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Pulmonary alterations in cocaine users
Terra Filho, Mário;Yen, Chen Chin;Santos, Ubiratan de Paula;Mu?oz, Daniel Romero;
Sao Paulo Medical Journal , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-31802004000100007
Abstract: context: brazilian researchers have recently recognized a marked increase in the number of people using abusable drugs and the consequences of this habit. it has become a major public health problem in a potentially productive segment of the general population. in the last few years, several medical articles have given special emphasis to pulmonary complications related to cocaine use. this review is based on this information and experience acquired with groups of cocaine users. objective: to present to physicians the pulmonary aspects of cocaine use and warn about the various effects this drug has on the respiratory system, stressing those related to long-term use. design: narrative review. method: pulmonary complications are described. these may include infections (staphylococcus aureus, pulmonary tuberculosis, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome/aids, etc.), aspiration pneumonia, lung abscess, empyema, septic embolism, non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, barotrauma, pulmonary granulomatosis, bronchiolitis obliterans and organizing pneumonia, pneumonitis and interstitial fibrosis, pneumonitis hypersensitivity, lung infiltrates and eosinophilia in individuals with bronchial hyperreactivity, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, vasculitis, pulmonary infarction, pulmonary hypertension and alterations in gas exchange. it is concluded that physicians should give special attention to the various pulmonary and clinical manifestations related to cocaine use, particularly in young patients.
Profile of cocaine and crack users in Brazil
Duailibi, Lígia Bonacim;Ribeiro, Marcelo;Laranjeira, Ronaldo;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2008001600007
Abstract: this article aims to systematize the profile of cocaine and crack users in brazil. the study adopted a literature review of the medline, lilacs, cochrane library databases and capes thesis/dissertation database. data were grouped in thematic categories: national household surveys, surveys of specific population groups, profile of patients that seek treatment, and mortality and morbidity. within each category the principal findings from the brazilian literature were described and then discussed. the article concludes that the information on cocaine and crack consumption in brazil is still incipient, but that the scientific community can already draw on a relevant theoretical corpus that can be used to update current public policies on this issue.
Impaired Inhibitory Control in Recreational Cocaine Users  [PDF]
Lorenza S. Colzato, Wery P. M. van den Wildenberg, Bernhard Hommel
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001143
Abstract: Chronic use of cocaine is associated with impairment in response inhibition but it is an open question whether and to which degree findings from chronic users generalize to the upcoming type of recreational users. This study compared the ability to inhibit and execute behavioral responses in adult recreational users and in a cocaine-free-matched sample controlled for age, race, gender distribution, level of intelligence, and alcohol consumption. Response inhibition and response execution were measured by a stop-signal paradigm. Results show that users and non users are comparable in terms of response execution but users need significantly more time to inhibit responses to stop-signals than non users. Interestingly, the magnitude of the inhibitory deficit was positively correlated with the individuals lifetime cocaine exposure suggesting that the magnitude of the impairment is proportional to the degree of cocaine consumed.
Reduced Attentional Scope in Cocaine Polydrug Users  [PDF]
Lorenza S. Colzato, Wery P. M. van den Wildenberg, Bernhard Hommel
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006043
Abstract: Cocaine is Europe's second preferred recreational drug after cannabis but very little is known about possible cognitive impairments in the upcoming type of recreational cocaine user (monthly consumption). We asked whether recreational use of cocaine impacts early attentional selection processes. Cocaine-free polydrug controls (n = 18) and cocaine polydrug users (n = 18) were matched on sex, age, alcohol consumption, and IQ (using the Raven's progressive matrices), and were tested by using the Global-Local task to measure the scope of attention. Cocaine polydrug users attended significantly more to local aspects of attended events, which fits with the idea that a reduced scope of attention may be associated with the perpetuation of the use of the drug.
Causes of death among crack cocaine users
Ribeiro, Marcelo;Dunn, John;Sesso, Ricardo;Dias, Andréa Costa;Laranjeira, Ronaldo;
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-44462006000300010
Abstract: objective: the study accompanied 131 crack-cocaine users over a 5-year period, and examined mortality patterns, as well as the causes of death among them. method: all patients admitted to a detoxification unit in sao paulo between 1992 and 1994 were interviewed during two follow-up periods: 1995-1996 and 1998-1999. results: after 5 years, 124 patients were localized (95%). by the study endpoint (1999), 23 patients (17.6%) had died. homicide was the most prevalent cause of death (n = 13). almost one third of the deaths were due to the hiv infection, especially among those with a history of intravenous drug use. less than 10% died from overdose. conclusions: the study suggests that the mortality risk among crack cocaine users is greater than that seen in the general population, being homicide and aids the most common causes of death among such individuals.
Causes of death among crack cocaine users  [cached]
Ribeiro Marcelo,Dunn John,Sesso Ricardo,Dias Andréa Costa
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 2006,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The study accompanied 131 crack-cocaine users over a 5-year period, and examined mortality patterns, as well as the causes of death among them. METHOD: All patients admitted to a detoxification unit in Sao Paulo between 1992 and 1994 were interviewed during two follow-up periods: 1995-1996 and 1998-1999. RESULTS: After 5 years, 124 patients were localized (95%). By the study endpoint (1999), 23 patients (17.6%) had died. Homicide was the most prevalent cause of death (n = 13). Almost one third of the deaths were due to the HIV infection, especially among those with a history of intravenous drug use. Less than 10% died from overdose. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that the mortality risk among crack cocaine users is greater than that seen in the general population, being homicide and AIDS the most common causes of death among such individuals.
