven used in his well-known proof of the irrationality of $\pi$, uncover a rarely acknowledged simple proof by Hermite of the irrationality of $\pi^2$, give a new proof of the irrationality of $r\tan r$ for nonzero rational $r^2$, and generalize it to a proof of the irrationality of certain ratios of Bessel functions.

Abstract:
A general technique for proving the irrationality of the zeta constants z(s) for odd s = 2n + 1 => 3 from the known irrationality of the beta constants L(2n+1) is developed in this note. The results on the irrationality of the zeta constants z(2n), n => 1, and z(3) are well known, but the results on the irrationality for the zeta constants z(2n+1), n => 2, are new, and these results seem to confirm that these constants are irrational numbers. In addition, a result on the irrationality measures indicates that mu(L(2n+1)) <= mu(z(2n+1)).