Myoglobin Expression in Chelonia mydas Brain, Heart and Liver Tissues  [cached]
RINI PUSPITANINGRUM,SEPTELIA INAWATI WANANDI,RONDANG ROEMIATI SOEGIANTO,MOHAMAD SADIKIN
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2010,
Abstract: An understanding of the underpinning physiology and biochemistry of animals is essential to properly understand the impact of anthropogenic changes and natural catastrophes upon the conservation of endangered species. An observation on the tissue location of the key respiratory protein, myoglobin, now opens up new opportunities for understanding how hypoxia tolerance impacts on diving lifestyle in turtles. The respiratory protein, myoglobin has functions other than oxygen binding which are involved in hypoxia tolerance, including metabolism of reactive oxygen species and of the vascular function by metabolism of nitric oxide. Our work aims to determine whether myoglobin expression in the green turtle exists in multiple non muscle tissues and to confirm the hypothesis that reptiles also have a distributed myoglobin expression which is linked to the hypoxiatolerant trait. This initial work in turtle hatch Chelonia mydas confirms the presence of myoglobin transcriptin brain, heart and liver tissues. Furthermore, it will serve as a tool for completing the sequence and generating an in situ hybridization probe for verifying of cell location in expressing tissues.
Family ties of crack cocaine users cared for in a psychiatric emergency department
Seleghim, Maycon Rogério;Marangoni, S?nia Regina;Marcon, Sonia Silva;Oliveira, Magda Lúcia Félix de;
Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-11692011000500014
Abstract: this study characterizes the family ties of crack cocaine users cared for in a psychiatric emergency department in southern brazil. it is a qualitative study with a series of cases carried out in the city of maringá, pr, brazil from april to june 2010. data were collected through semi-structured interviews, analyzed using content analysis, and organized into two categories: family ties as facilitators in the use of crack cocaine and other drugs; and fragmented family ties of crack users. loss of relational bonds with family and social milieu was observed among the ten studied users in addition to the presence of drugs and violence in the family sphere. further studies addressing the use of crack and its interface with the family are encouraged, taking into consideration that families have an essential role in the initiation and continuity of drug use.
Snow Control - An RCT protocol for a web-based self-help therapy to reduce cocaine consumption in problematic cocaine users
Michael Schaub, Robin Sullivan, Lars Stark
BMC Psychiatry , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-11-153
Abstract: This paper presents the protocol of a randomised clinical trial to test the effectiveness of a web-based self-help therapy to reduce cocaine use in problematic cocaine users. The primary outcome is severity of cocaine dependence. Secondary outcome measures include cocaine craving, consumption of cocaine and other substances of abuse in the past month, and changes in depression characteristics. The therapy group will receive a 6-week self-help therapy to reduce cocaine consumption based on methods of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, principles of Motivational Interviewing and self-control practices. The control group will be presented weekly psycho-educative information with a quiz. The predictive validity of participant characteristics on treatment retention and outcome will be explored.To the best of our knowledge, this will be the first randomised clinical trial to test the effectiveness of online self-help therapy to reduce or abstain from cocaine use. It will also investigate predictors of outcome and retention. This trial is registered at Current Controlled Trials and is traceable as NTR-ISRCTN93702927.Although data on the prevalence of problematic cocaine use and addiction are lacking in Switzerland and many other developed countries, there is no doubt that, in line with other countries, cocaine use has increased in Switzerland in recent years [1,2]. Over the past ten years, the number of cocaine-related disorder treatments has quintupled in outpatient treatment and advisory services [2]. In 2005, resident institutions reported that, for the first time in history, cocaine outstripped opiates as the main substance used [3]. This trend has also been observed in outpatient units [3]. Further evidence of increased cocaine consumption has been found by quantifying cocaine concentrations in sewage effluents [4] and in recent HBSC student surveys [5]. The abovementioned increase in treatment requests likely reflects only a minority of cocaine users. Presumably, the maj
Reduced Spontaneous Eye Blink Rates in Recreational Cocaine Users: Evidence for Dopaminergic Hypoactivity  [PDF]
Lorenza S. Colzato, Wery P. M. van den Wildenberg, Bernhard Hommel
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003461
Abstract: Chronic use of cocaine is associated with a reduced density of dopaminergic D2 receptors in the striatum, with negative consequences for cognitive control processes. Increasing evidence suggests that cognitive control is also affected in recreational cocaine consumers. This study aimed at linking these observations to dopaminergic malfunction by studying the spontaneous eyeblink rate (EBR), a marker of striatal dopaminergic functioning, in adult recreational users and a cocaine-free sample that was matched on age, race, gender, and personality traits. Correlation analyses show that EBR is significantly reduced in recreational users compared to cocaine-free controls, suggesting that cocaine use induces hypoactivity in the subcortical dopamine system.
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